Pubmed du 25/01/20

samedi 25 janvier 2020

1. Aguirre AA, LeBlanc LA, Reavis A, Shillingsburg AM, Delfs CH, Miltenberger CA, Symer KB. Evaluating the Effects of Similar and Distinct Discriminative Stimuli During Auditory Conditional Discrimination Training With Children With Autism. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Apr) ;35(1):21-38.

Children with autism are often taught auditory conditional discriminations in the form of personal information questions that might prove useful in conversation (e.g., "What is your favorite food ?" "Pizza" and "What is your favorite color ?" "Purple"). In these questions, the auditory stimuli presented as part of the compound discriminative stimulus (i.e., what, favorite, color/food) do not always simultaneously control responding. If all components of the auditory stimulus do not control responding, a child may master 1 target but have trouble acquiring subsequent targets that have a component of a previously learned auditory stimulus because the previously learned response is emitted. One way to avoid this problem is to teach many targets that have no overlapping component stimuli before introducing targets that include a previously learned component. Another way to avoid the problem is to systematically introduce overlapping stimulus components simultaneously to facilitate control by all relevant components. Three children with autism were taught auditory conditional discriminations. An adapted alternating-treatments design was used to compare the use of training sets with programmed overlap of component auditory stimuli to training sets with no overlap of stimulus components. The effects of these 2 arrangements were evaluated on trials to criterion and percentage accuracy during acquisition. All participants reached mastery faster with at least 1 target set in the nonoverlap condition compared to the overlapping condition ; 2 out of the 3 participants met the mastery criteria for both overlapping and nonoverlapping targets at a similar rate by the 3rd training set.

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2. Alwahbi A, Hua Y. Using Contingency Contracting to Promote Social Interactions Among Students With ASD and Their Peers. Behav Modif ;2020 (Jan 24):145445520901674.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of peer training implemented alone and the effect of combining contingency contracting with peer training on promoting social interactions among students with ASD and their peers. Three students with ASD and six typically developing peers enrolled in an inclusive elementary school participated in the study. Ten-minute observations were conducted during recess time to collect data on the participants’ social interactions. The data obtained showed that peer training alone did not result in improvement in social interactions. However, upon the introduction of contingency contracting, which facilitated the use of prompting and reinforcement, the participants engaged in a significantly higher number of social interactions. The findings about the effect of peer training and contingency contracting were consistent across the participants. The study results suggest several implications for practice and directions for future research.

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3. Ampuero ME, Miklos M. The Effect of Joint Control Training on the Performance of Multiply Controlled Behavior : A Systematic Literature Review Relevant to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):149-171.

Skinner (1957) differentiated the roles of the speaker and the listener in a verbal encounter. Although not extensively emphasized, Skinner suggested an individual often behaves verbally even when responding as a listener. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often display the absence of important, and basic verbal repertoires that limit their ability to engage in a variety of social skills or problem-solving skills. Joint control suggests that multiply controlled verbal responding involves functional control of two 2 or more stimuli or verbal operants. This systematic literature review provides a summary of publications specifying the relation and implications of the analysis of joint control and joint control training in the acquisition of multiply controlled, non-speaker behaviors (e.g., selection-based behavior ; , sequencing behavior). The synthesis suggests that joint control training presents as a promising analytic tool in guiding interventions to teach complex, multiply controlled verbal and non-verbal repertoires to children diagnosed with autism ASD and/or other developmental disabilities. Recommendations for future research in joint control, as well as the implementation of joint control training, are provided.

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4. Antao J, Abreu LC, Barbosa RTA, Crocetta TB, Guarnieri R, Massetti T, Antunes TPC, Tonks J, Monteiro CBM. Use of Augmented Reality with a Motion-Controlled Game Utilizing Alphabet Letters and Numbers to Improve Performance and Reaction Time Skills for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2020 (Jan) ;23(1):16-22.

Augmented reality (AR) uses the real-world setting but enables a person to interact with virtual objects. In this study, we aimed to explore the use of alphabet letter and number in an AR task and its influence in reaction time in a population with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared with the performance of typical developing (TD) controls. We evaluated reaction time before and after AR tasks that consisted of identifying correct numbers and alphabet letters in 48 people with ASD and 48 with TD controls. Results indicate that total points for TD group were higher (M = 86.4 and M = 79.0) when compared with the ASD group (M = 54.5 and M = 51.5) for alphabet letters and numbers, respectively. Moreover, in analysis of reaction time results, only the ASD group showed an improvement in performance after the practice of an AR task. The control group was faster before (M = 553.7) and after (M = 560.5) when compared with the ASD group (M = 2616.0 and M = 2374.6, respectively). Despite the need for further studies, our results support that there is potential for clinical use of an AR task-based intervention for people with ASD.

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5. Chan E, Buzzard J, Helms R, Grigorian AP. Evaluation and Clinical Course of Keratomalacia With Descemetocele in a Child With Autism and Vitamin A Deficiency. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ;2020 (Jan 24) ;57:e1-e3.

Autistic children with selective diets have an elevated risk for vitamin A deficiency. The authors present the case of a 7-year-old boy with keratomalacia resulting from dietary vitamin A deficiency. Optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy can provide useful details of the cornea and underlying structures. Vitamin A supplementation can result in significant resolution, obviating the need for surgical intervention. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020 ;57:e1-e3.].

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6. Glodowski KR, Rodriguez NM. The Effects of Scenic Picture Prompts on Variability During the Acquisition of Intraverbal Categorization for Children With Autism. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):134-148.

Researchers have demonstrated the efficacy of picture prompts on the acquisition of intraverbals (Coon & Miguel in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 657-666, 2012 ; Goldsmith, LeBlanc, & Sautter in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 1-13, 2007 ; Ingvarsson & Hollobaugh in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 659-664, 2011 ; Ingvarsson & Le in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27, 75-93, 2011 ; Miguel, Petursdottir, & Carr in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 27-41, 2005 ; Partington & Bailey in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 11, 9-18, 1993). However, no one (to our knowledge) has determined the effects of picture prompts on the variability of responding during intraverbal categorization. We evaluated the use of a scenic picture prompt on response variability during the acquisition of intraverbal categorization with 4 children diagnosed with autism. All children mastered the task and initially demonstrated varied responding. However, responding eventually became invariant for all children. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a scenic picture prompt for teaching children with autism intraverbal categorization and for producing initial response variability. Additional research should be conducted to determine teaching procedures that promote continued varied responding for individuals with autism.

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7. Haas A, Vannest K, Smith SD. Utilizing Peers to Support Academic Learning for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Anal Pract ;2019 (Sep) ;12(3):734-740.

The inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder in academic settings is becoming more common. However, most practices focus on increasing social skills even though students also struggle in academic areas. There is a need for strategies that address both social and academic skill deficits, are evidence based, and are easy to implement in the classroom. Peer-mediated interventions have evidence supporting their use in promoting social and academic behavior change and are socially valid and cost-effective. The purpose of this paper is to present examples of how to implement 2 common peer-tutoring strategies : Classwide Peer Tutoring and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Examples for implementing both strategies are provided using a hypothetical student in a general education setting, followed by a brief summary of evidence supporting the peer-mediated academic instruction.

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8. Hanley M, Riby DM, Derges MJ, Douligeri A, Philyaw Z, Ikeda T, Monden Y, Shimoizumi H, Yamagata T, Hirai M. Does culture shape face perception in autism ? Cross-cultural evidence of the own-race advantage from the UK and Japan. Dev Sci ;2020 (Jan 25):e12942.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with face perception atypicalities, and atypical experience with faces has been proposed as an underlying explanation. Studying the own-race advantage (ORA) for face recognition can reveal the effect of experience on face perception in ASD, although the small number of studies in the area present mixed findings. The current study probed the ORA in ASD by comparing two cultural groups simultaneously for the first time. Children with ASD in the UK (N=16) and Japan (N=26) were compared to age and ability matched TD children in the UK (N=16) and Japan (N=26). Participants completed a two-alternative forced-choice task, whereby they had to recognise a just-seen face from a foil which was manipulated in one of four ways (IC : identity change ; EE : easy eyes ; HE : hard eyes ; HM : hard mouth). Face stimuli were Asian and Caucasian, and thus the same stimuli were own and other-race depending on the cultural group. The ASD groups in the UK and Japan did not show impaired face recognition abilities, or impairments with recognising faces depending on manipulations to the eye region, and importantly they showed an ORA. There was considerable heterogeneity in the presence of the ORA in ASD and TD and also across cultures. Children in Japan had higher accuracy than children in the UK, and TD children in Japan did not show an ORA. The present cross-cultural study challenges the view that atypical experiences with faces lead to a reduced/absent ORA in ASD.

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9. Hatch B, Iosif AM, Chuang A, de la Paz L, Ozonoff S, Miller M. Longitudinal Differences in Response to Name Among Infants Developing ASD and Risk for ADHD. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 23)

Diminished response to name, a potential early marker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may also indicate risk for other disorders characterized by attention problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a familial risk design, we examined whether response to name ability at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age differed between three 36-month outcome groups : ASD, ADHD Concerns, or a Comparison group. Persistent differences between the ASD and Comparison groups were evident beginning at 12 months ; differences between the ADHD Concerns and Comparison groups were evident between 12 and 18 months only. Results suggest that response to name may be a general marker for ASD and ADHD risk in infancy but a specific indicator of ASD by 24-months.

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10. Hsu WL, Ma YL, Liu YC, Tai DJC, Lee EHY. Restoring Wnt6 signaling ameliorates behavioral deficits in MeCP2 T158A mouse model of Rett syndrome. Sci Rep ;2020 (Jan 23) ;10(1):1074.

The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene, MECP2, is an X chromosome-linked gene encoding the MeCP2 protein, and mutations of MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT). Previous study has shown that re-expression of SUMO-modified MeCP2 in Mecp2-null neurons rescues synaptic and behavioral deficits in Mecp2 conditional knockout mice, whereas about 12-fold decrease in Wnt6 mRNA level was found in MeCP2K412R sumo-mutant mice. Here, we examined the role of Wnt6 in MeCP2 T158A mouse model of RTT. Results show that lentiviral delivery of Wnt6 to the amygdala ameliorates locomotor impairment and social behavioral deficits in these animals. MeCP2 T158A mice show decreased level of GSK-3beta phosphorylation and increased level of beta-catenin phosphorylation. They also show reduced level of MeCP2 SUMOylation. These alterations were also restored by lenti-Wnt6 transduction. Further, both BDNF and IGF-1 expressions are decreased in MeCP2 T158A mice. Overexpression of Wnt6 increases Bdnf and Igf-1 promoter activity in HEK293T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lenti-Wnt6 transduction to the amygdala similarly increases the mRNA level and protein expression of BDNF and IGF-1 in MeCP2 T158A mice. Moreover, environmental enrichment (EE) similarly ameliorates the locomotor and social behavioral deficits in MeCP2 T158A mice. One of the mechanisms underlying EE is mediated through enhanced MeCP2 SUMOylation and increased Wnt6 expression in these animals by EE.

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11. Hu Z, Ying X, Huang L, Zhao Y, Zhou D, Liu J, Zhong J, Huang T, Zhang W, Cheng F, Duan S. Association of human serotonin receptor 4 promoter methylation with autism spectrum disorder. Medicine (Baltimore) ;2020 (Jan) ;99(4):e18838.

Human serotonin receptor 4 (HTR4) encodes a 5-HT4 receptor involved in learning, memory, depression, anxiety, and feeding behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation of HTR4 promoter and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a disease characterized by communication disorder and repetitive or restrictive behavior.Peripheral blood DNA was obtained from 61 ASD children and 66 healthy children, and the DNA methylation of HTR4 promoter was assessed by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We used percentage of methylated reference (PMR) to represent DNA methylation level.Due to significant age differences between ASD cases and controls (3 [2, 5] years and 6 [5, 6] years, P = 3.34E-10), we used binary logistic regression analysis for adjustment. Our results showed that the DNA methylation levels of HTR4 promoter were significantly lower in children with ASD than in healthy children (median PMR : 66.23% vs 94.31%,P = .028, age-adjusted P = .034). In addition, the DNA methylation of HTR4 promoter was inversely associated with age in male ASD cases (total cases : r = -0.283, P = .027 ; male cases : r = -0.431, P = .002 ; female cases : r = -0.108, P = .752). Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed that the reporter gene expression in the strain with recombinant pGL3-promoter-HTR4 plasmid was significantly higher than that in the strain with pGL3-promoter plasmid (fold change = 2.01, P = .0065), indicating that the HTR4 promoter fragment may contain transcription factors to upregulate promoter activity.Our study suggested that hypomethylation of the HTR4 promoter is a potential biomarker for predicting the risk of male ASD.

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12. Jimenez-Gomez C, Rajagopal S, Nastri R, Chong IM. Matrix Training for Expanding the Communication of Toddlers and Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Anal Pract ;2019 (Jun) ;12(2):375-386.

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically exhibit a range of social communication deficits. Presequenced stimulus arrangements, such as matrix training, can be used to facilitate generative responding. Accordingly, training procedures can lead to the acquisition of a greater number of targets that are not taught explicitly, with fewer learning trials. Matrix training provides a useful framework for selecting teaching targets to promote the emergence of untaught skills. Participants were 3 young boys diagnosed with ASD, who were taught noun-verb combinations of play actions as tact and listener responses. All participants learned the taught noun-verb targets and showed varying degrees of recombinative generalization to untaught targets. Across subsequent matrices, the rate of acquisition of new targets and the number acquired without direct teaching increased (i.e., recombinative generalization). This suggests matrix training stimulus arrangements can facilitate the acquisition of novel targets by teaching young children with ASD to recombine language components appropriately.

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13. Kahlow TA, Sidener TM, Kisamore AN, Reeve KF. Teaching the Mand "When ?" to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):221-234.

People diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may need specific teaching to learn mands for information. Unfortunately, little research has been published on methods for teaching the mand "When ?" to this population. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous research by teaching 3 children diagnosed with ASD to mand "When ?" by teaching multiple topographies of the mand, measuring mand variability, assessing social validity, interspersing a previously acquired mand for information, using multiple-exemplar training, employing a different experimental preparation, and including participants with different skill sets. All participants (a) learned to mand "When ?" only during establishing operation trials (not during abolishing operation trials) within 8 teaching trials, (b) generalized manding with novel items and a novel person and setting, (c) maintained a previously learned mand for information, and (d) maintained skills at follow-up. Upon mastery, 2 participants varied mand topography. Respondents rated the intervention as having high social validity.

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14. Kasherman MA, Premarathne S, Burne THJ, Wood SA, Piper M. The Ubiquitin System : a Regulatory Hub for Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Mol Neurobiol ;2020 (Jan 23)

Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Both disorders are extremely heterogenous, and only 40% of reported cases have so far been attributed to genetic mutations. Of the many cellular processes that are affected, the ubiquitin system (UbS) is of particular relevance in that it can rapidly regulate multiple signaling cascades simultaneously. The UbS is a post-translational modification process that revolves around the covalent attachment of a ubiquitin moiety to a substrate, thereby influencing different elements of protein biology, including trafficking, signal transduction, and degradation. Importantly, the UbS has been implicated in regulating multiple pathophysiological pathways related to ASD and ID. This review will discuss how the UbS acts as major signaling hub in the pathogenesis of ASD and ID, raising the prospect of treating broader patient cohorts by targeting the UbS as a common point of convergence of various mutations.

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15. Manfredi M, Cohn N, Sanchez Mello P, Fernandez E, Boggio PS. Visual and Verbal Narrative Comprehension in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders : An ERP Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jan 23)

We examined semantic processing in ASD children by presenting sentences with congruent or incongruent final words and visual narratives with congruent or incongruent final panels. An N400 effect to incongruent words appeared as compared to congruent ones, which was attenuated for the ASD children. We observed a negativity sustained to incongruous than congruous words, but only for the TD children. Incongruent panels evoked a greater fronto-central N400 amplitude than congruent panels in both groups. In addition, incongruent panels evoked a centro-parietal late positivity, only in controls. In conclusion, ASD children face processing deficits in both verbal and visual materials when integrating meaning across information, though such impairments may arise in different parts of the interpretive process, depending on the modality.

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16. McGee HM, Crowley-Koch B. Using Behavioral Systems Analysis to Improve Large Scale Change Initiatives in Autism Service Organizations. Perspect Behav Sci ;2019 (Dec) ;42(4):931-954.

Large scale organizational change initiatives are certainly difficult endeavors. But when we implement large scale change initiatives without properly assessing the impact the changes will have throughout the organization, we make the changes harder than they need be. Organizations tend to take one of two paths when implementing large scale change initiatives. The first path is to implement the change initiative (e.g., grow your client base, hire more staff, add a new service, begin serving a new market) and then identify and implement any system changes and supports required to support that initiative. The second path begins with identifying and implementing required system changes and supports and then implementing the change initiative. While the second path requires a slower implementation of the change, change initiatives in general will become faster once system variables have been initially mapped out and the organization has gone through the process once or twice. Additionally, rather than creating the appearance of being an adaptive and proactive organization, the second path actually produces an adaptive and proactive organization. Therefore, it is the second path that will be the focus of this paper, and this path relies on behavioral systems analysis.

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17. McKinney A, Hotson KL, Rybicki A, Weisblatt EJL, Dias C, Foster J, Villar SS, Murphy S, Belmonte MK. Point OutWords : protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial of a motor skills intervention to promote communicative development in non-verbal children with autism. Trials ;2020 (Jan 23) ;21(1):109.

BACKGROUND : Point OutWords is a caregiver-delivered, iPad-assisted intervention for non-verbal or minimally verbal children with autism. It aims to develop prerequisite skills for communication such as manual and oral motor skills, sequencing, and symbolic representation. This feasibility trial aims to determine the viability of evaluating the clinical efficacy of Point OutWords. METHODOLOGY : We aim to recruit 46 non-verbal or minimally verbal children with autism and their families, approximately 23 per arm. Children in the intervention group will use Point OutWords for half an hour, five times a week, for 8 weeks. Children in the control group will have equal caregiver-led contact time with the iPad using a selection of control apps (e.g. sensory apps, drawing apps). Communication, motor, and daily living skills are assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Parents will keep diaries during the intervention period and will take part in focus groups when the intervention is completed. DISCUSSION : Point OutWords was developed in collaboration with children with autism and their caregivers, to provide an intervention for a subgroup of autism that has been historically underserved. As autism is a heterogeneous condition, it is unlikely that one style of intervention will address all aspects of its symptomatology ; the motor skills approach of Point OutWords can complement other therapies that address core autistic symptoms of social cognition and communication more directly. The current feasibility trial can inform the selection of outcome measures and design for future full-scale randomised controlled trials of Point OutWords and of other early interventions in autism. TRIAL REGISTRATION : ISRCTN, ISRCTN12808402. Prospectively registered on 12 March 2019.

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18. Miller IT, Wiederhold BK, Miller CS, Wiederhold MD. Assessment and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders with Virtual Reality : A Comprehensive Research Chart. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2020 (Jan) ;23(1):60-65.

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19. Naguy A, Moodliar S, Al-Tajali A, Psych AB, Elsori DH. Safe and Successful Bitemporal Electroconvulsive Therapy for a Prepubertal Low-Functioning Child With Autism and Severe Behavioral Decompensation. J ect ;2020 (Jan 22)

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20. Nilsson M, Handest P, Carlsson J, Nylander L, Pedersen L, Mortensen EL, Arnfred S. Well-Being and Self-Disorders in Schizotypal Disorder and Asperger Syndrome/Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis ;2020 (Jan 20)

We explored subjective well-being in two groups of young adult participants diagnosed with either schizotypal disorder (Sd) (n = 29) or Asperger syndrome/autism spectrum disorder (As/ASD) (n = 22). Well-being was impaired in both groups and was lower in the Sd group than in the As/ASD group. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between well-being and the presence of self-disorders. The negative effect of self-disorders on well-being was still significant when adjusted for diagnosis, age and gender, and level of function. The present findings point toward clinically important disorder-specific differences in the nature of impaired well-being between the Sd group and the As/ASD group, as there seems to be a self-disorder-driven additional contribution to impaired subjective well-being within the schizophrenia spectrum. These findings further nuance the understanding of fundamental and clinically important qualitative differences between the schizophrenia spectrum and the autism spectrum.

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21. Pegado F, Hendriks MHA, Amelynck S, Daniels N, Steyaert J, Boets B, Op de Beeck H. Adults with high functioning autism display idiosyncratic behavioral patterns, neural representations and connectivity of the ’Voice Area’ while judging the appropriateness of emotional vocal reactions. Cortex ;2019 (Dec 5) ;125:90-108.

Understanding others in everyday situations requires multiple types of information processing (visual, auditory, higher order...) which implicates the use of multiple neural circuits of the human brain. Here, using a multisensory paradigm we investigate one aspect of social understanding less explored in the literature : instead of focusing on the capacity to infer what a specific person is thinking, we explore here how people with high functioning autism (HFA) and matched controls with typical development (TD) infer the "population thinking". For this we created an audio-visual ’social norm inference’ task. Participants were required to imagine how most people would judge the appropriateness of vocal utterances in relation to different emotional visual contexts. Behavioral findings demonstrated that HFA individuals show more interindividual variability in these judgments despite equal within-participant reliability relative to TD. This was also the case for judgements of the valence of these vocalizations when presented in isolation. At the neural level, multivoxel pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed strikingly similar neural representations between HFA and TD participants at the group level across different hierarchical levels and neural systems. However, analyses at the individual-participant level revealed that the "Temporal Voice Area" (TVA) shows more interindividual variability in the HFA group, both for neural representations and functional connectivity. Thus, this larger neural idiosyncrasy in a high-level auditory area matches with the larger behavioral idiosyncrasy in HFA individuals, when judging auditory valence and its adequacy in different social scenarios. These results suggest that idiosyncrasy in task-relevant sensory areas in HFA participants could underlie their greater difficulties to estimate how others can think.

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22. Pence ST, Wagoner R, St Peter CC. Blue Light Covers Increase Stereotypy and Decrease On-Task Behavior for Students with Autism. Behav Anal Pract ;2019 (Sep) ;12(3):632-636.

Some recommended strategies for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not empirically based. The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of blue light covers on levels of stereotypy and on-task behavior. Four male children with ASD who engaged in repetitive behavior participated. Placing light covers over the classroom’s fluorescent lights relative to normal classroom lighting did not improve on-task behavior or stereotypy.

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23. Ruhela RK, Soni S, Sarma P, Prakash A, Medhi B. Negative geotaxis : An early age behavioral hallmark to VPA rat model of autism. Ann Neurosci ;2019 (Jan) ;26(1):25-31.

Background : Negative geotaxis (NG) is an important parameter, commonly used in study of different CNS diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. Neurobehavioural change following brain injury was easily identified by negative geotaxis. Purpose : Although NG is evaluated in the settings of ASD, most of the studies are conducted for short duration (1-3 day) and the overall trend of acquisition of NG is not evaluated. In this context, we wanted to evaluate the trend of acquisition of negative geotaxis as a behavioural marker of autism in Valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD. Methods : Dams in the VPA group were treated with intraperitoneal injections of VPA 600 mg/kg single dose on gestational day 12.5, while the control animals received normal saline of similar volume. Developmental parameters body weight (PND 8, 10 & 12), body length (PND 4, 5, 6 8, 10), eye opening (PND 10, 12, 14, 15 and 16) and motor development (grid walking test on PND 20) were monitored. Negative geotaxis test was performed at PND 6, 10, 15 and 17. Results : The results of the present experiments demonstrate that VPA exposed rats exhibited delayed developmental parameters, aberration of the pattern of acquisition of negative geotaxis, enhanced negative geotaxis in early postnatal period (PND 6) and enhanced negative geotaxis in absence of visual clues (PND 17). Conclusion : NG can be a valuable biomarker in early detection of autistic behavior and in absence of visual clues. The abberant negative geotaxis developmental pattern can serve as a marker to detect ASD. Thus NG can serve as an important early age biomarker of ASD. Further studies are required to validate this finding.

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24. Salem-Guirgis S, Albaum C, Tablon P, Riosa PB, Nicholas DB, Drmic IE, Weiss JA. MYmind : a Concurrent Group-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Youth with Autism and Their Parents. Mindfulness (N Y) ;2019 ;10(9):1730-1743.

Objectives : The current study evaluated the use of MYmind, a concurrent mindfulness program in which youth with autism and their parents simultaneously receive group specific mindfulness training. Youth with autism can experience emotional and behavioral challenges, which are associated with parental stress. Mindfulness-based programs are emerging as a promising support for these challenges, for both children and parents. While two studies have documented the use of concurrent parent-child programs, neither involve control conditions. Methods : Using a within-subject repeated measures design with a baseline component, 23 parent-child dyads were assessed on mindfulness, mental health, and youth emotion regulation and autism symptoms. Participants also rated their perceived improvement on a social validity questionnaire. Results : There was improvement in youth autism symptoms, emotion regulation, and adaptive skills, and in parent reports of their own mindfulness following the program. There was also some indication of a waitlist effect for parent mental health, but not for other outcome variables. Participant feedback was mainly positive. Conclusions : MYmind has the potential to contribute to emotion regulation and adaptability in youth with autism, and mindfulness in parents, though more rigorous controlled trials are needed.

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25. Schrader E, Delehanty AD, Casler A, Petrie E, Rivera A, Harrison K, Paterniti T, Sebastiany L, Nottke C, Sohl K, Levy SE, Wetherby AM. Integrating a New Online Autism Screening Tool in Primary Care to Lower the Age of Referral. Clin Pediatr (Phila) ;2020 (Jan 24):9922819900947.

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26. Shillingsburg A, Marya V, Bartlett B, Thompson T, Walters D. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Report Past Behavior With the Use of a Speech-Generating Device. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):258-269.

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27. Shillingsburg MA, Frampton SE. The Effects of the Interspersal of Related Responses on the Emergence of Intraverbals for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):172-195.

The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbals for 2 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Prior to baseline, both children demonstrated tact, tact function, listener, and listener by function responses with 12 pictorial stimuli, yet they failed to demonstrate intraverbals related to the function of the items (e.g., "What do you do with [item] ?" and "What do you use to [function] ?"). Following baseline, previously mastered related tact, tact function, listener, and listener by function tasks were presented prior to probe trials for the target item-function and function-item intraverbals. Results showed that interspersal of the related tasks for a subset of the intraverbals led to the emergence of untrained item-function and function-item intraverbals for both participants. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of this remedial training on the emergence of untrained intraverbals was evaluated as new tact and listener responses were trained. Results of Experiment 2 showed that tact function and listener by function training was sufficient to establish the emergence of item-function and function-item intraverbals in the absence of related-task interspersal. These results are discussed in relation to current explanations for emergent responding.

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28. Tullis CA, Seaman-Tullis RL. Incorporating Preference Assessment into Transition Planning for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Anal Pract ;2019 (Sep) ;12(3):727-733.

Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often struggle with communicating preferences integral to the transition planning process. Systematic preference assessments (SPAs) are objective methods for observing and documenting learner responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. An extensive literature-base exists supporting the inclusion of SPAs when identifying potentially reinforcing stimuli for educational programming. Although these methodologies are effective, in the transition planning process they may be useful beyond identifying potentially reinforcing stimuli. The following commentary provides an overview of the transition planning process, as well as how preference assessment may enhance that process.

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29. Valentino AL, Fu SB, Padover JL. Teaching Mands for Information Using "Why" to Children With Autism. Anal Verbal Behav ;2019 (Dec) ;35(2):245-257.

Mands for information (MFIs) play an important role in language development and are important for successfully acquiring new information from one’s environment. Yet many individuals with autism do not acquire mands for information without direct teaching. Research has demonstrated effective procedures for teaching all "wh" forms, except for "why." This study investigated procedures to teach the MFI "why" under control of the establishing operation and examined the extent to which teaching resulted in generalization. The intervention was effective in establishing the MFI "why" for 3 children with autism, and generalization to novel scenarios occurred for all participants.

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30. Vaudano E. Toward a Europe-wide Patient-centric Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2020 (Jan) ;23(1):3-4.

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31. Wang Y, Kang S, Ramirez J, Tarbox J. Multilingual Diversity in the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism : A Brief Review and Discussion of Future Directions. Behav Anal Pract ;2019 (Dec) ;12(4):795-804.

This review addresses multilingual diversity within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) as it relates to treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The United States was founded as a diverse, multicultural "melting pot" and migration patterns continue to increase cultural and linguistic diversity, making it increasingly important to address these issues within the field of ABA. The role of multilingualism in ABA treatment for autism has scarcely been addressed in practice or in research and yet these factors likely impact the ABA treatment process significantly. The purpose of this review is to discuss how multilingualism might be better addressed within the field of ABA. We briefly review the very small amount of existing research on multilingual approaches when using ABA and discuss directions for future research. In addition, we discuss potential future directions for the field, in terms of increasing the number of international students in graduate programs, enhancing diversity curricula within graduate programs and continuing education, and efforts by professional organizations to address diversity.

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32. Wiggins LD, DiGuiseppi C, Schieve L, Moody E, Soke G, Giarelli E, Levy S. Wandering Among Preschool Children with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr ;2020 (Jan 22)

OBJECTIVES : (1) Report the occurrence of wandering, or leaving a supervised space, among children with confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental delay (DD) with a previous but unconfirmed ASD diagnosis (DDprevASD), DD without a previous ASD diagnosis, and a population comparison group (POP) at an age when wandering is no longer expected and (2) explore whether ASD status is associated with wandering independent of behavioral, developmental, and maternal factors. METHOD : Parents and children aged 4 to 5 years enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development Phase-1+2. All children were screened for ASD symptoms upon enrollment. Those with ASD symptoms and/or a previous ASD diagnosis received the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) to determine their developmental level and 2 ASD diagnostic tests to determine their ASD status. All other children were evaluated with the MSEL alone. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist/1(1/2)-5, which includes an item on whether the child wanders away (categorized as at least sometimes true vs not true) and items assessing behavior problems. RESULTS : Children with ASD (N = 1195) were significantly more likely to wander than children classified as DDprevASD (N = 230), DD (N = 1199), or POP (N = 1272) (60.4%, 41.3%, 22.3%, and 12.4%, respectively, p < 0.01). ASD status, very low developmental level, and affective, anxiety, attention, and oppositional problems were each independently associated with wandering behavior. CONCLUSION : Wandering is significantly more common among children with ASD and those with behavioral and developmental problems compared with other children. These findings can be used to increase the awareness of wandering among children with atypical development.

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