Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking : Virtual Reality Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (janvier 2020)

vendredi 7 février 2020

Le numéro de janvier 2020 de la revue Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking est consacré aux intervention grâce à la réalité virtuelle ou augmentée.

Virtual Reality Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder

1. Vaudano E. Toward a Europe-wide Patient-centric Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 3-4.

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2. Crowell C, Sayis B, Benitez JP, Pares N. Mixed Reality, Full-Body Interactive Experience to Encourage Social Initiation for Autism : Comparison with a Control Nondigital Intervention. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 5-9.

Despite a proliferation in digital intervention tools for autism, many studies lack comparison with standard intervention tools, and are not evaluated with objective and standardized measures. In this article, we present research on the potential of mixed reality (MR) experiences using full-body interaction to foster social initiation behaviors in children with autism while playing with a child without autism, in a face-to-face colocated configuration. The primary goal was to test whether practicing socialization in a virtual environment catered toward individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) could be a way to reduce anxiety while simultaneously forming collaborative behavioral patterns. Building on the results of a preliminary study, this second phase compares our system with a typical LEGO social intervention strategy using construction tools and toys as an aid to the psychologist, therapist, or caregiver. Results are based on four data sources : (a) video coding of the externally observed behaviors during the video-recorded play sessions, (b) log files of our system showing the events triggered and the real-time decisions taken, (c) physiologic data (heart rate variability and electrodermal activity) gathered through child-appropriate wearable, (d) and a standardized anxiety questionnaire. The results obtained show that the MR setting generated as many social initiations as the control condition, and no significant difference existed in the reported anxiety levels of the children after playing in the two conditions.

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3. Miller IT, Wiederhold BK, Miller CS, Wiederhold MD. Virtual Reality Air Travel Training with Children on the Autism Spectrum : A Preliminary Report. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 10-5.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized by deficits in social communication and interaction, alongside repetitive, restrictive behaviors or interests (RRBIs). Previous research supports the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) to train a variety of specific skills (i.e., riding a bus or crossing the street) as well as more complex social skills, such as emotion recognition and functional communication. The present reports the implementation of a VR-based air travel functional communication activity in five children diagnosed with ASD. Using an iPhone X and Google Cardboard device, researchers delivered the VR intervention once per week for 3 weeks to each participant. During these interventions, researchers measured activity completion ability on a 4-point scale. At week 4, all children participated in a real-world air travel rehearsal at the San Diego International Airport. Parents were asked to rate their child’s air travel abilities before week 1 and after week 4. All children improved their air travel skills from pre- to postintervention, reflected in both the researchers’ and parents’ observations. All children navigated the real-world airport under their own power. This preliminary report suggests the efficacy of VR to teach basic air travel skills to young children diagnosed with autism. Clinician observations regarding attention to the VR and strategies for helping participants accept the intervention technique are discussed. Future iterations of this program will require larger sample sizes and more robust clinical measurements-such as communication samples and physiological monitoring.

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4. Antao J, Abreu LC, Barbosa RTA, Crocetta TB, Guarnieri R, Massetti T, Antunes TPC, Tonks J, Monteiro CBM. Use of Augmented Reality with a Motion-Controlled Game Utilizing Alphabet Letters and Numbers to Improve Performance and Reaction Time Skills for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 16-22.

Augmented reality (AR) uses the real-world setting but enables a person to interact with virtual objects. In this study, we aimed to explore the use of alphabet letter and number in an AR task and its influence in reaction time in a population with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared with the performance of typical developing (TD) controls. We evaluated reaction time before and after AR tasks that consisted of identifying correct numbers and alphabet letters in 48 people with ASD and 48 with TD controls. Results indicate that total points for TD group were higher (M = 86.4 and M = 79.0) when compared with the ASD group (M = 54.5 and M = 51.5) for alphabet letters and numbers, respectively. Moreover, in analysis of reaction time results, only the ASD group showed an improvement in performance after the practice of an AR task. The control group was faster before (M = 553.7) and after (M = 560.5) when compared with the ASD group (M = 2616.0 and M = 2374.6, respectively). Despite the need for further studies, our results support that there is potential for clinical use of an AR task-based intervention for people with ASD.

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5. Newbutt N, Bradley R, Conley I. Using Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays in Schools with Autistic Children : Views, Experiences, and Future Directions. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 23-33.

This article seeks to place children on the autism spectrum at the center of a study examining the potential of virtual reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) used in classrooms. In doing so, we provide data that address 3 important and often overlooked research questions in the field of autism and technology, working in school-based settings with 31 autistic children from 6 to 16 years of age. First, what type of VR HMD device (and experiences therein) are preferred by children on the autism spectrum using HMDs (given possible sensory concerns). Second, how do children on the autism spectrum report the physical experience, enjoyment, and potential of VR HMDs in their classrooms ? Finally, we were interested in exploring what children on the autism spectrum would like to use VR in schools for ? Through a mixed methods approach, we found that costly and technologically advanced HMDs were preferred (namely : HTC Vive). In addition, HMDs were reported as being enjoyable, physically and visually comfortable, easy to use, and exciting, and children wanted to use them again. They identified several potential usages for HMDs, including relaxing/feeling calm, being able to explore somewhere virtually before visiting in the real world, and to develop learning opportunities in school. We discuss these findings in the context of VR in classrooms, in addition to considering limitations and implication of our findings.

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6. Kuper GE, Ksobiech K, Wickert J, Leighton F, Frederick E. An Exploratory Analysis of Increasing Self-Efficacy of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Through the Use of Multimedia Training Stimuli. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 34-40.

While some evidence-based vocational studies exist for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), most focus on social interaction. This mixed methods exploratory study investigated a multimedia approach to training ASD adults as a strategy for increasing self-efficacy and producing positive training outcomes during the anticipatory socialization and encounter phases of organizational assimilation. Ten ASD adults, seven men and three women, 19 to 42 years of age, participated in the study, which utilized video and virtual reality to instruct participants on how to wire an electrical socket. Significant increases in the participant’s self-efficacy were found using a modified version of the New General Self-Efficacy (NGSE) scale. In addition, a thematic analysis of post-training comments showed that participants, overall, were engaged and had fun during the training. These findings suggest that a multimedia approach may be an effective strategy for achieving positive outcomes by increasing self-efficacy and engagement when training newly hired employees diagnosed with ASD to perform vocational tasks.

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7. Sarge MA, Kim H-S, Velez JA. An Auti-Sim Intervention : The Role of Perspective Taking in Combating Public Stigma with Virtual Simulations. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 41-51.

Public stigma associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly stems from judgments surrounding sensory overload symptoms. As individuals try and make sense of observed disordered behaviors of those with ASD, they are quick to develop dispositional attributions instead of acknowledging situational instigators. Interventions aimed at educating the lay public that disordered actions are a result of a biological causes have been successful in lessening perceptions of responsibility, yet foster an out-group perspective allowing prejudice attitudes and discriminatory behaviors to persist. The present study examines the short-term effectiveness of engagement with a virtual simulation, Auti-Sim, to combat stigma by giving lay people a first-person experience of sensory overload. To assess Auti-Sim, a between-subject, in-laboratory experimental design was employed. A total of 123 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions (virtual simulation engagement, observation of simulation engagement, or reading text vignettes). Participants completed a brief pretest questionnaire, encountered the intervention, and then completed a post-test questionnaire. Engagement with the virtual simulation resulted in heightened perspective taking, which subsequently increased emotional concern, helping intentions, and willingness to volunteer compared with the observation only or text vignette intervention. Positive attitudes toward those with ASD did not differ across interventions. Fostering a different understanding of disordered action through a virtual simulation has the potential to elicit perspective taking and subsequent empathetic outcomes. Perspective taking seems to encourage perceptions of in-group belonging rather than out-group categorization and thus might be a desired outcome for stigma-reducing efforts.

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8. Miller IT, Wiederhold BK, Miller CS, Wiederhold MD. Assessment and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders with Virtual Reality : A Comprehensive Research Chart. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. 2020 ; 23(1) : 60-5.

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