Pubmed du 13/01/20

lundi 13 janvier 2020

1. Corrigendum to Differences in food consumption and nutritional intake between children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children : A meta-analysis. Autism ;2020 (Jan 13):1362361319898028.

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2. Andari E, Nishitani S, Kaundinya G, Caceres GA, Morrier MJ, Ousley O, Smith AK, Cubells JF, Young LJ. Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene : implications for autism symptom severity and brain functional connectivity. Neuropsychopharmacology ;2020 (Jan 13)

The role of oxytocin in social cognition has attracted tremendous interest in social neuroscience and psychiatry. Some studies have reported improvement in social symptoms following oxytocin treatment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), while others point to endogenous factors influencing its efficiency and to mixed results in terms of long-term clinical benefits. Epigenetic modification to the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in ASD could be an informative biomarker of treatment efficacy. Yet, little is known about the relationship between OXTR methylation, clinical severity, and brain function in ASD. Here, we investigated the relationship between OXTR methylation, ASD diagnosis (in N = 35 ASD and N = 64 healthy group), measures of social responsiveness, and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between areas involved in social cognition and reward processing (in a subset of ASD, N = 30). Adults with ASD showed higher OXTR methylation levels in the intron 1 area compared with healthy subjects. This hypermethylation was related to clinical symptoms and to a hypoconnectivity between cortico-cortical areas involved in theory of mind. Methylation at a CpG site in the exon 1 area was positively related to social responsiveness deficits in ASD and to a hyperconnectivity between striatal and cortical brain areas. Taken together, these findings provide initial evidence for OXTR hypermethylation in the intron area as a potential biomarker for adults with ASD with less severe developmental communication deficits, but with impairments in theory of mind and self-awareness. Also, OXTR methylation in the exon 1 area could be a potential biomarker of sociability sensitive to life experiences.

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3. Bailey B, Arciuli J. Indigenous Australians with autism : A scoping review. Autism ;2020 (Jan 13):1362361319894829.

LAY ABSTRACT : Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with developmental disabilities such as autism are among the most marginalised people in Australian society. We reviewed research involving Indigenous Australians with autism based on a search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our search identified 1457 potentially relevant publications. Of these, 19 publications were in line with our main areas of inquiry : autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and prevalence, carer and service provider perspectives on autism, and autism support services. These included 12 journal publications, 3 conference presentations, 1 resource booklet and 1 thesis dissertation. Findings suggest similar prevalence rates for autism among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, although some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with autism may not receive a diagnosis or may be misdiagnosed. We also discuss research on the perspectives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander carers and Indigenous and non-Indigenous service providers, as well as barriers and strategies for improving access to diagnosis and support services.

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4. Kim J, Stevens P, Carbone PS, Jones KB. Health Care Use and Spending of Pediatric Patients With an Intellectual or Developmental Disability. Med Care ;2020 (Jan 13)

BACKGROUND : Health care costs and utilization for those with an intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) have been shown to be higher than the general population. OBJECTIVE : To investigate the services that contribute to higher costs and utilization among noninstitutionalized children with an IDD. DESIGN : Matched case-control secondary analysis of the 2000-2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric (age 0-21) patients with an IDD were matched to non-IDD subjects. Health care utilization and costs were evaluated with zero-inflated negative binomial regressions and generalized linear models, respectively. MEASURES : Outcome measures included high-acuity health care utilization [ie, emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions], and cost outcomes for total spending, ED use, hospitalization, medications, office visits, home health, and physical therapy. RESULTS : There was no statistical difference in utilization of EDs among the 2 groups though subjects with an IDD showed more hospitalizations than their matched cohort (incidence rate ratios=1.63, P=0.00). Total health care spending was higher among patients with an IDD (coefficient=$5831, P=0.00). Pediatric spending was higher in all measures except for ED. The biggest discrepancies in spending were seen in home health (coefficient=$2558, P=0.00) and outpatient visits (coefficient=$1180, P=0.00). CONCLUSIONS : Pediatric patients with an IDD had higher health care spending and utilization than non-IDD subjects in all categories except for ED use.

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5. Lam PP, Du R, Peng S, McGrath CP, Yiu CK. Oral health status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review of case-control studies and meta-analysis. Autism ;2020 (Jan 13):1362361319877337.

LAY ABSTRACT : Children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are thought to be more vulnerable to oral diseases than typically-developing individuals. This is due to their increased barriers to dental care services, self-harm behaviors and dietary habits that may favor tooth decay. In this review, we summarized the current evidence comparing the oral health status of children and adolescents diagnosed with and without ASD. After a systematic search in the literature, we found that the salivary pH of individuals diagnosed with ASD was significantly lower, but the results were not clinically significant that can increase their risks to tooth decay. We also found weak evidence suggesting a higher percentage of children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD having the habit of tooth grinding compared with their neurotypical counterparts. When comparing salivary flow rate, tooth decay, gum diseases, tooth malalignment and tooth trauma ; no significant differences were found between the two groups. The findings did not suggest ASD as a predisposing factor to oral diseases : other factors including sugary diet and inadequate oral hygiene may play a more important role. We also call for further research to establish more concrete association between ASD and oral diseases.

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6. Nichols HM, Dababnah S, Troen B, Vezzoli J, Mahajan R, Mazefsky CA. Racial Disparities in a Sample of Inpatient Youth with ASD. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 13)

Although more than one in 10 youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is admitted to a psychiatric facility before they reach adulthood, the inpatient population is underrepresented in research. Furthermore, Black youth are more likely to be psychiatrically hospitalized, compared to their White counterparts. Yet, prior research has been inconsistent in potential racial differences in ASD symptoms and severity. This study examined differences in the symptom presentation of psychiatrically hospitalized Black and White youth with ASD. Researchers collected data as part of a larger study of youth admitted to one of six US specialized inpatient psychiatric units between 2013 and 2017. We used bivariate and multivariate models to analyze the data. The study included 654 youth diagnosed with ASD, with an average age of 13 years. While bivariate analyses found that Black youth had lower written language and daily living skills and more impaired social affect and inappropriate speech, multivariate regression models suggested that overall ability level and age may be driving these differences. Specifically, the only variables that significantly predicted adaptive functioning (written language, daily living) and behavioral profiles (social affect, inappropriate speech) were verbal ability, IQ, and age. Race was not a significant predictor in any of the models. Cultural diversity and competency are vital to the identification and treatment of ASD clinical care. Thus, understanding the role race may play in early detection and accurate diagnosis is important to improving ASD identification, diagnosis, and treatment. LAY SUMMARY : This study examined differences in autism symptoms between Black and White youth in psychiatric hospitals. We found that while it initially appeared that Black and White youth differed in written language and daily living skills, these racial differences were not significant once we accounted for differences in IQ, age, and verbal ability. Our findings suggest that providers should pay greater attention to other potential reasons for racial disparities in autism services.

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7. Roy N, Ghaziuddin M, Mohiuddin S. Consanguinity and Autism. Curr Psychiatry Rep ;2020 (Jan 13) ;22(1):3.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW : Consanguinity can increase the risk for autosomal recessive conditions, along with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Rarely outside of the genetics community is this discussed. Understanding its impact on the development of ASD and increasing awareness for physicians is important. RECENT FINDINGS : ASD is a polygenic multifactorial disorder associated with morbidity and burden of care. Studies have confirmed its heritability, suspecting to an autosomal recessive transmission. Consanguinity increases the risk for uncovering recessive disorder and its role as an independent contributor for the development of ASD should be examined. With consanguinity being a known risk factor for autosomal recessive conditions, clinicians should routinely screen for it when evaluating for ASD, as this is inconsistently done. If suspected, genetic testing should be also recommended. Understanding current risk as well as future risk and providing families with the education to make the most informed decisions is necessary.

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8. Talmi Z, Mankuta D, Raz R. Birth weight and autism spectrum disorder : A population-based nested case-control study. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 13)

Low birth weight (<2,500 g) and preterm birth (<37 weeks) were found to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, the data regarding the entire birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) range are inconclusive. In this population nested case-control study, based on the Israeli National Insurance Institute records, we aimed to estimate the associations in the Israeli population. The study population included all children born between 2000 and 2012 and diagnosed with ASD (N = 12,635 cases), and a random 20% sample of children born in the same period who were not diagnosed with ASD (N = 369,548 controls). We used multiple logistic regression models to calculate the risk of ASD for each BW and GA category, adjusted for covariates (child sex, maternal age, paternal age, population group, maternal wage, paternal wage, having a sibling with ASD, multiple gestation and socioeconomic status). BW < 3,000 g and GA < 39 weeks were associated with higher risk of ASD, including BW of 2,500-3,000 g (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.18 ; 95% CI, 1.12-1.24, in comparison to the 3,000-3,500 g category) and GA of 37 & 38 weeks (AOR, 1.35 ; 95% CI, 1.25-1.45 and AOR, 1.13 ; 95% CI 1.06-1.20, respectively ; in comparison to GA of 40 weeks). To account for the high correlation between GA and BW, we modeled BW percentiles for gestational age and found that the BW < 20th percentile was associated with an increased risk of ASD (AOR, 1.10 ; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19). These results demonstrate that associations of ASD with BW and GA are not limited to commonly used clinical cutoffs. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with low birth weight (<2,500 g) in prior research. Our study aims to describe the relationship between birth weight (BW) and ASD in the Israeli population. We found that BW <3,000 g was associated with a higher risk of ASD. These results demonstrate that an increased risk of ASD is not confined to clinically defined cutoffs such as BW < 2,500 g.

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