Pubmed du 08/01/20

mercredi 8 janvier 2020

1. Bittker SS, Bell KR. Postnatal Acetaminophen and Potential Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder among Males. Behav Sci (Basel) ;2020 (Jan 1) ;10(1)

Some evidence from the literature suggests that postnatal acetaminophen exposure may be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a data set obtained from a previous study that was derived from an Internet-based survey among parents on 1515 children from the US, an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and gender-specific aORs for doses of postnatal acetaminophen provided before age two were calculated against the outcome of ASD. Separately, parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided was analyzed. A population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with postnatal acetaminophen exposure before age two for ASD among males was also estimated. Postnatal acetaminophen exposure, measured in doses before age two, was found to be associated with ASD among male children (aOR 1.023, CI 1.005-1.043, p = 0.020*), and parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided before age two was also found to be associated with ASD. Using this data set, the PAF associated with postnatal acetaminophen was estimated to be about 40% of the risk of ASD among male children in the US. These results suggest the possibility that postnatal acetaminophen may be a significant contributor to the risk of ASD among males in the US.

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2. Bojanek EK, Wang Z, White SP, Mosconi MW. Postural control processes during standing and step initiation in autism spectrum disorder. J Neurodev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6) ;12(1):1.

BACKGROUND : Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a reduced ability to maintain postural stability, though motor control mechanisms contributing to these issues and the extent to which they are associated with other gross motor activities (e.g., stepping) are not yet known. METHODS : Seventeen individuals with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) controls (ages 6-19 years) completed three tests of postural control during standing. During the neutral stance, individuals stood with their feet shoulder width apart. During the Romberg one stance, they stood with feet close together. During the circular sway, participants stood with feet shoulder width apart and swayed in a circular motion. The standard deviation (SD) of their center of pressure (COP) in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions and the COP trajectory length were examined for each stance. We also assessed mutual information (MI), or the shared dependencies between COP in the ML and AP directions. Participants also completed a stepping task in which they stepped forward from one force platform to an adjacent platform. The amplitude and duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were examined, as were the maximum lateral sway, duration, and velocity of COP adjustments following the initial step. We examined stepping variables using separate one-way ANCOVAs with height as a covariate. The relationships between postural control and stepping measures and ASD symptom severity were assessed using Spearman correlations with scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). RESULTS : Individuals with ASD showed increased COP trajectory length across stance conditions (p = 0.05) and reduced MI during circular sway relative to TD controls (p = 0.02). During stepping, groups did not differ on APA amplitude (p = 0.97) or duration (p = 0.41), but during their initial step, individuals with ASD showed reduced ML sway (p = 0.06), reduced body transfer duration (p < 0.01), and increased body transfer velocity (p = 0.02) compared to controls. Greater neutral stance COPML variability (r = 0.55, p = 0.02) and decreased lateral sway (r = - 0.55, p = 0.02) when stepping were associated with more severe restricted and repetitive behaviors in participants with ASD. CONCLUSIONS : We found that individuals with ASD showed reduced MI during circular sway suggesting a reduced ability to effectively coordinate joint movements during dynamic postural adjustments. Additionally, individuals with ASD showed reduced lateral sway when stepping indicating that motor rigidity may interfere with balance and gait. Postural control and stepping deficits were related to repetitive behaviors in individuals with ASD indicating that motor rigidity and key clinical issues in ASD may represent overlapping pathological processes.

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3. Di J, Li J, O’Hara B, Alberts I, Xiong L, Li X. The role of GABAergic Neural Circuits in the Pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int J Dev Neurosci ;2020 (Jan 7)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a heterogeneous range of neurodevelopmental conditions represented by symptoms including, communication and language deficits, repetitive and restricted patterns of behavior and inadequate social interactions. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known to mediate inhibitory responses in the Central Nervous System (CNS) by interacting with GABA signaling receptors. In this context, several recent investigations suggest that imbalances in the GABAergic neurotransmission system may be implicated in the development of ASD as well as several other neurodevelopmental disorders, including Fragile X Syndrome and Rett Syndrome. This review initially expounds the functional role of the GABAergic system in the mature brain and during neurodevelopment. This will be followed by discussions concerning the impact of deficiencies in the system on ASD and the other above-mentioned neurodevelopment disorders. Finally, the connections between these deficiencies and behavioral features observed in the clinic will be considered.

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4. Edmondson DA, Xia P, McNally Keehn R, Dydak U, Keehn B. A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Superior Visual Search Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 7)

Although diagnosed on the basis of deficits in social communication and interaction, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is also characterized by superior performance on a variety of visuospatial tasks, including visual search. In neurotypical individuals, region-specific concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are associated with individual differences in attention and perception. While it has been hypothesized that ASD may be associated with an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance, it remains unclear how this may contribute to accelerated visual search performance in individuals with ASD. To investigate this, 21 children with ASD and 20 typically developing children participated in a visual search task and a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study to detect neurochemical concentrations, including GABA. Region-specific neurochemicals were examined in the right frontal eye fields, right temporal-parietal junction (rTPJ), and bilateral visual cortex (VIS). GABA concentrations did not differ between groups ; however, in children with ASD, greater GABA concentration in the VIS was related to more efficient search. Additionally, lower VIS GABA levels were also associated with increased social impairment. Finally, we found reduced N-acetyl aspartate, total creatine, glutamate and glutamine (Glx), GABA/Glx in the rTPJ, suggestive of neuronal dysfunction in a critical network hub. Our results show that GABA concentrations in the VIS are related to efficient search in ASD, thus providing further evidence of enhanced discrimination in ASD. Autism Res 2019, 00 : 1-13. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often perform better than their non-ASD peers on visual search tasks ; however, it is unclear how they achieve this superior performance. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure neurochemicals in the brain, we found that the level of one, gamma-aminobutyric acid, in the visual cortex was directly related to search abilities in children with ASD. These results suggest that faster search may relate to enhanced perceptual functioning in children with ASD.

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5. Evers K, Debbaut E, Maljaars J, Steyaert J, Noens I. Do Parental Interviews for ASD Converge with Clinical Diagnoses ? An Empirical Comparison of the 3di and the DISCO in Children with ASD, a Clinically-Referred Group, and Typically Developing Children. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6)

Two semi-structured parental interviews are available with algorithms developed to measure DSM-5 criteria of ASD, namely the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3di) and the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11). The main aim of this study was to examine the agreement between classification according to both interviews, and their convergence with the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, the 3di and DISCO-11 were administered from three groups of parents of a 4-18 year old. Results showed 75% agreement between both instruments, but in the ASD group only 16% of the children scored above threshold on both instruments. Exploratory analyses suggested that the 3di failed to detect rigid and repetitive behaviors, whereas the DISCO-11 was insufficiently sensitive in detecting socio-communicative problems.

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6. Kostiukow A, Strzelecki W, Poniewierski P, Samborski W. The estimation of the functioning of families with ASD children. AIMS Public Health ;2019 ;6(4):587-599.

Background : Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disease described as a neurodevelopmental disorder as the impairment of social and communication functions. Life of the people with ASD depends on the early introduction of intensive therapeutic programmes, modifying the undesirable behaviours, and aimed at teaching social and communication skills. Aims : The goal of the present work is to estimation the functioning of families with an ASD child and compare it to the functioning of families with children not diagnosed with ASD. Methods : The study was performed using Flexibility and Cohesion Evaluation Scales. The study included 70 parents of ASD children, and 70 parents with children without diagnosed ASD, as the control group. Results : The parents of children with autism achieve lower results in the Balanced Cohesion sub-scale than the control group. Also, the parents of ASD children obtained higher scores in the Disengaged sub-scale than the control group. Conclusions : The results of this papers can suggesting the risk of the appearance of a disturbed family system, functioning in families with children with ASD, which should be a trigger for providing these families with early family functioning diagnosis and consequent support and therapy.

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7. Liu X, Lu S, Song K, Shen Q, Ni D, Li Q, He X, Zhang H, Wang Q, Chen Y, Li X, Wu J, Sheng C, Chen G, Liu Y, Lu X, Zhang J. Unraveling allosteric landscapes of allosterome with ASD. Nucleic Acids Res ;2020 (Jan 8) ;48(D1):D394-D401.

Allosteric regulation is one of the most direct and efficient ways to fine-tune protein function ; it is induced by the binding of a ligand at an allosteric site that is topographically distinct from an orthosteric site. The Allosteric Database (ASD, available online at was developed ten years ago to provide comprehensive information related to allosteric regulation. In recent years, allosteric regulation has received great attention in biological research, bioengineering, and drug discovery, leading to the emergence of entire allosteric landscapes as allosteromes. To facilitate research from the perspective of the allosterome, in ASD 2019, novel features were curated as follows : (i) >10 000 potential allosteric sites of human proteins were deposited for allosteric drug discovery ; (ii) 7 human allosterome maps, including protease and ion channel maps, were built to reveal allosteric evolution within families ; (iii) 1312 somatic missense mutations at allosteric sites were collected from patient samples from 33 cancer types and (iv) 1493 pharmacophores extracted from allosteric sites were provided for modulator screening. Over the past ten years, the ASD has become a central resource for studying allosteric regulation and will play more important roles in both target identification and allosteric drug discovery in the future.

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8. Lory C, Mason RA, Davis JL, Wang D, Kim SY, Gregori E, David M. A Meta-analysis of Challenging Behavior Interventions for Students with Developmental Disabilities in Inclusive School Settings. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 6)

Challenging behavior is a significant barrier in accessing the general education curriculum for students with developmental disabilities. This necessitates the identification of evidence-based practices for addressing challenging behavior in inclusive settings. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to (a) quantify the magnitude of effect of interventions targeting the reduction of challenging behavior in students with developmental disabilities in inclusive educational settings and (b) determine if participant and intervention characteristics moderate intervention effects. A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify studies, which were evaluated for methodological rigor and analyzed for effects using Tau-U. Results indicate a strong overall effect of .94 (95% CI [.87, 1]) and moderating variables associated with behavior topography, interventionist, and intervention components were identified.

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9. MacLennan K, Roach L, Tavassoli T. The Relationship Between Sensory Reactivity Differences and Anxiety Subtypes in Autistic Children. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 7)

Autistic children are at greater risk of developing anxiety than their nonautistic peers. Sensory reactivity differences have been implicated as one of the risk factors. Specifically, sensory hyperreactivity has previously been linked to anxiety, including separation anxiety and specific phobia ; however, minimal research has explored the influence of sensory hyporeactivity and seeking. Therefore, the present study examined the correlational relationship between sensory reactivity differences and anxiety subtypes in 41 autistic children aged between 3 and 14 years, using parent- and self-reported measures. We found positive correlations between sensory hyperreactivity and total anxiety, separation anxiety and physical injury fears. However, when controlling for autism traits, we found sensory hyperreactivity to be related to physical injury fears and specific phobia, and sensory hyporeactivity to be related to lower total and social anxiety. We found no significant relationships between sensory seeking and anxiety. These results indicate that sensory hyperreactivity and hyporeactivity might be implicated in specific anxiety symptomology. Our results also indicate minimal agreement between parent- and self-reported anxieties, which highlights the limitations of informant reports for anxiety and the pressing need for objective anxiety assessments for autistic children to be developed. Our findings have important implications for limiting the development of anxiety in autistic children and suggest that sensory reactivity differences should be considered when developing targeted interventions for certain anxiety disorders. Autism Res 2019, 00 : 1-11. (c) 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : The present study found that when considering autism traits, greater sensory hyperreactivity, such as being oversensitive to sounds, was related to elevated phobia-related symptoms and sensory hyporeactivity, such as being under-responsive to touch, was related to lower total and social anxieties. Sensory seeking, such as a fascination with lights, was not related to anxiety. Our results have important implications for targeted anxiety interventions for autistic children. However, due to minimal agreement between the parent- and child-reported scores, developing more objective measures of anxiety would be beneficial.

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10. Zheng S, Hume KA, Able H, Bishop SL, Boyd BA. Exploring Developmental and Behavioral Heterogeneity among Preschoolers with ASD : A Cluster Analysis on Principal Components. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 8)

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with heterogeneous levels of abilities and deficits. The identification of subgroups within a specific age range could be useful for understanding prognosis and treatment planning. We applied Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) with a sample of 188 preschoolers with ASD and identified three distinct subgroups based on multiple developmental and behavioral domains. Cluster 1 was characterized by relatively high cognitive, language and adaptive abilities, and relatively low levels of social symptoms, repetitive behaviors, and sensory issues within the sample. Cluster 2 was characterized by similarly high cognitive, language and adaptive abilities compared to Cluster 1, but more severe social deficits as well as repetitive and sensory behaviors. Finally, Cluster 3 was characterized by lower cognitive, language and adaptive abilities, and more severe social, repetitive, and sensory symptoms. These findings provide insights into how considering multiple developmental and behavioral domains and core autism symptoms simultaneously can distinguish subgroups of young children with ASD and provide more comprehensive developmental profiles. Moreover, the unique profile of children in Cluster 2 highlighted the usefulness of including different measures and informants when evaluating the abilities and deficits of preschoolers with ASD and the importance of understanding the relationships among different developmental and behavioral factors in this specific population. Autism Res 2020. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Children with autism exhibit a range of abilities and deficits in different developmental and behavioral areas, making it difficult to tailor treatment and predict outcomes. We identified three distinct subgroups among 188 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder distinguished by the combination of measures from multiple developmental and behavioral domains. The findings revealed the importance of comprehensive profiling of the child’s abilities and deficits to inform subgrouping within autism.

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11. Zuo XN. Editorial : Mapping the Miswired Connectome in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2020 (Jan 8)

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