Pubmed du 04/03/20

mercredi 4 mars 2020

1. Aloisio D, Huron RF. Autism as Representative of Disability. Pediatr Clin North Am ;2020 (Apr) ;67(2):341-355.

Pediatricians care for many children with autism spectrum disorder who demonstrate a wide range of abilities and needs. This population is vulnerable because of lags in diagnosis, difficulty accessing services, overlooked medical conditions, behavioral difficulties during medical visits, parental stress, bullying, comorbid mental health issues, and variable transitional care moving from adolescence to young adulthood. Comprehensive care includes earlier recognition of symptoms with timely referral to early intervention services. It includes primary pediatricians partnering with the family, developmental pediatricians, and other specialists to reduce the vulnerabilities by medical advocacy, family education, and appropriate behavior intervention to improve functioning.

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2. Banks WA. A Spectrum of Topics for 2019 : Advances in Neuroinflammation, Oxidative Stress, Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular Disease, Autism, Exosomes, and Central Nervous System Diseases. Curr Pharm Des ;2020 ;26(1):1-5.

Advances in various fields were discussed in the reviews and original research articles published in 2019 in Current Pharmaceutical Design. Here, I review some of the major highlights for selected areas. A better understanding of disease mechanisms was a prominent recurrent theme and new therapeutic targets based on those mechanisms are highlighted here. Inflammation and oxidative stress are major features of many diseases, therefore, interventions to address these processes are reviewed. Although repurposing of old drugs occurred in several fields, drug targeting and drug delivery, especially of nanoparticles, also continues to be a major area of interest.

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3. Cassidy SA, Bradley L, Cogger-Ward H, Shaw R, Bowen E, Glod M, Baron-Cohen S, Rodgers J. Measurement Properties of the Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised in Autistic Adults. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 3)

We explored the appropriateness and measurement properties of a suicidality assessment tool (SBQ-R) developed for the general population, in autistic adults-a high risk group for suicide. 188 autistic adults and 183 general population adults completed the tool online, and a sub-sample (n = 15) were interviewed while completing the tool. Multi-group factorial invariance analysis of the online survey data found evidence for metric invariance of the SBQ-R, particularly for items three and four. Cognitive interviews revealed that autistic adults did not interpret these items as intended by the tool designers. Results suggest autistic adults interpret key questions regarding suicide risk differently to the general population. Future research must adapt tools to better capture suicidality in autistic adults.

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4. Chen Q, Deister CA, Gao X, Guo B, Lynn-Jones T, Chen N, Wells MF, Liu R, Goard MJ, Dimidschstein J, Feng S, Shi Y, Liao W, Lu Z, Fishell G, Moore CI, Feng G. Dysfunction of cortical GABAergic neurons leads to sensory hyper-reactivity in a Shank3 mouse model of ASD. Nat Neurosci ;2020 (Mar 2)

Hyper-reactivity to sensory input is a common and debilitating symptom in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the neural basis underlying sensory abnormality is not completely understood. Here we examined the neural representations of sensory perception in the neocortex of a Shank3B(-/-) mouse model of ASD. Male and female Shank3B(-/-) mice were more sensitive to relatively weak tactile stimulation in a vibrissa motion detection task. In vivo population calcium imaging in vibrissa primary somatosensory cortex (vS1) revealed increased spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing in pyramidal neurons but reduced activity in interneurons. Preferential deletion of Shank3 in vS1 inhibitory interneurons led to pyramidal neuron hyperactivity and increased stimulus sensitivity in the vibrissa motion detection task. These findings provide evidence that cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction plays a key role in sensory hyper-reactivity in a Shank3 mouse model of ASD and identify a potential cellular target for exploring therapeutic interventions.

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5. Cohen IL, Tsiouris JA. Triggers of Aggressive Behaviors in Intellectually Disabled Adults and Their Association with Autism, Medical Conditions, Psychiatric Disorders, Age and Sex : A Large-Scale Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 3)

Aggressive behaviors in those with intellectual disability (ID) and autism (ASD) have been linked to a variety of factors including ID level, age, sex, psychiatric disorders, and medical conditions but these factors have not been studied, in large samples, in terms of how they affect the stimuli that trigger aggression. In this survey of 2243 adults, four triggers of aggression associated with frustration, discomfort, change in the physical/social environment, and defensive reactions were analyzed for their relation to ID level, ASD, age, sex, number of psychiatric diagnoses, sleeping problems, seizures, visual impairment, ear infections and gastrointestinal problems. All four triggers were associated with increasing number of psychiatric disorders, with frustration, discomfort, and change intolerance commonly linked to sleeping problems and ASD. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

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6. Dai YG, Porto KS, Skapek M, Barton ML, Dumont-Mathieu T, Fein DA, Robins DL. Comparison of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) Positive Predictive Value by Race. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 3)

The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) is the most widely used screener for ASD. Despite the comparable rate of ASD in Black and White children, the M-CHAT-R/F was validated on a primarily White, Non-Hispanic sample. Few studies have assessed whether the screener performs adequately with racial minorities. This study compared the M-CHAT-R/F Positive Predictive Value (PPV), for ASD, and for any developmental condition, in Black and White children. We also examined M-CHAT-R/F item-level PPV by race. The PPVs for ASD and other developmental disorders were similar in both racial groups for total score and individual items. Therefore, our findings support the use of the M-CHAT-R/F with Black and White children.

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7. Greenlee JL, Winter MA, Marcovici IA. Brief Report : Gender Differences in Experiences of Peer Victimization Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 2)

Peer victimization (PV) is a common problem for many adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can negatively impact the mental health and well-being of these youth. Results of the current study of 105 adolescents with ASD (n = 50 girls, 55 boys) indicated that girls and boys experience similar types of PV at similar frequencies. However, relational victimization accounted for a significant portion of variance in anxiety symptoms, above and beyond social communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors, in girls but not in boys. Findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that the impact of PV on mental health symptoms may be different for girls and boys with ASD, highlighting the need for more research focused on understanding potentially unique social processes for adolescent girls with ASD.

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8. Henry AR, Solari EJ. Targeting Oral Language and Listening Comprehension Development for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A School-Based Pilot Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 2)

This study investigates the effects of an integrated oral language and listening comprehension intervention for early elementary students with ASD. Students (n = 43) were randomly assigned to intervention or control comparison conditions, with intervention students receiving instruction in small groups of 3 or 4. Groups were led by special education classroom teachers 4 days per week across 20 weeks in the school year. Significant group differences were detected on measures of expressive vocabulary, narrative ability, and listening comprehension. This study provides preliminary evidence of the intervention’s feasibility and effectiveness for intervening in language and early reading skills for students with ASD.

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9. Hoyle JN, Laditka JN, Laditka SB. Severe developmental disability and the transition to adulthood. Disabil Health J ;2020 (Feb 19):100912.

BACKGROUND : Developmental disabilities are serious and long-lasting. There are few studies of developmental disability in the transition to adulthood, when the programs that provided support in childhood may no longer be available. OBJECTIVE : We studied associations of long-lasting developmental disabilities with health, behaviors, and well-being in adulthood. METHODS : We used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-2017), its Child Development Supplement (CDS, 1997, 2002, 2007), and its Transition into Adulthood Supplement (TAS, every-other year, 2005-2017) (n = 2702) following a national sample from childhood through age 28, defining serious developmental disabilities using diagnoses and reports from parents, teachers, schools, children, and young adults. We tested differences in proportions using Chi-square tests, estimated differences in least squares means, and used logistic regression to compare results for those with and without developmental disabilities. We adjusted results for age, sex, race, immigrant status, family income, region, metropolitan statistical area, educational attainment, and employment status, accounting for sampling weights and survey design. RESULTS : At ages 18-21, 8.2% had serious developmental disability (95% confidence interval, CI 6.6-9.8). They were more likely to report : no high school graduation (19.3% vs. 4.3%), being assaulted physically (32.1% vs. 20.4%) or sexually (14.4% vs. 6.6%), serious criminal arrests (25.7% vs. 13.2%), smoking (30.8% vs. 12.8%), sedentariness (5.8% vs. 1.1%), obesity (39.2% vs. 23.4%), diabetes (9.1% vs. 2.1%), and work disability (18.7% vs. 4.3%) (all p < 0.01) compared to peers without developmental disability. CONCLUSIONS : Results indicate opportunities to promote education, self-direction, safety, and well-being for people transitioning to adulthood with serious developmental disabilities.

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10. Jao Keehn RJ, Pueschel EB, Gao Y, Jahedi A, Alemu K, Carper R, Fishman I, Muller RA. Underconnectivity Between Visual and Salience Networks and Links With Sensory Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2020 (Feb 29)

OBJECTIVE : The anterior insular cortex (AI), which is a part of the "salience network," is critically involved during visual awareness, multisensory perception, and social and emotional processing, among other functions. In children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), evidence has suggested aberrant functional connectivity (fc) of AI compared to typically developing (TD) peers. While recent studies have primarily focused on the functional connections between salience and social networks, much less is known about connectivity between AI and primary sensory regions, including visual areas, and how these patterns may be linked to autism symptomatology. METHOD : The current investigation implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine resting state fc patterns of salience and visual networks in children and adolescents with ASDs compared to TD controls, and to relate them to behavioral measures RESULTS : Functional underconnectivity was found in the ASD group between left AI and bilateral visual cortices. Moreover, in an ASD subgroup with more atypical visual sensory profiles, functional connectivity was positively correlated with abnormal social motivational responsivity. CONCLUSION : Findings of reduced fc between salience and visual networks in ASDs potentially suggest deficient selection of salient information. Moreover, in children with ASDs who show strongly atypical visual sensory profiles, connectivity at seemingly more neurotypical levels may be paradoxically associated with greater impairment of social motivation.

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11. Lee GT, Qu K, Hu X, Jin N, Huang J. Arranging play activities with missing items to increase object-substitution symbolic play in children with autism spectrum disorder. Disabil Rehabil ;2020 (Mar 3):1-13.

Purpose : Many children with autism spectrum disorder do not have symbolic play skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training procedure on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of object-substitution symbolic play in children with autism spectrum disorder.Methods : A single-case experimental design (multiple-probe across four behaviors) was used. One girl (5 years) and two boys (4-5 years) participated in this study. The training procedure involved withdrawing necessary items in play activities, supplying multiple substitutes, and providing hierarchical assistive prompts. Each child’s symbolic play responses across baseline, intervention, and follow-up conditions were recorded and graphed. Data analysis involved visual inspection of graphs.Results : The results indicated that the procedure effectively increased and maintained object-substitution symbolic play. Generalization to untaught play activities occurred in all children, and symbolic play increased in the free play setting for one child.Conclusions : Arranging play activities with missing items increased opportunities for children to engage in symbolic play. The training procedure can be used in clinical and educational settings as an initial step to establish and improve complex play behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder who lack such skills.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONMany children with autism spectrum disorder have inappropriate play behaviors and do not demonstrate symbolic play.Arranging play activities with missing items and systematic assistive prompts effectively increased object-substitution symbolic play.Generalization of symbolic play to untrained play activities occurred after the intervention.

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12. Liu Y, Xu L, Li J, Yu J, Yu X. Attentional Connectivity-based Prediction of Autism Using Heterogeneous rs-fMRI Data from CC200 Atlas. Exp Neurobiol ;2020 (Feb 29) ;29(1):27-37.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental syndrome characterized by obvious drawbacks in sociality and communication. It has crucial significance to exactly discern the individuals with ASD and typical controls (TC). Previous imaging studies on ASD/TC identification have made remarkable progress in the exploration of objective as well as crucial biomarkers associated with ASD. However, glaring deficiency is manifested by the investigation on solely homogeneous and small datasets. Thus, we attempted to unveil some replicable and robust neural patterns of autism using a heterogeneous multi-site brain imaging dataset from ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange). Experiments were carried out with an attention mechanism based on Extra-Trees algorithm, taking the study object of brain connectivity measured with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of CC200 atlas. With cross-validation strategy, our proposed method resulted in a mean classification accuracy of 72.2% (sensitivity=68.6%, specificity=75.4%). It raised the precision of ASD prediction by about 2% and specificity by 3.2% in comparison with the most competitive reported effort. Connectivity analysis on the optimal model highlighted informative regions strongly involved in the social cognition as well as interaction, and manifested lower correlation between the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN) in autistic individuals than controls. This observation is concordant with previous studies, which enables our proposed method to effectively identify the individuals with risk of ASD.

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13. Lu MH, Pang FF, Luo J. Chinese Validation of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS) : Attitudes toward Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 2)

The literature on tools of attitudes towards ASD was limited. This study is the first to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the multidimensional attitudes scale toward persons with disabilities (MAS) in a sample of Chinese college students (N = 1002, 32.10% males). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the G-MAS-R model’s 4-factor structure : calm, negative affect, positive cognitions and behavioral avoidance. The results suggest that the Chinese version of the MAS has satisfactory internal consistency. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the MAS scores were significantly correlated with the Social Distance Scale and Autism Stigma and Knowledge Questionnaire scores. Overall, the findings indicate that the MAS is appropriate for assessing attitudes toward people with ASD in a Chinese context.

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14. May T, Brignell A, Williams K. Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence in Children Aged 12-13 Years From the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Autism Res ;2020 (Mar 2)

This study aimed to provide an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence update from parent and teacher report using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The LSAC is a prospective cohort study of Australian children representative of the population with two cohorts : Kinder (birth year 1999/2000) and Birth cohort (birth year 2003/2004). Children in the Birth and Kinder cohort with parent- and teacher-reported ASD prevalence were compared to children without ASD. There were N = 3,381 (66%) responding in the Birth cohort at age 12 and N = 3,089 (62%) for the Kinder cohort at age 16. Quality of life was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and emotional/behavior problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Parent-reported ASD prevalence increased to 4.36% [95% CI 3.56-5.19] at age 12-13 years in the Birth cohort and 2.60% [95% CI 2.07-3.31] in the Kinder cohort. Kinder cohort ASD children had more parent- and teacher-reported social problems, and lower parent-reported social and psychosocial quality of life. As expected, parent-reported ASD prevalence continued to rise. The higher prevalence in the Birth cohort may relate to milder cases of ASD being diagnosed. LAY SUMMARY : Parent-reported ASD prevalence in 2016 in 12-year-old children from the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was 4.4%, and higher than the 2.6% in the earlier born Kinder cohort. The Birth cohort had a milder presentation with fewer social, emotional, and behavioral problems than the Kinder cohort. Milder cases of ASD are being diagnosed in Australia resulting in one of the highest reported prevalence rates in the world. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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15. Mazahery H, Conlon CA, Beck KL, Mugridge O, Kruger MC, Stonehouse W, Camargo CA, Jr., Meyer BJ, Tsang B, von Hurst PR. Inflammation (IL-1beta) Modifies the Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Exploratory Pilot Study(double dagger). Nutrients ;2020 (Feb 28) ;12(3)

BACKGROUND : The role of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) in improving core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children has been investigated by a few randomised controlled trials and the results are mixed and inconclusive. The response to treatment with these nutrients is heterogenous and may be influenced by inflammatory state. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of these nutrients on core symptoms of ASD. Methods : Seventy-three New Zealand children with ASD (2.5-8.0 years) completed a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D (VID, 2000 IU/day), omega-3 LCPUFA ; (OM, 722 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid), or both (VIDOM). Non-fasting baseline plasma interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was available for 67 children (VID = 15, OM = 21, VIDOM = 15, placebo = 16). Children were categorised as having undetectable/normal IL-1beta (<3.2 pg/ml, n=15) or elevated IL-1beta (>/=3.2 pg/mL, n = 52). The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) questionnaire was used to assess core symptoms of ASD (baseline, 12-month). Mixed model repeated measure analyses (including all children or only children with elevated IL-1beta) were used. RESULTS : We found evidence for an interaction between baseline IL-1beta and treatment response for SRS-total, SRS-social communicative functioning, SRS-awareness and SRS-communication (all Pinteraction < 0.10). When all children were included in the analysis, two outcome comparisons (treatments vs. placebo) showed greater improvements : VID, no effect (all P > 0.10) ; OM and VIDOM (P = 0.01) for SRS-awareness. When only children with elevated IL-1beta were included, five outcomes showed greater improvements : OM (P = 0.01) for SRS-total ; OM (P = 0.03) for SRS-social communicative functioning ; VID (P = 0.01), OM (P = 0.003) and VIDOM (P = 0.01) for SRS-awareness. CONCLUSION : Inflammatory state may have modulated responses to vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA intervention in children with ASD, suggesting children with elevated inflammation may benefit more from daily vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

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16. Munnich A. Unraveling the etiological complexity of autism spectrum disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol ;2020 (Apr) ;62(4):404.

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17. Oliphant RYK, Smith EM, Grahame V. What is the Prevalence of Self-harming and Suicidal Behaviour in Under 18s with ASD, With or Without an Intellectual Disability ?. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 3)

A systematic literature review was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence of self-harm and suicidal behaviour in children and young people under 18 years old with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with or without an intellectual disability. There was variation in the reported prevalence rates but results suggested that rates of both self-harm and suicidal behaviour may be elevated in ASD compared to the general population. This is in keeping with literature relating to autistic adults but in contrast to conclusions of a previous systematic review. This review highlights the need for further research to explore the experience of self-harm and suicidal behaviour in autistic children and young people.

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18. Pelton MK, Crawford H, Robertson AE, Rodgers J, Baron-Cohen S, Cassidy S. Understanding Suicide Risk in Autistic Adults : Comparing the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in Autistic and Non-autistic Samples. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Mar 3)

This study explored whether the Interpersonal Theory of suicide informs our understanding of high rates of suicidality in autistic adults. Autistic and non-autistic adults (n = 695, mean age 41.7 years, 58% female) completed an online survey of self-reported thwarted belonging, perceived burden, autistic traits, suicidal capability, trauma, and lifetime suicidality. Autistic people reported stronger feelings of perceived burden, thwarted belonging and more lifetime trauma than non-autistic people. The hypothesised interaction between burdensomeness and thwarted belonging were observed in the non-autistic group but not in the autistic group. In both groups autistic traits influenced suicidality through burdensomeness/thwarted belonging. Promoting self-worth and social inclusion are important for suicide prevention and future research should explore how these are experienced and expressed by autistic people.

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19. Rosen CL. Supporting American Academy of Neurology’s new clinical practice guideline on evaluation and management of insomnia in children with autism. J Clin Sleep Med ;2020 (Mar 3)

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20. Samadi SA, McConkey R, Abdollahi Boghrabadi G. Parental Satisfaction with Caregiving across the Life Span to Their Children with Developmental Disabilities : A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Feb 29) ;17(5)

The increased life expectancy of adult individuals with developmental disabilities and the likelihood of parents having to continue caregiving into their old age is an emerging international issue which deserves investigation, especially concerning satisfaction with caregiving. Moreover, this needs to be assessed in different cultures in order to create a better understanding of how families are best supported in their lifelong caregiving. A sample of 408 parents was gathered in six cities across Iran with a son or daughter who had a confirmed developmental disability. Self-completed measures of satisfaction and stress were obtained along with demographic details of the child and family. Satisfaction with caring was generally positive and was similar for mothers and fathers, for older as well as for younger parents ; and between different types of developmental disabilities. However, both personal and child satisfaction decreased when parents reported increased stress and when caring for teenage and adult offspring and those with behavior problems. Parents need to receive support to sustain their motivation and satisfaction with caregiving if their quality of life and that of their children with disabilities is to be maintained and enhanced across their lifespan.

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21. Tai C, Chang CW, Yu GQ, Lopez I, Yu X, Wang X, Guo W, Mucke L. Tau Reduction Prevents Key Features of Autism in Mouse Models. Neuron ;2020 (Feb 18)

Autism is characterized by repetitive behaviors, impaired social interactions, and communication deficits. It is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, and available treatments offer little benefit. Here, we show that genetically reducing the protein tau prevents behavioral signs of autism in two mouse models simulating distinct causes of this condition. Similar to a proportion of people with autism, both models have epilepsy, abnormally enlarged brains, and overactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt (protein kinase B)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. All of these abnormalities were prevented or markedly diminished by partial or complete genetic removal of tau. We identify disinhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative PI3K regulator that tau controls, as a plausible mechanism and demonstrate that tau interacts with PTEN via tau’s proline-rich domain. Our findings suggest an enabling role of tau in the pathogenesis of autism and identify tau reduction as a potential therapeutic strategy for some of the disorders that cause this condition.

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22. Taylor E, Holt R, Tavassoli T, Ashwin C, Baron-Cohen S. Revised scored Sensory Perception Quotient reveals sensory hypersensitivity in women with autism. Mol Autism ;2020 (Mar 2) ;11(1):18.

BACKGROUND : Previous research using the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ) has reported greater sensory hypersensitivity in people with autism spectrum condition (ASC) compared to controls, consistent with other research. However, current scoring of the SPQ does not differentiate between hyper and hyposensitivity, making it uncertain whether individuals with ASC might also show differences in hyposensitivity. Furthermore, no research to date has focused on sensory differences in females, and whether differences in sensory sensitivity extend to the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The present study aimed to fill these gaps. METHODS : The present study developed and validated a Revised Scoring of the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ-RS) in order to investigate self-reported hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity in three groups of adults : a female ASC group (n = 152), mothers of children with ASC (BAP mothers group ; n = 103), and a control mothers group (n = 74). All participants completed the SPQ as a self-report measure of sensory processing and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as a measure of the degree of autism traits. RESULTS : The female ASC group reported significantly more hypersensitivity, but not more hyposensitivity, compared to the control female and BAP mothers groups. The BAP mothers group did not differ from the control mothers group in either reported hypersensitivity (p = .365) or hyposensitivity (p = .075), suggesting atypical sensory sensitivity is not a BAP trait within females. SPQ-RS hypersensitivity scores positively correlated with autistic traits in the female ASC (r = .266) and BAP mothers groups (r = .350). CONCLUSIONS : The present findings revealed greater sensory hypersensitivity, but not hyposensitivity, in females with ASC compared to BAP and control female groups, and that a greater degree of autism traits relates to higher hypersensitivity in ASC females. The results offer support for the enhanced perceptual functioning model using large samples of females, who are an understudied population, and demonstrate the validity of the SPQ-RS as a valuable new research tool for exploring self-reported hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity.

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23. Walton KM, Tiede G. Brief report : Does "healthy" family functioning look different for families who have a child with autism ?. Res Autism Spectr Disord ;2020 (Apr) ;72

Background : For families of typically developing children, extremes of family cohesion (enmeshed and disengaged) and flexibility (rigid and chaotic) are associated with negative outcomes (Olson, 2011). Some work suggests that this may not be true for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ; Altiere & von Kluge 2009). Specifically, regimented daily routines (increased rigidity) and highly involved caregivers (increased enmeshment) might theoretically be associated with positive outcomes. Objectives : This study examined whether families who have a child with ASD report different family dynamics than families with typically developing children, and if these dynamics are equally predictive of outcomes for both groups. Method : Regression-based interaction analyses using data from an online survey (n = 235) were used to examine how diagnostic group (typically-developing child or child with ASD) affected the relationships between elements of family functioning and parent outcomes of happiness, depression, and satisfaction with family life. Results : Higher parent-reported enmeshment was associated with decreased parent-reported happiness in typical families only ; these variables were unrelated in families with a child with ASD. In addition, the relationship between disengagement and parent happiness was marginally weaker in the ASD group. Other scales (rigid and chaotic) exhibited similar relationships with family outcomes across both diagnostic groups. Conclusion : In alignment with previous findings (Altiere & von Kluge 2009), elevated levels of enmeshment were not predictive of poorer outcomes in families of children with ASD. There is a need to critically consider whether behaviors traditionally thought of as "enmeshed" may represent different, more adaptive support strategies for families who have a child with ASD.

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24. Yaguchi A, Hidaka S. Unique Relationships Between Autistic Traits and Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Sensory Thresholds in Typically Developing Adults. Perception ;2020 (Mar 2):301006620907827.

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