Pubmed du 24/02/20

lundi 24 février 2020

1. Canu D, Van der Paelt S, Canal-Bedia R, Posada M, Vanvuchelen M, Roeyers H. Early non-social behavioural indicators of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD : a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2020 (Feb 22)

We aimed at identifying early non-social behavioural indicators that predict later ASD. Likewise, we were interested in the moment in which non-social signs discriminate between children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a later diagnosis of ASD, and children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a typical developmental outcome. In addition, we intended to explore the developmental evolution of children’s symptomatology over time. A systematic literature search was conducted for longitudinal studies on early non-social behavioural indicators among siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD. The following databases were searched : PUBMED, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE. The study identification process was conducted by two reviewers independently. Compared to siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD with a typical developmental outcome, siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD with later ASD show impairments in attention disengagement, in gross and fine motor development and characteristic restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours, starting at 12 months of age. Moreover, early attention disengagement exerts a predictive role towards a later ASD diagnosis, given that from 12 months siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD who will receive an independent ASD diagnosis towards 24-36 months present marked difficulties in disengaging in comparison with siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD that will not satisfy the criteria for an ASD diagnosis. The findings call for a more comprehensive vision on early indicators of ASD. Further research is needed to extend results to other behavioural domains.

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2. Geng L, Hamel F, Lewis D. Results of a Consumer Survey on the Effectiveness of a Nutritional Blend Reported on Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms, Apraxia, and Other Conditions Involving Motor and Speech Delays. Altern Ther Health Med ;2020 (Feb 21)

Background : The causes and cures for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), apraxia, and other conditions involving motor and speech delays remain speculative. To offset symptoms, many individuals will try integrative approaches, including making dietary changes and adding vitamins, minerals, and fish oil supplements. Primary Study Objective : The purpose of this study was to glean opinions about the effectiveness of specific food blends and nutrients on speech and motor impairments within a sample population of adults and children (N = 77) who self-report having communication delays and/or motor dysfunction symptoms, and who are among a population currently taking IQed (N = 632) nutritional composition. Methods/Design : A 28-point survey instrument was designed across key areas relating to symptoms of speech and motor abilities. Additional subquestions were included for descriptive summary and description statistical interpretation of the data. The Web-based survey was conducted on a sample population of adults and children (N = 77) who self-reported having communication delays and motor function symptoms, and who are among a population currently taking IQed (N = 632) nutritional composition, a whole food complete vitamin and meal replacement product. Setting : The survey was conducted via the Internet using SurveyMonkey (San Mateo, CA, USA). Participants : Consumers (or their caregiver) completed an online survey and answered questions about nutritional supplementation use and their opinion about product effectiveness on symptoms. A total of 88 individuals responded to the survey and 11 were excluded for incompletion of the survey. Included participants comprise 55 males and 22 females (N = 77) with a median age of 10.5 y and an age range from 2 to 70 y. Participants’ geographic location represent as 85.7% from the United States and 9 other countries (14.3%). Primary Outcome Measures : Effectiveness was measured based on participant ratings using a numeric rating scale to report on changes in symptoms for a defined period of use of the supplement. Results : Ninety-two percent of the survey respondents reported positive behavioral or physical changes when IQed formula was added to the diet, with most (64%) reporting positive changes within the first 2 wk. Difficulty with speech and communication was the highest reported area of difficulty for this population, afflicting 83.8% of respondents. After supplementation, expressive speech improved for 85.7% of the participants with the increased vocalizations (sounds, words) factor showing the highest observed improvement (88.1%) among all speech/communication factors combined. In all other categories, more than 67% of the survey takers reported improvements in all factors : speech (77.6%), oral motor skills (63.2%), receptive ability (69.6%), focus (65.1%), motor planning (77.6%), mood (62.3%), social skills (59.3%), and physical/behavioral health (47.3%), with any adverse effects reported in less than 1%. Conclusion : Consumers reported improvements in symptoms by use of a blended vitamin and mineral product (IQed Smart Nutrition composition). The implication for this study is to further research on alternative modalities of treatments for ASD and ASD-type conditions using natural food products, vitamin and mineral supplements, and Ayurvedic and botanical ingredients.

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3. Moessnang C, Baumeister S, Tillmann J, Goyard D, Charman T, Ambrosino S, Baron-Cohen S, Beckmann C, Bolte S, Bours C, Crawley D, Dell’Acqua F, Durston S, Ecker C, Frouin V, Hayward H, Holt R, Johnson M, Jones E, Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Mason L, Oldenhinkel M, Persico A, Caceres ASJ, Spooren W, Loth E, Murphy DGM, Buitelaar JK, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Tost H, Meyer-Lindenberg A. Social brain activation during mentalizing in a large autism cohort : the Longitudinal European Autism Project. Mol Autism ;2020 (Feb 22) ;11(1):17.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with key deficits in social functioning. It is widely assumed that the biological underpinnings of social impairment are neurofunctional alterations in the "social brain," a neural circuitry involved in inferring the mental state of a social partner. However, previous evidence comes from small-scale studies and findings have been mixed. We therefore carried out the to-date largest study on neural correlates of mentalizing in ASD. METHODS : As part of the Longitudinal European Autism Project, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging at six European sites in a large, well-powered, and deeply phenotyped sample of individuals with ASD (N = 205) and typically developing (TD) individuals (N = 189) aged 6 to 30 years. We presented an animated shapes task to assess and comprehensively characterize social brain activation during mentalizing. We tested for effects of age, diagnosis, and their association with symptom measures, including a continuous measure of autistic traits. RESULTS : We observed robust effects of task. Within the ASD sample, autistic traits were moderately associated with functional activation in one of the key regions of the social brain, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. However, there were no significant effects of diagnosis on task performance and no effects of age and diagnosis on social brain responses. Besides a lack of mean group differences, our data provide no evidence for meaningful differences in the distribution of brain response measures. Extensive control analyses suggest that the lack of case-control differences was not due to a variety of potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS : Contrary to prior reports, this large-scale study does not support the assumption that altered social brain activation during mentalizing forms a common neural marker of ASD, at least with the paradigm we employed. Yet, autistic individuals show socio-behavioral deficits. Our work therefore highlights the need to interrogate social brain function with other brain measures, such as connectivity and network-based approaches, using other paradigms, or applying complementary analysis approaches to assess individual differences in this heterogeneous condition.

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4. Mori T, Ito H, Harada M, Hisaoka S, Matsumoto Y, Goji A, Toda Y, Mori K, Kagami S. Multi-delay arterial spin labeling brain magnetic resonance imaging study for pediatric autism. Brain Dev ;2020 (Feb 19)

INTRODUCTION : Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) without radiation exposure. This study aimed to evaluate rCBF in individuals with autism and their age-matched controls, globally and regionally. METHODS : We performed ASL MRI (3T, pulsed-continuous ASL, 3 delayed ASL imaging sequences) for 33 patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (average age : 7.3years, range : 2-14years). Nineteen children (average age : 8.6years, range : 3-15years) without ASD and intellectual delay were included as controls. Patients with morphological abnormalities detected on MRI were excluded. Objective analysis was performed with automatic region of interest analysis of the ASL results. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the rCBF results between the groups. RESULTS : Compared to the controls, patients with ASD showed a statistically significant decrease in rCBF, respectively, in the insula [left, rCBF 51.8+/-9.5mL/100g/min (mean+/-SD) versus 59.9+/-9.8, p=0.0017 ; right, 51.2+/-10.1 versus 57.8+/-8.8, p=0.0354], superior parietal lobule (left, 44.6+/-8.4 versus 52.0+/-7.8, p=0.003), superior temporal gyrus (left, 50.0+/-8.6 versus 56.9+/-8.6, p=0.007 ; right, 49.5+/-8.4 versus 56.4+/-7.7, p=0.0058), and inferior frontal gyrus (left, 53.0+/-9.8 versus 59.3+/-9.9, p=0.0279), which are associated with the mirror neuron system. CONCLUSIONS : We concluded that patients with ASD showed a statistically significant decline in CBF in regions associated with the mirror neuron system. The advantages of ASL MRI include low invasiveness (no radiation exposure) and short imaging time (approximately 5min). Studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish the diagnostic value of ASL MRI for ASD.

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