Pubmed du 06/01/20

lundi 6 janvier 2020

1. Alakhzami M, Huang A. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disorders in Oman : An Overview of Current Status. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6)

This paper offers an overview of the current status of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disorders (DD) in Oman. A review of demographic and background information about Oman is first presented, followed by an overview of the current status of individuals with autism and developmental disorders, in terms of disability-related legislation, prevalence and diagnosis, as well as treatment and education. In the last section of the paper, major challenges faced in the field are addressed, including lack of autism awareness, lack of healthcare and educational programs or related services, lack of highly qualified professionals to implement evidence-based practices, issues regarding early identification and early intervention, as well as issues pertaining secondary transition, independent living and employment. Corresponding recommendation is proposed at the end of each challenge.

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2. Ansari F, Pourjafar H, Tabrizi A, Homayouni A. The Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Mental Disorders : a Review on Depression, Anxiety, Alzheimer, and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Pharm Biotechnol ;2020 (Jan 6)

BACKGROUND : Probiotics and their nutrient sources (prebiotics) has been shown to have positive effects on different organs of the host. The idea of their potential benefits on central nervous systems (CNS) and the incidence of Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer, Depression, Autism, and other mental disorders has proposed a new category of medicines called "psychobiotic" which is hoped to be of low-side effect anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety constitutes. OBJECTIVE : In the current review, we present valuable insights into the complicated interactions between the GI microbiota (especially in the colon), brain, immune and central nervous systems and provide a summary of the main findings of the effects of pro- and prebiotics on important mental disorders from the potential mechanisms of action to their application in clinical practice. METHODS : Google Scholar, Pub Med, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were searched using following key words :"probiotics", "prebiotics", "mental disorders", "psychological disorders", "depression", "anxiety", "stress", "Alzheimer" and "autism spectrum". The full text of potentially eligible studies was retrieved and assessed in detail by the reviewers. Data were extracted and then summarized from the selected papers. RESULTS : The results of the provided evidence suggest that probiotic and prebiotics might improve mental function via several mechanisms. The beneficial effects of their application in Depression, Anxiety, Alzheimer and autism spectrum diseases has also been supported in clinical studies. CONCLUSION : Pro and prebiotics can improve mental health and psychological function and can be offered as new medicines for common mental disorders however more clinical studies are necessary to conduct regarding the clinical significance of the effects and their bioequivalence or superiority against current treatments.

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3. Bojanek EK, Wang Z, White SP, Mosconi MW. Postural control processes during standing and step initiation in autism spectrum disorder. J Neurodev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6) ;12(1):1.

BACKGROUND : Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a reduced ability to maintain postural stability, though motor control mechanisms contributing to these issues and the extent to which they are associated with other gross motor activities (e.g., stepping) are not yet known. METHODS : Seventeen individuals with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) controls (ages 6-19 years) completed three tests of postural control during standing. During the neutral stance, individuals stood with their feet shoulder width apart. During the Romberg one stance, they stood with feet close together. During the circular sway, participants stood with feet shoulder width apart and swayed in a circular motion. The standard deviation (SD) of their center of pressure (COP) in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions and the COP trajectory length were examined for each stance. We also assessed mutual information (MI), or the shared dependencies between COP in the ML and AP directions. Participants also completed a stepping task in which they stepped forward from one force platform to an adjacent platform. The amplitude and duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were examined, as were the maximum lateral sway, duration, and velocity of COP adjustments following the initial step. We examined stepping variables using separate one-way ANCOVAs with height as a covariate. The relationships between postural control and stepping measures and ASD symptom severity were assessed using Spearman correlations with scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). RESULTS : Individuals with ASD showed increased COP trajectory length across stance conditions (p = 0.05) and reduced MI during circular sway relative to TD controls (p = 0.02). During stepping, groups did not differ on APA amplitude (p = 0.97) or duration (p = 0.41), but during their initial step, individuals with ASD showed reduced ML sway (p = 0.06), reduced body transfer duration (p < 0.01), and increased body transfer velocity (p = 0.02) compared to controls. Greater neutral stance COPML variability (r = 0.55, p = 0.02) and decreased lateral sway (r = - 0.55, p = 0.02) when stepping were associated with more severe restricted and repetitive behaviors in participants with ASD. CONCLUSIONS : We found that individuals with ASD showed reduced MI during circular sway suggesting a reduced ability to effectively coordinate joint movements during dynamic postural adjustments. Additionally, individuals with ASD showed reduced lateral sway when stepping indicating that motor rigidity may interfere with balance and gait. Postural control and stepping deficits were related to repetitive behaviors in individuals with ASD indicating that motor rigidity and key clinical issues in ASD may represent overlapping pathological processes.

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4. Evers K, Debbaut E, Maljaars J, Steyaert J, Noens I. Do Parental Interviews for ASD Converge with Clinical Diagnoses ? An Empirical Comparison of the 3di and the DISCO in Children with ASD, a Clinically-Referred Group, and Typically Developing Children. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6)

Two semi-structured parental interviews are available with algorithms developed to measure DSM-5 criteria of ASD, namely the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3di) and the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11). The main aim of this study was to examine the agreement between classification according to both interviews, and their convergence with the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, the 3di and DISCO-11 were administered from three groups of parents of a 4-18 year old. Results showed 75% agreement between both instruments, but in the ASD group only 16% of the children scored above threshold on both instruments. Exploratory analyses suggested that the 3di failed to detect rigid and repetitive behaviors, whereas the DISCO-11 was insufficiently sensitive in detecting socio-communicative problems.

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5. Lecavalier L, Bodfish J, Harrop C, Whitten A, Jones D, Pritchett J, Faldowski R, Boyd B. Development of the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 6)

Behavior inflexibility (BI) refers to rigid patterns of behavior that contrast with the need to be adaptable to changing environmental demands. We developed a parent-reported outcome measure of BI for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities with a multi-step iterative process. A pool of 62 candidate items was generated through expert panel feedback, review of existing scales and focus groups. A consensus process was used to generate the final 38 items. Parents of 943 children (age range, 3-18 years ; average, 11.4 years ; 79% boys) with ASD completed an online survey. One hundred thirty-three parents rated their child twice within 3 weeks (average = 16.5 days). A series of factor analyses suggested that the 38 items measured a single construct. Scores had a weak correlation with level of functioning (-0.12) and did not differ based on sex. Scores had a negligible correlation with age (-0.07), although measurement invariance was not supported. The mean total score for the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale (BIS) was normally distributed. Internal consistency was alpha = 0.97 and temporal stability was r = 0.92. Correlations with parent ratings on the subscales of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised varied from 0.48 to 0.89. The correlation with parent ratings on the Social Communication Questionnaire total score was 0.52. Our data show that BI in children with ASD ranges significantly from mild to severe and that the 38-item BIS is valid and reliable. Autism Res 2020, 00 : 1-11. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research,Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : We developed a parent-completed rating scale of behavior inflexibility (BI) for children with developmental disabilities using a multistep process. The Behavioral Inflexibility Scale (BIS) contains 38 questions rated on a 6-point scale. Parents of 943 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) completed an online survey. We examined associations between the BIS and other scales and demographic variables. The BIS is valid and reliable. BI in children with ASD ranges from mild to severe.

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6. Lory C, Mason RA, Davis JL, Wang D, Kim SY, Gregori E, David M. A Meta-analysis of Challenging Behavior Interventions for Students with Developmental Disabilities in Inclusive School Settings. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6)

Challenging behavior is a significant barrier in accessing the general education curriculum for students with developmental disabilities. This necessitates the identification of evidence-based practices for addressing challenging behavior in inclusive settings. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to (a) quantify the magnitude of effect of interventions targeting the reduction of challenging behavior in students with developmental disabilities in inclusive educational settings and (b) determine if participant and intervention characteristics moderate intervention effects. A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify studies, which were evaluated for methodological rigor and analyzed for effects using Tau-U. Results indicate a strong overall effect of .94 (95% CI [.87, 1]) and moderating variables associated with behavior topography, interventionist, and intervention components were identified.

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7. Madaan P, Jauhari P, Luhar ZM, Chakrabarty B, Gulati S. Autism, Epilepsy, and Neuroregression : Photosensitivity on Electroencephalography Solved the Riddle. Clin EEG Neurosci ;2020 (Jan 6):1550059419899327.

Autistic epileptiform regression is an uncommon but extensively described malady in children. The clinico-etiological spectrum of this entity ranges from electrical status epilepticus in sleep to various neurogenetic and neurodegenerative disorders. Identification of these disorders is crucial considering their therapeutic and prognostic implications. Simple investigations such as neuroimaging and electroencephalography with activation procedures can provide valuable diagnostic clues in resource-limited settings ; facilitating targeted genetic/metabolic testing. Here we report a 3.5-year-old girl with autistic regression and epilepsy. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis was suspected as her electroencephalogram showed photoparoxysmal response on low-frequency (1-3 Hz) intermittent photic stimulation. A deficient leukocyte tripeptidyl peptidase 1 enzyme confirmed the diagnosis of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

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8. Pohl AL, Crockford SK, Blakemore M, Allison C, Baron-Cohen S. A comparative study of autistic and non-autistic women’s experience of motherhood. Mol Autism ;2020 ;11:3.

Background : Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental difference and disability, yet there is limited research examining parenting in autistic mothers. Objective : To explore autistic mothers’ experience of the perinatal period and parenthood. This includes pregnancy, childbirth, the postpartum period, self-perception of parenting strengths and weaknesses, communication with professionals in relation to one’s child, mental health difficulties and the social experience of motherhood. It also includes disclosing one’s diagnosis of autism in parenting contexts. Methods : We used a community-based participatory research model, and recruited an advisory panel, with whom we co-developed an anonymous, online survey for autistic mothers. The online survey was completed by autistic and non-autistic mothers, and we compared their responses using Chi-squared analysis. Sample : Autistic mothers (n = 355), and non-autistic mothers (n = 132), each of whom had at least one autistic child, were included in our final analysis. Results : There were differences in education, gender identity and age of mother at birth of first child. Autistic mothers were more likely to have experienced additional psychiatric conditions, including pre- or post-partum depression, and reported greater difficulties in areas such as multi-tasking, coping with domestic responsibilities and creating social opportunities for their child. They were also more likely to report feeling misunderstood by professionals, and reported greater anxiety, higher rates of selective mutism, and not knowing which details were appropriate to share with professionals. They were also more likely to find motherhood an isolating experience, to worry about others judging their parenting, or feel unable to turn to others for support in parenting. However, despite these challenges, autistic mothers were able to act in the best interest of their child, putting their child’s needs first. Conclusions : Autistic mothers face unique challenges and the stigma associated with autism may further exacerbate communication difficulties. Greater understanding and acceptance amongst individuals who interact with autistic mothers is needed, and autistic mothers would benefit from additional and better-tailored support.

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