Pubmed du 03/01/20

vendredi 3 janvier 2020

1. Brugha T, Tyrer F, Leaver A, Lewis S, Seaton S, Morgan Z, Tromans S, van Rensburg K. Testing adults by questionnaire for social and communication disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, in an adult mental health service population. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ;2020 (Jan 3):e1814.

OBJECTIVES : Autism is difficult to identify in adults due to lack of validated self-report questionnaires. We compared the effectiveness of the Autism Quotient (AQ) and the Ritvo Autism-Asperger’s Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) questionnaires in adult mental health services in two English counties. METHODS : A subsample of adults who completed the AQ and RAADS-R were invited to take part in an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS Module 4) assessment with probability of selection weighted by scores on the questionnaires. RESULTS : 364 men and 374 women consented to take part. Recorded diagnoses were most commonly mood disorders (44%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol/substance misuse (19%). 4.8% (95% CI 2.9-7.5) were identified with autism (ADOS Module 4 10+). One had a pre-existing diagnosis of autism ; 26% (5) had borderline personality disorders (all female) and 17% (3) mood disorders. The AQ and RAADS-R had fair test accuracy (area under Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve 0.77 and 0.79 respectively). AQ sensitivity was 0.79 (95% CI 0.54-0.94) and specificity 0.77 (95% CI 0.65-0.86) ; RAADS-R sensitivity was 0.75 (95% CI 0.48-0.93) and specificity 0.71 (95% CI 0.60-0.81). CONCLUSIONS : The AQ and RAADS-R can guide decisions to refer adults in mental health services to autism diagnostic services.

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2. Mazzaggio G, Shield A. The Production of Pronouns and Verb Inflections by Italian Children with ASD : A New Dataset in a Null Subject Language. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 1)

The language of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often characterized by difficulties with pronouns. The underlying reasons for such difficulties are still unclear. This study is the first to test the abilities of children with ASD who speak Italian, a language in which overt subject pronouns are optional but verbs obligatorily feature person-referencing morphology. We found that Italian children with ASD were less accurate than typically-developing (TD) Italian children in the production of first-, second-, and third-person singular pronouns, avoiding pronouns in favor of nouns or names more often than controls. Moreover, children with ASD produced more overt pronouns than null pronouns in marked contexts, compared to TD children. These phenomena can be accounted for by difficulties with pragmatics.

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3. Mu C, Corley MJ, Lee RWY, Wong M, Pang A, Arakaki G, Miyamoto R, Rho JM, Mickiewicz B, Dowlatabadi R, Vogel HJ, Korchemagin Y, Shearer J. Metabolic Framework for the Improvement of Autism Spectrum Disorders by a Modified Ketogenic Diet : A Pilot Study. J Proteome Res ;2020 (Jan 3) ;19(1):382-390.

The ketogenic diet (KD) can improve the core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in some children, but the effects on the overall metabolism remain unclear. This pilot study investigated the behavioral parameters in relation to blood metabolites and trace elements in a cohort of 10 typically developed controls (TC) and 17 children with ASD at baseline and following 3 months of treatment with a modified KD regimen. A nontargeted, multiplatform metabolomic approach was employed, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The associations among plasma metabolites, trace elements, and behavior scores were investigated. Employing a combination of metabolomic platforms, 118 named metabolites and 73 trace elements were assessed. Relative to TC, a combination of glutamate, galactonate, and glycerol discriminated ASD with 88% accuracy. ASD had higher concentrations of galactose intermediates, gut microbe-derived trimethylamine N-oxide and N-acetylserotonin, and lower concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and selenium at baseline. Following 3 months of KD intervention, the levels of circulating ketones and acetylcarnitine were increased. KD restored lower selenium levels in ASD to that of controls, and correlation analysis identified a novel negative correlation between the changes in selenium and behavior scores. Based on the different behavior responses to KD, we found that high responders had greater concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and ornithine, with lower galactose. These findings enhance our current understanding of the metabolic derangements present in ASD and may be of utility in predicting favorable responses to KD intervention.

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4. Sng CY, Carter M, Stephenson J, Sweller N. Partner Perceptions of Conversations with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 2)

Pragmatic difficulties resulting in problems with reciprocal conversation are widely studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is some consensus on the conversation differences between individuals with autism compared to neurotypical groups and groups with other developmental delays. There is little information on whether conversation partners (neurotypical or with ASD) of individuals with ASD find these differences problematic. The results indicate that behaviors reported to be the most problematic were not necessarily behaviors commonly addressed in research. Further, some conversational capacities that have received less research focus were perceived as more problematic. Although conversation partners who had ASD themselves reported the frequency of behaviors similarly to the neurotypical group, they did not find the behaviors as problematic.

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5. Trevisan DA, Enns JT, Birmingham E, Iarocci G. Action coordination during a real-world task : Evidence from children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Dev Psychopathol ;2020 (Jan 3):1-11.

"Joint action"-the ability to coordinate actions with others-is critical for achieving individual and interpersonal goals and for our collective success as a species. Joint actions require accurate and rapid inferences about others’ goals, intentions, and focus of attention, skills that are thought to be impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research to date has not investigated joint action abilities in individuals with ASD during real-world social interactions. We conducted an experimental study that required children with ASD and typically developing children to move tables by themselves or collaboratively through a maze. This involved developing innovative methodologies for measuring action coordination-a critical component of the joint action process. We found that children with ASD are less likely to benefit from the collaboration of a peer than are typically developing children, and they are less likely to synchronize their steps when moving the table. However, these differences were masked when scaffolded by an adult. There was no evidence that ASD differences were due to gross motor delays in the participants with ASD. We argue that action coordination is a highly adaptive social process that is intrinsic to successful human functioning that manifests as atypical synchronization of mind and body in children with ASD.

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