Pubmed du 05/01/20

dimanche 5 janvier 2020

1. Azad GF, Dillon E, Feuerstein J, Kalb L, Neely J, Landa R. Quality of Life in School-Aged Youth Referred to an Autism Specialty Clinic : A Latent Profile Analysis. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 3)

We examined whether different profiles of quality of life (QoL) existed among youth referred to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specialty clinic and, if present, determined if these groups were associated with different characteristics. Data were from parental report of 5-17 year-old youth (N = 476) who were scheduled to receive an evaluation at an ASD clinic. Parents completed questionnaires, including the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, assessing child and family functioning ; providers reported diagnostic impressions. A latent profile analysis found five distinct groups : Low Risk, School Problems, Only Social Emotional Problems, and two Physical/Social Emotional Problems. The groups differed on clinical characteristics and family functioning. These findings have implications for more efficient and effective evaluations in service delivery systems serving complex patients.

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2. Cox DJ, Owens JM, Barnes L, Moncrief M, Boukhechba M, Buckman S, Banton T, Wotring B. A Pilot Study Comparing Newly Licensed Drivers With and Without Autism and Experienced Drivers in Simulated and On-Road Driving. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 3)

This study compared newly licensed drivers with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and experienced drivers. Twenty new drivers (8 with ASD) and 16 experienced drivers completed the Driving Attitude Scale (DAS) and drove a simulator and an instrumented vehicle. Heart rate (HR), galvanic skin response (GSR), wrist movement, eye-gaze and driving performance were monitored. ASD drivers had more negative attitudes toward driving and greater change in HR, GSR and wrist movement. In a driving simulator, drivers with ASD scored lower than NT drivers and were rated less safe. There were fewer differences during on-road driving. Poorer driving and greater anxiousness in the new drivers with ASD indicates the need for a large-scale study of driving performance and apprehension to formulate remediation.

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3. de Vries M, Cader S, Colleer L, Batteux E, Yasdiman MB, Tan YJ, Sheppard E. University Students’ Notion of Autism Spectrum Conditions : A Cross-Cultural Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 3)

Cultural background might influence knowledge and attitudes regarding autism, influencing willingness to interact. We studied whether beliefs, knowledge, contact, and attitude differed between the UK and Malaysia. With mediation analyses, we studied how these factors influenced willingness to interact. Autism was more often linked to food in the UK, and to upbringing in Malaysia. Knowledge, contact, and acceptance were greater in the UK. When excluding psychology students, Malaysian students were less willing to interact with autistic people. Knowledge and contact appeared to improve acceptance, but acceptance did not mediate the relation between country, beliefs, knowledge, and experience ; and willingness to interact. Knowledge and contact regarding autism might improve acceptance in different cultures, but how acceptance could improve interaction is unclear.

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4. McIlvaine JA. Inclusive Education for Autistic Children : Helping Children and Young People to Learn and Flourish in the Classroom. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 3)

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5. Taheri M, Noroozi R, Aghaei K, Omrani MD, Ghafouri-Fard S. The rs594445 in MOCOS gene is associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder. Metab Brain Dis ;2020 (Jan 4)

Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS) gene encodes an enzyme which is involved in purine metabolism. Recent experiments have shown down-regulation of MOCOS in adult nasal olfactory stem cells of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the current study, we genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within coding regions of MOCOS gene (rs594445 and rs1057251) in 406 ASD patients and 411 age and sex-matched controls. The A allele of the rs594445 SNP was more prevalent among ASD cases compared with controls (OR (95% CI) = 1.33 (1.07-1.64), adjusted P value = 0.02). This SNP was associated with risk of ASD in co-dominant (AA vs. CC : OR (95% CI) = 2.00 (1.22-3.23), adjusted P value = 0.04) and recessive (AA vs. CC + AC : OR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.16-2.98), adjusted P value = 0.02) models. The other SNP was not associated with risk of ASD in any inheritance model. There was no LD between rs594445 and rs1057251 SNPs (D’ = 0.03, r(2) = 0.14). The C T haplotype (rs594445 and rs1057251, respectively) had a protective role against ASD (OR (95% CI) = 0.76 (0.62-0.92), adjusted P value = 0.02). Other estimated haplotypes distributed equally between cases and controls. Based on the results of current study, the rs594445 SNP might be regarded as a risk locus for ASD in Iranian population.

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6. Yang H, Wu X. The Correlation Between Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Gene Polymorphisms and Autism : A Meta-analysis. J Mol Neurosci ;2020 (Jan 3)

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are risk factors for autism. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to explore the relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms and autism. A literature review of articles from Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Springer was conducted up to January 28, 2019. The association between SNPs and autism was calculated using pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additionally, tests for heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity were conducted. Six eligible studies with a total of 2001 participants (1045 cases and 956 controls) were included. Meta-analysis indicated that the "C" allele of the rs731236 gene, including C vs. T (OR = 1.3254, 95% CI = 1.0897-1.6122), CC vs. TT (OR = 2.0871, 95% CI = 1.3395-3.2519), and CC vs. TT + CT (OR = 1.9610, 95% CI = 1.2985-2.9615), might be a risk factor for autism. Moreover, the "G" allele of rs7975232 (G vs. T : OR = 0.8228, 95% CI = 0.6814-0.9934) was associated with a protective effect against the development of autism. No significant differences were found in the allele frequencies of rs11568820, rs1544410, and rs2228570 in the cases and controls. This meta-analysis revealed that both VDR rs731236 and rs7975232 were significantly associated with autism, whereas VDR rs11568820, rs1544410, and rs2228570 might not be correlated with the incidence of autism.

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