Pubmed du 22/02/20

samedi 22 février 2020

1. Canu D, Van der Paelt S, Canal-Bedia R, Posada M, Vanvuchelen M, Roeyers H. Early non-social behavioural indicators of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD : a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2020 (Feb 22)

We aimed at identifying early non-social behavioural indicators that predict later ASD. Likewise, we were interested in the moment in which non-social signs discriminate between children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a later diagnosis of ASD, and children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a typical developmental outcome. In addition, we intended to explore the developmental evolution of children’s symptomatology over time. A systematic literature search was conducted for longitudinal studies on early non-social behavioural indicators among siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD. The following databases were searched : PUBMED, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE. The study identification process was conducted by two reviewers independently. Compared to siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD with a typical developmental outcome, siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD with later ASD show impairments in attention disengagement, in gross and fine motor development and characteristic restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours, starting at 12 months of age. Moreover, early attention disengagement exerts a predictive role towards a later ASD diagnosis, given that from 12 months siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD who will receive an independent ASD diagnosis towards 24-36 months present marked difficulties in disengaging in comparison with siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD that will not satisfy the criteria for an ASD diagnosis. The findings call for a more comprehensive vision on early indicators of ASD. Further research is needed to extend results to other behavioural domains.

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2. Moessnang C, Baumeister S, Tillmann J, Goyard D, Charman T, Ambrosino S, Baron-Cohen S, Beckmann C, Bolte S, Bours C, Crawley D, Dell’Acqua F, Durston S, Ecker C, Frouin V, Hayward H, Holt R, Johnson M, Jones E, Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Mason L, Oldenhinkel M, Persico A, Caceres ASJ, Spooren W, Loth E, Murphy DGM, Buitelaar JK, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Tost H, Meyer-Lindenberg A. Social brain activation during mentalizing in a large autism cohort : the Longitudinal European Autism Project. Mol Autism ;2020 (Feb 22) ;11(1):17.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with key deficits in social functioning. It is widely assumed that the biological underpinnings of social impairment are neurofunctional alterations in the "social brain," a neural circuitry involved in inferring the mental state of a social partner. However, previous evidence comes from small-scale studies and findings have been mixed. We therefore carried out the to-date largest study on neural correlates of mentalizing in ASD. METHODS : As part of the Longitudinal European Autism Project, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging at six European sites in a large, well-powered, and deeply phenotyped sample of individuals with ASD (N = 205) and typically developing (TD) individuals (N = 189) aged 6 to 30 years. We presented an animated shapes task to assess and comprehensively characterize social brain activation during mentalizing. We tested for effects of age, diagnosis, and their association with symptom measures, including a continuous measure of autistic traits. RESULTS : We observed robust effects of task. Within the ASD sample, autistic traits were moderately associated with functional activation in one of the key regions of the social brain, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. However, there were no significant effects of diagnosis on task performance and no effects of age and diagnosis on social brain responses. Besides a lack of mean group differences, our data provide no evidence for meaningful differences in the distribution of brain response measures. Extensive control analyses suggest that the lack of case-control differences was not due to a variety of potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS : Contrary to prior reports, this large-scale study does not support the assumption that altered social brain activation during mentalizing forms a common neural marker of ASD, at least with the paradigm we employed. Yet, autistic individuals show socio-behavioral deficits. Our work therefore highlights the need to interrogate social brain function with other brain measures, such as connectivity and network-based approaches, using other paradigms, or applying complementary analysis approaches to assess individual differences in this heterogeneous condition.

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