Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - 7-1 - March 2020

samedi 22 février 2020

1. Glod M, Riby DM, Rodgers J. Sensory Processing in Williams Syndrome : a Narrative Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):32-45.

To date, little is known about sensory processing in Williams syndrome (WS) and the similarities of the sensory profile in individuals with WS compared to people with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The current review aims to consolidate available evidence on sensory processing in WS. Eighteen primary studies investigating sensory processing in individuals with WS were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases. Fourteen studies investigated hyperacusis (sound sensitivity) in WS and four papers examined broader sensory processing characteristics. A high prevalence of both hyperacusis and sensory processing difficulties were reported. These were associated with younger age, more behavioural problems and a greater severity of other clinical symptoms and were discriminant between other developmental disorders and typically developing samples.

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2. Kent C, Cordier R, Joosten A, Wilkes-Gillan S, Bundy A, Speyer R. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Interventions to Improve Play Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):91-118.

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty with play, and a number of different interventions have been developed and evaluated to address this deficit. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials identified 19 studies reporting on play-based interventions for children with ASD aged 2–12 years. The components of each study, including elements of the interventions and methodological quality, were examined. A meta-analysis was completed for 11 studies, and a small but significant treatment effect was identified (Hedges’ g = 0.439). The current review supports future development of interventions with a focus on the child with ASD across social environments. Outcome measures and comprehensive reporting of intervention components are important considerations in future intervention development and testing. Significance for clinicians and future research is discussed. PROSPERO registration number : RD42015026263.

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3. Ona HN, Larsen K, Nordheim LV, Brurberg KG. Effects of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) : a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):78-90.

Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is suggested to be an effective treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

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4. Perrykkad K, Hohwy J. Modelling Me, Modelling You : the Autistic Self. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):1-31.

The stereotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASC or ‘autism’) focuses on the social and communicative elements of the diagnostic criteria. In this review, we step back from autism as a social and communicative disorder and focus on the autistic self. The autistic self is a key component of the condition which has nevertheless received comparatively little attention. We provide a taxonomy for experimental paradigms in the cognitive sciences that aim to address questions related to the self. We articulate reasons based on domain-general cognitive mechanisms, autobiography and historical conceptions for why the self might differ in ASC. We conclude with elucidating the implications of a predictive processing account of autism on conceptualising the autistic self and how this fits with existing literature, with a focus on context sensitivity, model complexity, learning, integration, active inference and precision. This opens up large scope for future research on unique differences in the autistic self, which could be extended as a framework for understanding the condition as a whole in a new and unified way.

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5. Sonido MT, Hwang YI, Trollor JN, Arnold SRC. The Mental Well-Being of Informal Carers of Adults on the Autism Spectrum : a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):63-77.

Carers of autistic adults may experience increased day-to-day stress relating to their caring role. This review aims to (1) summarise the current literature on factors that affect mental well-being in carers of autistic adults and (2) map these results to an existing conceptual model of carer psychological well-being for individuals with developmental disabilities. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Some factors, such as adaptive skills and the quality of the caring relationship, were consistently associated with carer mental well-being. Conflicting or weak associations were found with several factors, including carer age and formal services received. These findings may be mapped to the King et al. (Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24(1), 41–53, 1999) model, and adaptations to this model are discussed.

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6. Valenti M, Pino MC, Mazza M, Panzarino G, Di Paolantonio C, Verrotti A. Abnormal Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Corpus Callosum in Autism Spectrum Disorders : a Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2020 (2020/03/01) ;7(1):46-62.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by difficulties with social communication, interaction, and repetitive and stereotypical patterns of behaviour. Recent studies suggest that abnormalities in the corpus callosum (CC) can produce autistic symptoms, so this cerebral structure is a target for autism research. It is the largest area of white matter fibre that connects the cerebral hemispheres and has been considered an index of interhemispheric connectivity. The poor connectivity that is a characteristic of autism could be due to CC abnormalities. In this review, we describe empirical studies that have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the role of the CC in functional and structural brain connectivity in individuals with ASD. Establishing the anatomical correlates of abnormal connectivity in ASD is a major objective of structural and functional connectivity studies. Reduced CC volume is one of the most consistent findings in studies of autistic brains. Structural connectivity studies have shown that the CC is generally altered in ASD. In addition, functional connectivity studies show atypical activity in individuals with ASD during social cognition tasks, working memory tasks, and tests of executive function. Research on functional and structural connectivity has contributed to understanding the role of the CC in the clinical symptoms and social and cognitive deficits associated with ASD.

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