Pubmed du 03/02/20

lundi 3 février 2020

1. Baadel S, Thabtah F, Lu J. A clustering approach for autistic trait classification. Informatics for health & social care. 2020 : 1-18.

Machine learning (ML) techniques can be utilized by physicians, clinicians, as well as other users, to discover Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms based on historical cases and controls to enhance autism screening efficiency and accuracy. The aim of this study is to improve the performance of detecting ASD traits by reducing data dimensionality and eliminating redundancy in the autism dataset. To achieve this, a new semi-supervised ML framework approach called Clustering-based Autistic Trait Classification (CATC) is proposed that uses a clustering technique and that validates classifiers using classification techniques. The proposed method identifies potential autism cases based on their similarity traits as opposed to a scoring function used by many ASD screening tools. Empirical results on different datasets involving children, adolescents, and adults were verified and compared to other common machine learning classification techniques. The results showed that CATC offers classifiers with higher predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates than those of other intelligent classification approaches such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Random Forest, Random Trees, and Rule Induction. These classifiers are useful as they are exploited by diagnosticians and other stakeholders involved in ASD screening.

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2. Barton-Hulsey A, Sterling A. Grammatical judgment and production in male participants with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder. Clinical linguistics & phonetics. 2020 : 1-24.

This study examined grammatical judgment and production in 22 male participants with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a range of nonverbal IQ from 44 to 111 (mean = 72.23) and were between 9.42 and 16.75 years of age (mean = 13.45). Relationships between grammatical judgment and production and nonverbal IQ were examined.Participants completed the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI) to describe relative strengths and weaknesses in their ability to judge and produce grammatical tense. Participants also completed the Leiter-R to assess the relationship between nonverbal IQ and grammatical judgment and production. Relative strengths were found across participants in judging correct use of subject-verb agreement in sentences, and correctly producing verbs that linked sentences (e.g., auxiliaries and copulas of be "Is she resting ?"). Participants had the greatest difficulty judging the correctness of a sentence using a dropped verb tense marker (e.g., "He look happy now") and producing irregular verb tense markers. Nonverbal IQ did not contribute to the variance in performance on any tasks of grammaticality judgment or production. Grammatical markers that mark tense in past tense verbs as well as the production of auxiliary do may be an important focus of language intervention for boys with ASD.

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3. Constantino JN, Strom S, Bunis M, Nadler C, Rodgers T, LePage J, Cahalan C, Stockreef A, Evans L, Jones R, Wilson A. Toward Actionable Practice Parameters for "Dual Diagnosis" : Principles of Assessment and Management for Co-Occurring Psychiatric and Intellectual/Developmental Disability. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2020 ; 22(2) : 9.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW : Although treatment algorithms and parameters for best practice are readily available for all major syndromes of psychiatric impairment, the occurrence of psychiatric syndromes in individuals with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) invokes serious contextual challenges for interpretation of symptoms, diagnosis, and optimization of treatment, both for clinicians and for the service sectors in which care and support of individuals with IDD are delivered. Recognizing that there exist very few definitive resources for best practice under the circumstance of this form of "dual diagnosis," the Missouri Department of Mental Health convened an expert panel to conduct a focused review and synthesis of the relevant scientific literature from which to develop guidance in the form of decision support to clinicians. This article summarizes the findings for three of the most common and impairing clusters of psychiatric symptoms that co-occur with IDD-aggression, depression, and addictions. RECENT FINDINGS : Individuals with IDD are at high risk for the development of psychiatric symptoms (PS), which often manifest uniquely in IDD and for which evidence for effective intervention is steadily accruing. Interventions that are commonly implemented in the IDD service sector (e.g., functional communication training and positive behavioral support planning) are capable of mitigating severe behavioral impairment, yet rarely invoked when dual diagnosis patients are seen in the psychiatric service sector. Conversely, state-of-the-art interventions for traumatic stress, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy have proven capable of improving behavioral impairments in IDD but are typically restricted to the psychiatric service sector, where there exist significant barriers to access for patients with IDD, including limitations imposed by diagnostic eligibility and practitioner experience. Bridging these gaps in knowledge and clinical capacity across the respective IDD and PS service sectors should be of very high priority in strategizing the care and support of IDD patients with serious co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

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4. Georgescu AL, Koeroglu S, Hamilton AFC, Vogeley K, Falter-Wagner CM, Tschacher W. Reduced nonverbal interpersonal synchrony in autism spectrum disorder independent of partner diagnosis : a motion energy study. Mol Autism. 2020 ; 11(1) : 11.

BACKGROUND : One of the main diagnostic features of individuals with autism spectrum disorders is nonverbal behaviour difficulties during naturalistic social interactions. The ’Interactional Heterogeneity Hypothesis’ of ASD proposes that the degree to which individuals share a common ground substantially influences their ability to achieve smooth social interactions. METHODS : To test this hypothesis, we filmed 29 autistic and 29 matched typically developed adults engaged in several conversational tasks. Windowed cross-lagged correlations were computed using the time series of motion energy of both individuals in a dyad. These coefficients were then compared across the three dyad types that were homo- or heterogenous with respect to diagnosis : pairs of two autistic individuals, two typically developed individuals or pairs of one autistic and one typically developed person. RESULTS : We found that all dyad types achieved above-chance interpersonal synchrony, but that synchrony was more expressed in typical dyads compared to both autistic and mixed dyads. LIMITATIONS : The method presented here provides only one, albeit objective and robust, approach to explore synchrony. The methodological choices as well as the lack of consideration for other communication modalities may limit our interpretation of the findings. Moreover, the sample size is small with respect to exploring associations between synchrony and various outcome and social skill measures. CONCLUSIONS : The present results do not provide support for the Interactional Heterogeneity Hypothesis given that autistic individuals do not coordinate better when interacting with another autistic individual, compared to when interacting with a typical individual.

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5. Gomathi M, Padmapriya S, Balachandar V. Drug Studies on Rett Syndrome : From Bench to Bedside. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Drug studies on Rett syndrome (RTT) have drastically increased over the past few decades. This review aims to provide master data on bench-to-bedside drug studies involving RTT. A comprehensive literature review was performed by searching in PUBMED, MEDLINE and Google Scholar, international, national and regional clinical trial registries and pharmaceutical companies using the keywords "Rett syndrome treatment and/or drug or compound or molecule". Seventy drugs were investigated in non-clinical (N = 65 animal/cell line-based studies ; N = 5 iPSC-based study) and clinical trials (N = 34) for ameliorating the symptoms of RTT. Though there is good progress in both clinical and non-clinical studies, none of these drugs entered phase III/IV for being launched as a therapeutic agent for RTT.

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6. Hu S, Meyer B, Lai BWP, Chay PL, Tong HJ. Parental acceptance of silver diamine fluoride in children with autism spectrum disorder. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020.

BACKGROUND : Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have concerns with fluoride/silver content in silver diamine fluoride (SDF). AIM : To compare parental acceptance of SDF and dental fear between children with and without ASD. DESIGN : Three hundred parents were enrolled. Demographics, dental history, and dental fear were recorded. Subjects viewed an educational video and completed survey about SDF acceptance including : a) overall acceptance, b) aesthetic concerns by tooth location, c) fluoride/silver concerns, and d) its use as a general anaesthesia (GA) alternative. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were used. RESULTS : Significantly more children with ASD had dental fear (ASD : 56% versus Neurotypical : 26%). No differences in acceptance existed between the two groups overall or with respect to aesthetics, fluoride/silver content, or as an alternative to GA. Overall acceptance is >60%. Regardless of group, parents of older children were less likely to accept SDF as an alternative to GA (OR=0.67 [95%CI : 0.50 to 0.90]). CONCLUSION : Parents of children with ASD had similar acceptance of SDF use compared to parents of neurotypical children. Children with ASD had higher levels of dental fear. Parents of younger children are more likely to accept SDF as an alternative to GA in both groups.

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7. Khrautieo T, Srimaneekarn N, Rirattanapong P, Smutkeeree A. Association of sensory sensitivities and tooth brushing cooperation in autism spectrum disorder. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020.

BACKGROUND : Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is common in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and it leads to a more intense response to sensory stimuli. AIM : To compare tooth brushing cooperation at home and in a dental office between SOR or sensory not over-responsivity (SNOR) children with ASD. DESIGN : This cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 51 children with ASD aged 4 to 17 years. Caregivers assessed each subject’s sensory response by completing a back-translation questionnaire listing eight sensitivities. Subjects who had three or more of the sensitivities were considered SOR subjects. Tooth brushing cooperation in the dental office were recorded on videos. Statistical analysis used the Spearman correlation coefficient, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS : SNOR subjects (n=10) had significantly higher scores in tooth brushing cooperation at home and in the dental office than did SOR subjects (n=41) (p < .05). Oral sensitivity was significantly associated with tooth brushing cooperation at home, whereas oral, light, sound, and touch (face) sensitivities were significantly correlated with tooth brushing cooperation in the dental office (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS : SOR subjects showed less tooth brushing cooperation than SNOR subjects both at home and in the dental office.

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8. Li X, Feng Y, Yan M, Tu X, Xie B, Ni F, Qu C, Chen JG. Inhibition of Autism-Related Crm1 Disrupts Mitosis and Induces Apoptosis of the Cortical Neural Progenitors. Cereb Cortex. 2020.

De novo microdeletion of chromosome 2p15-16.1 presents clinically recognizable phenotypes that include mental retardation, autism, and microcephaly. Chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a gene commonly missing in patients with 2p15-16.1 microdeletion and one of two genes found in the smallest deletion case. In this study, we investigate the role and mechanism of Crm1 in the developing mouse brain by inhibiting the protein or knocking down the gene in vivo. Inhibition of Crm1 reduces the proliferation and increases p53-dependent apoptosis of the cortical neural progenitors, thereby impeding the growth of embryonic cerebral cortex. Live imaging of mitosis in ex vivo embryonic brain slices reveals that inhibition of CRM1 arrests the cortical progenitors at metaphase. The arrested cells eventually slip into a pseudo-G1 phase without chromosome segregation. The mitotic slippage cells are marked by persistent expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), repressing of which rescues the cells from apoptosis. Our study reveals that activating the SAC and inducing the mitotic slippage may lead to apoptosis of the cortical neural progenitors. The resulting cell death may well contribute to microcephaly associated with microdeletion of chromosome 2p15-16.1 involving CRM1.

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9. Lu Z, Liu Z, Mao W, Wang X, Zheng X, Chen S, Cao B, Huang S, Zhang X, Zhou T, Zhang Y, Huang X, Sun Q, Li JD. Locus-specific DNA methylation of Mecp2 promoter leads to autism-like phenotypes in mice. Cell Death Dis. 2020 ; 11(2) : 85.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease with a strong heritability, but recent evidence suggests that epigenetic dysregulation may also contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Especially, increased methylation at the MECP2 promoter and decreased MECP2 expression were observed in the brains of ASD patients. However, the causative relationship of MECP2 promoter methylation and ASD has not been established. In this study, we achieved locus-specific methylation at the transcription start site (TSS) of Mecp2 in Neuro-2a cells and in mice, using nuclease-deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) fused with DNA methyltransferase catalytic domains, together with five locus-targeting sgRNAs. This locus-specific epigenetic modification led to a reduced Mecp2 expression and a series of behavioral alterations in mice, including reduced social interaction, increased grooming, enhanced anxiety/depression, and poor performance in memory tasks. We further found that specifically increasing the Mecp2 promoter methylation in the hippocampus was sufficient to induce most of the behavioral changes. Our finding therefore demonstrated for the first time the casual relationship between locus-specific DNA methylation and diseases symptoms in vivo, warranting potential therapeutic application of epigenetic editing.

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10. Martin AF, Jassi A, Cullen AE, Broadbent M, Downs J, Krebs G. Co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder in young people : prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly co-occur and are considered challenging to manage when they co-occur in youth. However, clinical characteristics and prognosis of this group remain poorly understood. This study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates and outcomes of paediatric OCD co-occurring with ASD (OCD + ASD) in a large clinical cohort. Data were extracted from electronic clinical records of young people aged 4-17 years who had attended a mental health trust in South London, United Kingdom. We identified young people with diagnoses of OCD + ASD (n = 335), OCD without ASD (n = 1010), and ASD without OCD (n = 6577). 25% of youth with OCD had a diagnosis of ASD, while 5% of those with ASD had a diagnosis of OCD. At diagnosis, youth with OCD + ASD had lower psychosocial functioning scores on the clinician-rated Child Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) compared to those with either OCD or ASD. Youth with OCD + ASD were equally likely to receive CBT compared to those with OCD but were more likely to be prescribed medication and use services for longer than either comparison group. Youth with OCD + ASD showed significant improvements in functioning (CGAS scores) after service utilisation but their gains were smaller than those with OCD. OCD + ASD commonly co-occur, conferring substantial impairment, although OCD may be underdiagnosed in youth with ASD. Young people with co-occurring OCD + ASD can make significant improvements in functioning with routine clinical care but are likely to remain more impaired than typically developing youth with OCD, indicating a need for longer-term support for these young people.

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11. Matsuzaki J, Ku M, Dipiero M, Chiang T, Saby J, Blaskey L, Kuschner ES, Kim M, Berman JI, Bloy L, Chen YH, Dell J, Liu S, Brodkin ES, Embick D, Roberts TPL. Delayed Auditory Evoked Responses in Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Life Span. Dev Neurosci. 2020 : 1-11.

The M50 and M100 auditory evoked responses reflect early auditory processes in the primary/secondary auditory cortex. Although previous M50 and M100 studies have been conducted on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and indicate disruption of encoding simple sensory information, analogous investigations of the neural correlates of auditory processing through development from children into adults are very limited. Magnetoencephalography was used to record signals arising from the left and right superior temporal gyrus during auditory presentation of tones to children/adolescents and adults with ASD as well as typically developing (TD) controls. One hundred and thirty-two participants (aged 6-42 years) were included into the final analyses (children/adolescents : TD, n = 36, 9.21 +/- 1.6 years ; ASD, n = 58, 10.07 +/- 2.38 years ; adults : TD, n = 19, 26.97 +/- 1.29 years ; ASD, n = 19, 23.80 +/- 6.26 years). There were main effects of group on M50 and M100 latency (p < 0.001) over hemisphere and frequency. Delayed M50 and M100 latencies were found in participants with ASD compared to the TD group, and earlier M50 and M100 latencies were associated with increased age. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant association between language ability and both M50 and M100 latencies. Importantly, differences in M50 and M100 latencies between TD and ASD cohorts, often reported in children, persisted into adulthood, with no evidence supporting latency convergence.

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12. Maxeiner S, Benseler F, Krasteva-Christ G, Brose N, Sudhof TC. Evolution of the Autism-Associated Neuroligin-4 Gene Reveals Broad Erosion of Pseudoautosomal Regions in Rodents. Molecular biology and evolution. 2020.

Variants in genes encoding synaptic adhesion proteins of the neuroligin family, most notably neuroligin-4, are a significant cause of autism spectrum disorders in humans. While human neuroligin-4 is encoded by two genes, NLGN4X and NLGN4Y, that are localized on the X-specific and male-specific regions of the two sex chromosomes, the chromosomal localization and full genomic sequence of the mouse Nlgn4 gene remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the neuroligin-4 genes of numerous rodent species by direct sequencing and bioinformatics, generated complete drafts of multiple rodent neuroligin-4 genes, and examined their evolution. Surprisingly, we find that the murine Nlgn4 gene is localized to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the sex chromosomes, different from its human orthologues. We show that the sequence differences between various neuroligin-4 proteins are restricted to hotspots in which rodent neuroligin-4 proteins contain short repetitive sequence insertions compared to neuroligin-4 proteins from other species, whereas all other protein sequences are highly conserved. Evolutionarily, these sequence insertions initiate in the clade eumuroidea of the infra-order myomorpha, and are additionally associated with dramatic changes in non-coding sequences and gene size. Importantly, these changes are not exclusively restricted to neuroligin-4 genes but reflect major evolutionary changes that substantially altered or even deleted genes from the PARs of both sex chromosomes. Our results show that despite the fact that the PAR in rodents and the neuroligin-4 genes within the rodent PAR underwent massive evolutionary changes, neuroligin-4 proteins maintained a highly conserved core structure, consistent with a substantial evolutionary pressure preserving its physiological function.

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13. Phan BN, Bohlen JF, Davis BA, Ye Z, Chen HY, Mayfield B, Sripathy SR, Cerceo Page S, Campbell MN, Smith HL, Gallop D, Kim H, Thaxton CL, Simon JM, Burke EE, Shin JH, Kennedy AJ, Sweatt JD, Philpot BD, Jaffe AE, Maher BJ. A myelin-related transcriptomic profile is shared by Pitt-Hopkins syndrome models and human autism spectrum disorder. Nat Neurosci. 2020.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is genetically heterogeneous with convergent symptomatology, suggesting common dysregulated pathways. In this study, we analyzed brain transcriptional changes in five mouse models of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), a syndromic form of ASD caused by mutations in the TCF4 gene, but not the TCF7L2 gene. Analyses of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) highlighted oligodendrocyte (OL) dysregulation, which we confirmed in two additional mouse models of syndromic ASD (Pten(m3m4/m3m4) and Mecp2(tm1.1Bird)). The PTHS mouse models showed cell-autonomous reductions in OL numbers and myelination, functionally confirming OL transcriptional signatures. We also integrated PTHS mouse model DEGs with human idiopathic ASD postmortem brain RNA-sequencing data and found significant enrichment of overlapping DEGs and common myelination-associated pathways. Notably, DEGs from syndromic ASD mouse models and reduced deconvoluted OL numbers distinguished human idiopathic ASD cases from controls across three postmortem brain data sets. These results implicate disruptions in OL biology as a cellular mechanism in ASD pathology.

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14. Ping Pang NT, Masiran R, Tan KA, Kassim A. Psychological mindedness as a mediator in the relationship between dysfunctional coping styles and depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Perspectives in psychiatric care. 2020.

PURPOSE : Psychological mindedness (PM) can partly explain depressive symptoms in caregivers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This cross-sectional study examines PM in mediating the relationship between dysfunctional coping styles and depressive symptoms. DESIGN AND METHODS : One hundred fifty-five adult ASD caregivers completed the Malay version of Brief COPE, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Balanced Index of PM. FINDINGS : Direct paths between dysfunctional coping style and depressive symptoms, between insight and depressive symptoms, and between dysfunctional coping style and all PM variables (insight and interest) were obtained. Multiple regression analyses revealed that insight, but not interest, significantly mediates the relationship between dysfunctional coping and depressive symptoms. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS : PM can be enhanced via psychological interventions.

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15. Seghatol-Eslami VC, Maximo JO, Ammons CJ, Libero LE, Kana RK. Hyperconnectivity of social brain networks in autism during action-intention judgment. Neuropsychologia. 2020 ; 137 : 107303.

Deficits in social communication in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been documented using neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI over the past decade. More recently, functional connectivity MRI has revealed altered connectivity in face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring brain networks, networks involved in the social brain in ASD. However, to our knowledge, previous studies have not examined these three networks concurrently. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the functional connectivity of the face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring networks (within each network and across networks) in ASD during an action-intention task in which participants were asked to determine the means and intention of a model’s actions. We examined : a) within-network connectivity of each network using an ROI-to-ROI analysis ; b) connectivity of each network hub to the rest of the brain using a seed-to-voxel analysis ; c) the between-network connectivity of each network hub using ROI-to-ROI analysis ; and d) brain-behavior relationships by correlating autism symptoms with brain connectivity. Task-fMRI data were used from 21 participants with ASD and 20 typically developing participants. The ASD group consistently showed significantly greater connectivity between networks and between hub regions to the rest of the brain. Hyperconnectivity in ASD may entail more and widespread resource utilization for accomplishing action-intention judgment.

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16. Velmeshev D, Magistri M, Mazza EMC, Lally P, Khoury N, D’Elia ER, Bicciato S, Faghihi MA. Cell-Type-Specific Analysis of Molecular Pathology in Autism Identifies Common Genes and Pathways Affected Across Neocortical Regions. Mol Neurobiol. 2020.

Despite its heterogeneity, autism is characterized by a defined behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the molecular pathology affects specific neural substrates to cause behavioral dysfunction. Previous studies identified genes dysregulated in autism cortex but did not address their cell-type specificity. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is a core of genes dysregulated across multiple neocortical regions. We applied RNA sequencing to postmortem brain tissue samples from autism patients and neurologically normal controls and combined our data with previously published datasets. We then identified genes, pathways, and alternative splicing events which are dysregulated in five neocortical regions in autism. To gain information about cell-type specificity of the dysregulated genes, we analyzed single-nuclei RNA sequencing data of adult human cortex and intersected cell-type-specific gene signatures with genes dysregulated in autism in specific cortical regions. We found that autism-associated gene expression changes across 4 frontal and temporal cortex regions converge on 27 genes related to immune response and enriched in human astrocytes, microglia, and brain endothelium. Shared splicing changes, however, are found in genes predominantly associated with synaptic function and adult interneurons and projection neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that regions of DNA differentially methylated in autism overlap genes associated with development and enriched in human cortical oligodendrocytes. Our study identifies signatures of autism molecular pathology shared across neocortical regions, as well as neural cell types enriched for common dysregulated genes, thus paving way for assessing cell-type-specific mechanisms of autism pathology.

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17. Wuyun G, Wang J, Zhang L, Wang K, Yi L, Wu Y. Actions Speak Louder Than Words : The Role of Action in Self-Referential Advantage in Children With Autism. Autism Res. 2020.

Impaired self-processing in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is believed to be closely associated with social-communicative deficits, a core symptom of ASD. In three experiments, we aimed to investigate (a) whether children with ASD exhibited deficient in self-processing, as reflected by their superior memory for self-related items as compared to other-related items, and (b) the role that action played in promoting self-processing in ASD. In Experiment 1, children with ASD, children with intellectual disability (ID), and typically developing children were asked to memorize items on the cards assigned to them or to the experimenter. The results indicated that the TD and ID groups had a self-referential memory advantage, but the ASD group did not. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether the deficit in self-processing among children with ASDs was ameliorated when participants performed or observed an action to indicate the ownership of the items. We found that when children with ASD performed self-generated actions or observed virtual actions, they displayed a similar self-referential memory advantage as the other two groups. Our findings reveal that action plays an important role in the self-processing in children with ASD, and thereby contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of self-processing deficits in this population.Autism Res 2020, 00 : 1-11. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research,Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : We aimed to study whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibited deficient in self-processing and the role of action in promoting self-processing in ASD. We found that the typically developing and intellectual disability groups had a self-referential memory advantage, but the ASD group did not. However, children with ASD showed a significant self-referential advantage when they performed or observed an action to indicate the ownership of items. These findings highlight the vital role that action plays in cognitively enhancing their self-processing.

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18. Zhang Y, Lin L, Liu J, Shi L, Lu J. Dental Caries Status in Autistic Children : A Meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the dental health status of children with ASD in terms of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and decayed, missing, and filled deciduous teeth (dmft). PubMed, Embase, psycINFO, and Cochrane library were searched for studies published until September 2018. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results.Nine studies comprising 532 children with ASD and 622 controls were included. No significant differences between children with ASD and controls were observed for DMFT and dmft in the world. Subgroup analyses revealed that children with ASD had a significantly higher dmft index than that of controls in Asia.Children with ASD have a worse dental health status than healthy children in Asia, but caution is necessary given the limited studies available for analysis.

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