Pubmed du 22/01/20

mercredi 22 janvier 2020

1. Balboni G, Mumbardo-Adam C, Coscarelli A. Influence of adaptive behaviour on the quality of life of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2020 (Jan 20)

BACKGROUND : This study evaluated the role of adaptive behaviour, individual variables (age, gender and problem behaviours) and environmental variables (living arrangements, employment status and city dimension) in affecting the quality of life of individuals with IDD measured from third-party (caregiver) and individuals with IDD’ perspective. METHOD : For 93 adults with an IDD diagnosis (47% males) aged 19-65 years, third-party and participants’ perspective on participants’ quality of life (Personal Outcome Scale), adaptive behaviour (Vineland-II scale), problem behaviours (PIMRA and DASH-II scales), and individual and environmental variables were collected. RESULTS : Adaptive behaviour was the main determinant of quality of life for individuals with IDD. The effect of adaptive behaviour was significant and relevant from both third-party and participants’ perspectives. Problem behaviours had a modest negative impact on the quality of life. CONCLUSIONS : Adaptive behaviour is relevant for planning support and interventions for people with IDD to increase their quality of life.

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2. Crow AJD, Janssen JM, Vickers KL, Parish-Morris J, Moberg PJ, Roalf DR. Olfactory Dysfunction in Neurodevelopmental Disorders : A Meta-analytic Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 20)

Olfactory dysfunction is recognized in neurodevelopmental disorders and may serve as an early indicator of global dysfunction. The present meta-analysis measures olfaction effect sizes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Meta-analysis included 320 ADHD, 346 ASD, and 208 OCD individuals as compared to 910 controls. Olfactory performance deficits were small-to-moderate and heterogeneous (d = - 0.42, 95% CI = - 0.59 < delta < - 0.25). Meta-analytic results indicate that olfactory dysfunction is evident in individuals with ASD and OCD, with small-to-negligible effects in ADHD. These findings imply olfactory dysfunction is related to clinical phenotype in ASD and OCD, but not ADHD, and warrant inclusion in clinical assessment and evaluation of certain neurodevelopmental disorders.

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3. Decroocq C, Soulas T, Lichtle J, Sankey C, Engelberg A, Cappe E. Facilitators’ perspectives on a psychoeducational program for parents of an autistic child. Autism ;2020 (Jan 22):1362361319899766.

LAY ABSTRACT : The recent increase of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorders has led to a considerable rise in the demands for autism-related services and interventions. Caring for an autistic child can be perceived as an enrichment, which coexists with stress in parents. Parents express the need to access relevant information about their child’s difference, and parent support interventions appear to respond effectively to this demand, as they are knowledge-focused and offer indirect support to the child. The aim of this study was to capture the subjective experience of facilitators who implemented a psychoeducational program called Beyond PDD : Parental Skills within My Reach. This program is based on the acknowledged fact that parents of autistic children play a central role in their child’s development. Its main goal is to help parents of autistic children under the age of 8 to identify, develop, and update their parenting competences. This program broaches different topics : (1) specific features of an autistic child, (2) post-diagnostic parental adjustment, (3) communication and social relationships, (4) importance of providing the child with a structured environment, and (5) parental emotions and perceptions that impact everyday life. Structured interviews of the facilitators provided insight on institutional support, issues related to the program itself, required and/or recommended professional background, personal experience and competences, and difficulties linked to recruitment and research criteria. Recommendations aiming to enhance program implementation and delivery were then created using facilitators’ feedback on these aspects.

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4. Ehrenreich-May J, Simpson G, Stewart LM, Kennedy SM, Rowley AN, Beaumont A, Alessandri M, Storch EA, Laugeson EA, Frankel FD, Wood JJ. Treatment of anxiety in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders : A pilot study. Bull Menninger Clin ;2020 (Jan 22):1-32.

Anxiety disorders are commonly comorbid in adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism. Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) for anxiety, when adapted and expanded to target autism spectrum disorder (ASD) characteristics, may be beneficial, but there is minimal evidence to guide clinicians in their application. This multiple-baseline design study evaluated the initial efficacy of a CBT protocol adapted to address anxiety symptoms and adaptive functioning in this population. Anxiety and ASD symptoms were assessed for six participants at intake, after baseline, posttreatment, and at 1-month follow-up. Parent-and child-reported anxiety was also assessed during baseline and treatment. Visual inspection and reliable change index scores were used to evaluate change. All participants improved on clinician-rated measures of disorder severity, and gains were maintained at follow-up. Results were more equivocal for parent-and self-rated anxiety and parent-rated ASD, partly because of spontaneous changes during baseline.

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5. Ferguson EF, Nahmias AS, Crabbe S, Liu T, Mandell DS, Parish-Morris J. Social language opportunities for preschoolers with autism : Insights from audio recordings in urban classrooms. Autism ;2020 (Jan 22):1362361319894835.

LAY ABSTRACT : Early intervention is important for preschoolers on the autism spectrum, but little is known about early intervention classrooms in the community. This study found that children with better language skills and lower autism severity have more verbal interactions with their classmates, especially in classrooms with typically developing peers (inclusion settings). Findings suggest that natural language sampling is a useful method for characterizing autistic children and their early intervention settings. In addition, natural language sampling may have important implications for understanding individual opportunities for development in community early intervention settings.

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6. Garrido D, Carballo G, Garcia-Retamero R. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders : social support and family quality of life. Qual Life Res ;2020 (Jan 20)

PURPOSE : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often has a significant impact on all family members, including parents and siblings of the person who suffers the disorder. This case-control study explores potential factors that help explain the impact of having an older sibling with ASD on several developmental domains, and to test whether these factors could explain their satisfaction on family quality of life (FQoL). METHODS : A total of 78 unaffected siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and siblings of children with typical development (Sibs-TD) from 6 to 12 years old were evaluated. RESULTS : Our analyses show significant differences between groups in motor skills, severity of autistic traits, satisfaction on FQoL, and social support (ps < .05). Moreover, social support acts as positive factor protecting from the negative effect of having a sibling with ASD on satisfaction of FQoL (R(2) = .32). CONCLUSIONS : Our findings highlight the variability in the developmental abilities of the unaffected school-age children with familiar risk factors and emphasize the need for supervising development of all Sibs-ASD over different time points. Social support may be a critical aspect to consider in interventions for improving the satisfaction on FQoL.

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7. Huang Y, Iosif AM, Hansen RL, Schmidt RJ. Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the MARBLES high-risk study. Autism ;2020 (Jan 21):1362361319877792.

LAY ABSTRACT : Prior studies suggest that maternal polyunsaturated fatty acids intake during pregnancy may have protective effects on autism spectrum disorder in their children. However, they did not examine detailed timing of maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during pregnancy, nor did they evaluate plasma concentrations. This study investigates whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acids in defined time windows of pregnancy, assessed by both questionnaires and biomarkers, are associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder and other non-typical development in the children. Food frequency questionnaires were used to estimate maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during the first and second half of pregnancy. Gas chromatography measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in the third trimester. In all, 258 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort were included. All mothers already had a child with autism spectrum disorder and were planning a pregnancy or pregnant with another child. Children were clinically assessed longitudinally and diagnosed at 36 months. For polyunsaturated fatty acid intake from questionnaires, we only found mothers consuming more omega-3 in the second half of pregnancy were 40% less likely to have children with autism spectrum disorder. For polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in the third-trimester plasma, we did not observe any statistical significance in relation to the risk of autism spectrum disorder. However, our study confirmed associations from previous studies between higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid plasma concentrations in the late pregnancy and reduced risk for non-typical development. This study markedly advanced understandings of whether and when maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid intake influences risk for autism spectrum disorder and sets the stage for prevention at the behavioral and educational level.

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8. Lam GYH, Holden E, Fitzpatrick M, Raffaele Mendez L, Berkman K. "Different but connected" : Participatory action research using Photovoice to explore well-being in autistic young adults. Autism ;2020 (Jan 22):1362361319898961.

LAY ABSTRACT : Past research has mainly focused on autistic people’s deficits and poor outcomes compared to other groups of people. Little is known about their positive life experiences, and how to support them to achieve a higher quality of life. It is important to include autistic individuals in research so that they can influence how their voices are represented in a meaningful way and how the research results will be useful to them. In this study, a university researcher collaborated with 14 autistic young adults in a post-school transition program to design and run the research, collect and analyze the data, and use the results to create a presentation to the community. Specifically, the participants took photos in daily life and discussed their ideas about what a good life means to them. Results showed that these young adults described themselves as uniquely and different, but they were eager to learn and adapt. They also valued their relationships with their families, friends, and animals around them, as well as the community at large. This research shows that autistic individuals have important perspectives to share and knowledge to contribute when they are given the opportunities to participate in different aspects of research. The findings will be useful in developing services and influencing policies that promote well-being among autistic adults.

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9. Lin HY, Ni HC, Tseng WI, Gau SS. Characterizing intrinsic functional connectivity in relation to impaired self-regulation in intellectually able male youth with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2020 (Jan 21):1362361319888104.

LAY ABSTRACT : Impaired self-regulation (i.e., dysregulation in affective, behavioral, and cognitive control), is commonly present in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about what is happening in people’s brains when self-regulation is impaired in young people with ASD. We used a technique called functional MRI (which measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow) at a resting state (when participants are not asked to do anything) to research this in intellectually able young people with ASD. We found that brains with more connections, especially between regions involved in sensorimotor processing and regions involved in the processes that enable peoples to focus their attention on the most pertinent features from the sensory environment (salience processing), were related to more impaired self-regulation in young people with and without ASD. We also found that impaired self-regulation was related to increased communication within the brain system involved in voluntary orienting attention to a sensory cue (the dorsal attention network) in young people with ASD. These results highlight how different people have different degrees of dysregulation, which has been largely overlooked in the earlier brain imaging reports on ASD. This might contribute to understanding some of the inconsistencies in the existing published literature on this topic.

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10. Oti-Boadi M, Dankyi E, Kwakye-Nuako CO. Stigma and Forgiveness in Ghanaian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 22)

This study explored stigma experiences of mothers of children with ASD and forgiveness as their coping response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 mothers of children with ASD. Results of this study found several noteworthy themes including, feelings of mother, family/societal reactions, forgiveness factors, and impact of forgiveness. Mothers reported significant stigmatization from families and society. Some expressed their feelings towards themselves, others and God, and finally recounted the use of forgiveness as a coping resource which contributed significantly to their well-being. Findings from this study contribute to the emerging literature on forgiveness as a coping resource for persons who are offended. Implications for clinical practice, intervention and policy are discussed.

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11. Saul J, Norbury C. Does phonetic repertoire in minimally verbal autistic preschoolers predict the severity of later expressive language impairment ?. Autism ;2020 (Jan 21):1362361319898560.

LAY ABSTRACT : What is already known about the topic ? Language skills vary enormously in autism : while some autistic individuals can engage in sophisticated conversations, many remain minimally verbal, meaning they use few or no words regularly for communication. We do not know what causes this variation, but we do know that certain child and family characteristics can be measured when a child is young, and this information can improve our prediction of how expressive language might develop over time. What this article adds ? We examined four characteristics, which have already been found to predict language development in young minimally verbal autistic children. We followed the expressive language progress of 27 minimally verbal children, aged three to five, for a year. One-third no longer met the minimally verbal criteria at the end of the study. In this sample, only one factor predicted language progress, which was the child’s initial speech skills (the number of different speech sounds that the child made during an interaction). This finding adds to the evidence that speech skills contribute to language development in autism. In some cases, persistent and severe expressive language difficulties may reflect an additional deficit in speech production, rather than a consequence of core autism features. Implications for practice, research or policy Our findings suggest that there are factors other than social skills that influence language development in autism. Careful assessment of speech production should be considered when language does not develop as expected. Future research should evaluate speech skills interventions for minimally verbal autistic individuals, as well as promoting the use of alternative communication systems.

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12. Schertz HH, Lester JN, Erden E, Safran S, Githens P. Challenges and contributors to self-efficacy for caregivers of toddlers with autism. Autism ;2020 (Jan 22):1362361319899761.

LAY ABSTRACT : Parent-participatory early intervention practices are linked to parents’ positive views of their own and their children’s capabilities, beliefs that are associated with a range of parent and child outcomes. A qualitative study was conducted with 11 mothers of toddlers with autism who had experience with both professionally directed and parent-mediated early intervention. Participants were interviewed to explore their perspectives on their roles in relation to professionals and on how they viewed their ability to support their toddlers’ social learning. An in-depth analysis of the transcribed interviews resulted in four themes. First, in the early stages, participants experienced challenges to their self-efficacy as they adjusted to the diagnosis and reached to connect with their child when social challenges emerged. Second, participants’ views of their capability were stronger when they were provided with background knowledge enabling them to take the lead in guiding their children’s learning than when professionals modeled predetermined intervention strategies for them to copy. Third, participants provided specific examples of their expertise to support their toddlers’ social learning and viewed their close parent-child relationship and intimate knowledge of their children as valuable to the intervention. Fourth, participants voiced respect for their toddlers’ natures and preferences, positioning them to build on their toddlers’ strengths in everyday interactions. The results support the need for early intervention providers to promote and leverage family capacity for facilitating toddler learning as social challenges begin to appear for toddlers with autism.

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13. Schwartzman JS, Xavier JS, Arvigo MC, Barbosa LK. Use of eye tracking in girls with Rett syndrome. Eur J Paediatr Neurol ;2020 (Jan 7)

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14. Snyder W, Troiani V. Behavioural profiling of autism connectivity abnormalities. BJPsych Open ;2020 (Jan 22) ;6(1):e11.

BACKGROUND : Brain regions are functionally diverse, and a given region may engage in a variety of tasks. This functional diversity of brain regions may be one factor that has prevented the finding of consistent biomarkers for brain disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, methods to characterise brain regions would help to determine how functional abnormalities contribute to affected behaviours. AIMS : As the first illustration of the meta-analytic behavioural profiling procedure, we evaluated how the regions with disrupted connectivity in ASD contributed to various behaviours. METHOD : Connectivity abnormalities were determined from a published degree centrality group comparison based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Using BrainMap’s database of task-based neuroimaging studies, behavioural profiles were created for abnormally connected regions by relating these regions to tasks activating them. RESULTS : Hyperconnectivity in ASD brains was significantly related to memory, attention, reasoning, social, execution and speech behaviours. Hypoconnectivity was related to vision, execution and speech behaviours. CONCLUSIONS : The procedure outlines the first clinical neuroimaging application of a behavioural profiling method that estimates the functional diversity of brain regions, allowing for the relation of abnormal functional connectivity to diagnostic criteria. Behavioural profiling and the computational insights it provides can facilitate better understanding of the functional manifestations of various disorders, including ASD.

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15. Williams ME, Hastings RP, Hutchings J. The Incredible Years Autism Spectrum and Language Delays Parent Program : A Pragmatic, Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial. Autism Res ;2020 (Jan 21)

Behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common and particularly stressful for parents. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of delivering a parenting program in existing services, and the feasibility of conducting a future large-scale Randomized Controlled Trial evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention. Parents of children aged 3-8 years with a diagnosis of ASD, or strongly suspected ASD were eligible to participate. A multicenter, pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial was conducted in four specialist children’s services in Wales. Families were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years(R) Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent program immediately or to a wait-list, treatment as usual control condition. IY-ASLD sessions were delivered once a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes related to feasibility (recruitment, retention, fidelity, and acceptability). Preliminary outcome analyses were conducted using covariance models controlling for study site and baseline scores. From October 5 to December 19, 2016, 58 families were randomized, 29 to IY-ASLD and 29 to control. Three parents did not attend any sessions while 19 (73%) completed the program. Fidelity of delivery was high (88%), as was satisfaction with the program. Fifty-three (91%) completed the follow-up measures. All 95% CIs for effect sizes included zero in exploratory outcome analyses. This study supports the feasibility of delivering the IY-ASLD in existing services with good levels of acceptability and fidelity evident. A larger randomized controlled trial is required to examine the effectiveness of the program. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of delivering a parenting program for parents of children aged 3-8 years with Autism Spectrum Disorder in existing child services. Recruitment and retention in the study were good and parents rated all aspects of the program positively. Practitioners were able to deliver the program as intended and the measures used for program outcomes were appropriate. A larger study to examine program effectiveness would be feasible.

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16. Wu CC, Chu CL, Stewart L, Chiang CH, Hou YM, Liu JH. The Utility of the Screening Tool for Autism in 2-Year-Olds in Detecting Autism in Taiwanese Toddlers Who are Less than 24 Months of Age : A Longitudinal Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 22)

The present longitudinal study examined the utility of the screening tool for autism in 2-year-olds (STAT) in detecting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers who are less than 24 months of age. The study sample, which consisted of 119 toddlers with developmental problems, were assessed when they were between 16 and 24 months of age (Time 1) and after a period of 18 months to finalize the diagnosis (Time 2) ; 57 children had ASD and 62 children had developmental delays. A cutoff score of 2.5 on the STAT yielded an optimal combination of high sensitivity and specificity. The STAT demonstrated adequate predictive validity in detecting ASD in Taiwanese toddlers who are less than 24 months of age.

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