Pubmed du 11/03/20

mercredi 11 mars 2020

1. Alayadhi LY, Qasem H, Alghamdi HAM, Elamin NE. Elevated plasma X-linked neuroligin 4 expression is associated with autism spectrum disorder. Med Princ Pract ;2020 (Mar 11)

OBJECTIVES : In this study, we aimed to measure the plasma concentration of NLGN4 in children with autism compared to matched healthy controls, and to examine a possible correlation between the plasma NLGN4 level and the degree of severity of autism, and social impairment in the autistic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS : In this study, 88 autistic patients aged 3-12 years and 33 age and sex-matched controls aged 3-9 years were recruited. Plasma NLGN4 concentration was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used to assess the cognitive dysfunction and social impairment in autistic patients. RESULTS : The NLGN4 plasma concentration was significantly higher (P=0.001) in autistic children (12 +/-5.35 ng/ml) in comparison with healthy controls (6.82 +/-5.52 ng/ml). In spite of the alteration in the level of NLGN4 among the subgroups of autistic children, no correlation between NLGN4 plasma level and cognitive problem, or social impairment was observed (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION : Increased plasma concentration of NLGN4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of autism, and it could be a valuable biomarker for autism. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted to validate this finding, and also to explore the potential links between NLGN4 and features of autism.

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2. Anninos P, Chatzimichael A, Anninou N, Kotini A, Adamopoulos A, Gemousakakis T, Tsagas N. The Effect of pT-TMS on Beta Rhythm in Children with Autism Disorder. A MEG Study. Maedica (Buchar) ;2019 (Dec) ;14(4):332-342.

We investigated the beta rhythm in 10 children with autism disorders (six boys and four girls) aged 5-12 (mean+/- SD : 8.3+/- 2.1) before and after the application of pico Tesla transcranial magnetic stimulation (pT-TMS) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The MEG was car-ried out in a magnetically shielded room with a whole-head 122-channel gradiometer. After applying pT-TMS, we observed a beta rhythm increase towards the frequency range of 18-26 Hz in seven out of 10 patients (70%). We created a score that rated the level of improvement for each patient : 1=some change ; 2=minor change ; and 3=major change. All patients had an improvement in their clinical symptoms after the application of pT-TMS. There was a correlation between the clinical score and the increase of channels in the frequency range 18-26 Hz after pT-TMS. We concluded that the application of pT-TMS affected the beta rhythm in children with autism disorder. Therefore, more studies need to be further conducted.

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3. Bhat AN. Is Motor Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Distinct From Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) ? A Report From the SPARK Study. Phys Ther ;2020 (Mar 10)

BACKGROUND : Motor impairments are pervasive in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) however, children with ASD rarely receive a dual diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Simons Foundation SPARK study engaged families affected by ASD through an online study. OBJECTIVES : The DCD parent questionnaire (DCDQ) was used to assess the prevalence of a risk for motor impairment or DCD in children with ASD between 5 and 15 years of age. DESIGN : This paper utilizes parent reports from a large database of children with ASD. METHODS : A total of 16,705 parents of children with ASD completed the DCDQ. We obtained our final SPARK dataset (n = 11,814) after filtering the invalid data, using stronger cut-offs to confirm ASD traits, and excluding children with general neuromotor impairments/intellectual delays. We compared DCDQ total and subscale scores from the SPARK dataset to published norms for each age between 5 and 15 years. RESULTS : Proportion of children with ASD at-risk for a motor impairment was very high at 86.9%. Children with ASD did not outgrow their motor impairments and continued to present with a risk for DCD even into adolescence. Yet, only 31.6% of children were receiving physical therapy services. LIMITATIONS : Our analysis of a large database of parent-reported outcomes using the DCDQ did not involve follow-up clinical assessments. CONCLUSIONS : Using a large sample of children with ASD, we show that a risk for motor impairment or DCD was present in the majority of children with ASD and persists into adolescence ; yet, only a small proportion of children with ASD were receiving physical therapy interventions. A diagnosis of ASD must trigger motor screening and evaluations and appropriate interventions by physical and occupational therapists to address the functional impairments of children with ASD while also positively impacting their social communication, cognition, and behavior. Using valid motor measures, future research must determine if motor impairment is a fundamental feature of ASD.

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4. Borch LA, Parboosingh J, Thomas MA, Veale P. Re-evaluating the first-tier status of fragile X testing in neurodevelopmental disorders. Genet Med ;2020 (Mar 10)

PURPOSE : Evaluate whether fragile X syndrome (FXS) testing should be transitioned to a second-tier test in global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder in the absence of family history and suggestive clinical features. METHODS : Determine the diagnostic yield of FXS testing performed by the Alberta Children’s Hospital (ACH) Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory between 2012 and 2017. Retrospective chart review of FXS-positive patients to determine presence or absence of suggestive clinical features and family history. RESULTS : Of the 2486 pediatric patients with neurodevelopmental disorders tested for FXS, 25 males and 5 females were positive. This corresponds to a 1.2% diagnostic yield of FXS testing at our center. Retrospective chart review of the FXS-positive cases revealed that 96% of FXS patients had either, if not both, clinical features or family history suggestive of FXS present at the time of testing. Only one patient had neither family history nor clinical features suggestive of FXS. CONCLUSION : In 96% of FXS-positive cases, there was sufficient clinical suspicion raised on the basis of clinical features and/or family history to perform targeted FXS testing. We thus propose that in the absence of suggestive clinical features or family history, FXS testing should be transitioned to a second-tier test in neurodevelopmental disorders.

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5. Cioana M, Michalski B, Fahnestock M. Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Human Idiopathic Autism Fusiform Gyrus Tissue. Autism Res ;2020 (Mar 10)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is believed to stem from defects in the establishment and maintenance of functional neuronal networks due to synaptic/spine dysfunction. The potent effects of IGF-1 on synaptic function, maintenance, and plasticity make it a potential target for treating ASD. This polypeptide hormone has proven to have beneficial effects in treating related developmental disorders like Rett syndrome, and its efficacy in ASD is currently being investigated in a pilot study. IGF-1 binds to its receptor (IGF-1R) in neurons and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3K/Akt signaling to produce biological effects on spine function. The PI3K/Akt pathway is dysregulated in ASD, including idiopathic autism, and is thus believed to play a role in the disorder. Despite this, no study has explored the levels of IGF-1 in the fusiform gyrus of idiopathic autism patients, an area known to be hypoactivated in ASD, and no study has examined IGF-1R in any part of the brain. The present study explored whether IGF-1 or IGF-1R levels are altered in human idiopathic autism. RNA and protein were extracted from post-mortem human fusiform gyrus tissue of normal controls (n = 20) and subjects with idiopathic autism (n = 15). qRT-PCR for IGF-1 and IGF-1R were performed, along with total IGF-1 ELISA and IGF-1Rbeta Western blots. The levels of both IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA and protein were equivalent between the two groups, suggesting that although IGF-1 may be useful for ASD treatment, IGF-1 and IGF-1R are not implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic autism. LAY SUMMARY : IGF-1 is being tested for the treatment of autism and related disorders. Despite promising results, it is unknown if IGF-1 or its receptor are present in abnormal levels in patients with autism. This study showed that patients with autism have normal levels of IGF-1 and its receptor in the brain, suggesting that although IGF-1 is a promising treatment, disruption of IGF-1 levels or signaling through its receptor does not seem to be a cause of autism. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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6. Graham Holmes L, Zampella CJ, Clements C, McCleery JP, Maddox BB, Parish-Morris J, Udhnani MD, Schultz RT, Miller JS. A Lifespan Approach to Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life for People on the Autism Spectrum. Autism Res ;2020 (Mar 10)

Autistic self-advocates, family members, and community organizations have called for greater emphasis on enhancing quality of life (QoL) for people with autism. To do this, it is critical to understand how QoL unfolds across the life course and to clarify whether gender affects QoL, health, and functioning for people with autism. The purpose of this study was to curate and test a lifespan QoL measurement tool using freely available and well-constructed National Institutes of Health Parent-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). To develop the PROMIS Autism Battery-Lifespan (PAB-L), we identified PROMIS scales relevant for autism, reviewed each item, consulted with a panel of autism experts, and elicited feedback from autistic people and family members. This battery provides a comprehensive portrait of QoL for children ages 5-13 (through parent proxy), teens 14-17 (parent proxy and self-report), and adults 18-65 (self-report) with autism compared to the general population. Participants and parent informants (N = 912) recruited through a children’s hospital and nationwide U.S. autism research registry completed the PAB-L online. Results indicate that compared to general population norms, people with autism of all ages (or their proxies) reported less desirable outcomes and lower QoL across all domains. Women and girls experienced greater challenges in some areas compared to men and boys with autism. The PAB-L appears to be a feasible and acceptable method for assessing patient-reported outcomes and QoL for autistic people across the life course. LAY SUMMARY : We developed a survey to measure the quality of life of children, teens, and adults with autism using free National Institutes of Health PROMIS questionnaires. People with autism and family members rated the PROMIS Autism Battery-Lifespan as useful and important. Some reported a good quality of life, while many reported that their lives were not going as well as they wanted. Women and girls reported more challenges in some areas of life than men and boys. (c) 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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7. Granadillo JL, A PAS, Guo H, Xia K, Angle B, Bontempo K, Ranells JD, Newkirk P, Costin C, Viront J, Stumpel CT, Sinnema M, Panis B, Pfundt R, Krapels IPC, Klaassens M, Nicolai J, Li J, Jiang Y, Marco E, Canton A, Latronico AC, Montenegro L, Leheup B, Bonnet C, S MA, Lawson CE, McWalter K, Telegrafi A, Pearson R, Kvarnung M, Wang X, Bi W, Rosenfeld JA, Shinawi M. Pathogenic variants in TNRC6B cause a genetic disorder characterised by developmental delay/intellectual disability and a spectrum of neurobehavioural phenotypes including autism and ADHD. J Med Genet ;2020 (Mar 9)

BACKGROUND : Rare variants in hundreds of genes have been implicated in developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID) and neurobehavioural phenotypes. TNRC6B encodes a protein important for RNA silencing. Heterozygous truncating variants have been reported in three patients from large cohorts with autism, but no full phenotypic characterisation was described. METHODS : Clinical and molecular characterisation was performed on 17 patients with TNRC6B variants. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective chart review, parent interviews, direct patient interaction with providers and formal neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS : Clinical findings included DD/ID (17/17) (speech delay in 94% (16/17), fine motor delay in 82% (14/17) and gross motor delay in 71% (12/17) of subjects), autism or autistic traits (13/17), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (11/17), other behavioural problems (7/17) and musculoskeletal findings (12/17). Other congenital malformations or clinical findings were occasionally documented. The majority of patients exhibited some dysmorphic features but no recognisable gestalt was identified. 17 heterozygous TNRC6B variants were identified in 12 male and five female unrelated subjects by exome sequencing (14), a targeted panel (2) and a chromosomal microarray (1). The variants were nonsense (7), frameshift (5), splice site (2), intragenic deletions (2) and missense (1). CONCLUSIONS : Variants in TNRC6B cause a novel genetic disorder characterised by recurrent neurocognitive and behavioural phenotypes featuring DD/ID, autism, ADHD and other behavioural abnormalities. Our data highly suggest that haploinsufficiency is the most likely pathogenic mechanism. TNRC6B should be added to the growing list of genes of the RNA-induced silencing complex associated with ID/DD, autism and ADHD.

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8. Jensen M, Smolen C, Girirajan S. Gene discoveries in autism are biased towards comorbidity with intellectual disability. J Med Genet ;2020 (Mar 9)

BACKGROUND : Autism typically presents with highly heterogeneous features, including frequent comorbidity with intellectual disability (ID). The overlap between these phenotypes has confounded the diagnosis and discovery of genetic factors associated with autism. We analysed pathogenic de novo genetic variants in individuals with autism who had either ID or normal cognitive function to determine whether genes associated with autism also contribute towards ID comorbidity. METHODS : We analysed 2290 individuals from the Simons Simplex Collection for de novo likely gene-disruptive (LGD) variants and copy-number variants (CNVs), and determined their relevance towards IQ and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measures. RESULTS : Individuals who carried de novo variants in a set of 173 autism-associated genes showed an average 12.8-point decrease in IQ scores (p=5.49x10(-6)) and 2.8-point increase in SRS scores (p=0.013) compared with individuals without such variants. Furthermore, individuals with high-functioning autism (IQ >100) had lower frequencies of de novo LGD variants (42 of 397 vs 86 of 562, p=0.021) and CNVs (9 of 397 vs 24 of 562, p=0.065) compared with individuals who manifested both autism and ID (IQ <70). Pathogenic variants disrupting autism-associated genes conferred a 4.85-fold increased risk (p=0.011) for comorbid ID, while de novo variants observed in individuals with high-functioning autism disrupted genes with little functional relevance towards neurodevelopment. CONCLUSIONS : Pathogenic de novo variants disrupting autism-associated genes contribute towards autism and ID comorbidity, while other genetic factors are likely to be causal for high-functioning autism.

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9. Kinnaird E, Stewart C, Tchanturia K. Interoception in Anorexia Nervosa : Exploring Associations With Alexithymia and Autistic Traits. Front Psychiatry ;2020 ;11:64.

Background : Previous research on whether interoception is altered in anorexia nervosa (AN) using the heartbeat tracking task has yielded inconsistent results. However, no previous research has examined whether interoception is associated with alexithymia and autistic traits in AN, conditions which are more prevalent in this population and thought to be related to performance in this task. The aim of this study was to explore whether altered interoception in AN is associated with alexithymia and autistic traits. Methods : We assessed interoceptive accuracy using the heartbeat tracking task in n = 37 people with AN, and n = 37 age and gender matched healthy controls (HC), and explored within the AN group if interoceptive accuracy was related to self-rated alexithymia or autistic traits. We also assessed self-reported interoceptive ability, and the relationship between subjective and actual performance. Results : Heartbeat tracking task performance was not found to be altered in the AN group compared to the HC group. However, confidence ratings in task performance in the AN group were lower compared to the HC group. Unlike the HC group, confidence ratings in the AN group did not correlate with task performance. Within the AN group there was no relationship between interoceptive accuracy, alexithymia, and autistic traits, after controlling for the potential confounders of anxiety and depression. There was a relationship between confidence ratings and illness severity in the AN group. Conclusion : The results found no differences between heartbeat tracking task performance in people with AN compared to HC. There was no association between task performance, alexithymia and autistic traits in AN. Results do suggest that people with AN exhibit lowered confidence in their task performance, and that they may lack insight into this performance compared to HC. The findings are discussed in the context of potential significant limitations of the heartbeat tracking task, with recommendations for future research into interoception in AN.

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10. Laycock R, Wood K, Wright A, Crewther SG, Goodale MA. Corrigendum : Saccade Latency Provides Evidence for Reduced Face Inversion Effects With Higher Autism Traits. Front Hum Neurosci ;2020 ;14:58.

[This corrects the article DOI : 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00470.].

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11. Leger M, Piat N, Jean FA, Galera C, Bouvard MP, Amestoy A. Etude des altérations des habiletés sociales chez des enfants ayant un Trouble Déficit de l’Attention/Hyperactivite : comparatif avec des sujets contrôles et des sujets présentant un Trouble du Spectre de l’Autisme. Encephale ;2020 (Mar 6)

OBJECTIVES : Different studies centered on social relationship issues among ADHD children struggled to provide a unicist explanation between primary social cognition process alteration on the one hand and a mere symptomatic outcome of the disorder triad on the other. Some authors support the idea of a potential "social phenotype" shared at a different intensity by Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The point of the study is to characterize this possible social disability in a French ADHD population and compare it to control subjects and subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS : Three groups, composed of 319 subjects aged 6 to 12 years, were recruited in Bordeaux : 88 untreated ADHD subjects, 24 ASD subjects and 207 control subjects. The main measure was the social skill disruption through the rating of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The ADHD-RS-IV, WFIRS-P and CBCL scales were also used. RESULTS : Asignificant alteration in social abilities in ADHD children in comparison with controls was noted, with an average raw total SRS score intermediary between the control group and the ASD group (respectively 65.31+/-20.99, 37.15+/-16.37 and 95 75+/-30.83, P<0.05). When the 5 sub-scores of the SRS were taken into account, if the ASD subjects showed the highest average scores, the alteration pattern appeared qualitatively similar between the ADHD and TSA groups, with also an intermediate dispersion for the ADHD group between the control group and the group with ASD. Finally, more severe impairment of social skills in children with ADHD was associated with increased severity of the disorder (on ADHD-RS-IV scale cotation), higher daily functional impact (WFIRS-P scale), and more frequent behavioral issues (according to CBCL). CONCLUSIONS : Our results suggest the presence of social disturbances in ADHD and characterize a symptomatic profile qualitatively similar to that of ASD, but of less intensity. Overall results promote a need for a systematic dimensional assessment of social disability in ADHD.

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12. Liu X, Huang H. Alterations of functional connectivities associated with autism spectrum disorder symptom severity : a multi-site study using multivariate pattern analysis. Sci Rep ;2020 (Mar 9) ;10(1):4330.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. The estimation of ASD severity is very important in clinical practice due to providing a more elaborate diagnosis. Although several studies have revealed some resting-state functional connectivities (RSFCs) that are related to the ASD severity, they have all been based on small-sample data and local RSFCs. The aim of the present study is to adopt multivariate pattern analysis to investigate a subset of connectivities among whole-brain RSFCs that are more contributive to ASD severity estimation based on large-sample data. Regression estimation shows a Pearson correlation value of 0.5 between the estimated and observed severity, with a mean absolute error of 1.41. The results provide obvious evidence that some RSFCs undergo notable alterations with the severity of ASD. More importantly, these selected RSFCs have an abnormality in the connection modes of the inter-network and intra-network connections. In addition, these selected abnormal RSFCs are mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network, and inter-hemispheric connectivities, while exhibiting significant left hemisphere lateralization. Overall, this study indicates that some RSFCs suffer from abnormal alterations in patients with ASD, providing additional evidence of large-scale functional network alterations in ASD.

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13. McKenzie FJ, Tassankijpanich N, Epps KC, March SK, Hagerman RJ. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection in Females With the Fragile X FMR1 Premutation. JACC Case Rep ;2020 (Jan) ;2(1):40-44.

This paper reports 2 cases of female carriers of the FMR1 premutation for developing spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). These women had classical presentations of premutation symptoms, including anxiety, depression, and connective tissue problems, all of which can contribute to SCAD. These cases suggest a possible connection between the fragile X premutation and a predisposition to SCAD.

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14. Ono Y, Kudoh K, Ikeda T, Takahashi T, Yoshimura Y, Minabe Y, Kikuchi M. Auditory steady-state response at 20Hz and 40Hz in young typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ;2020 (Mar 10)

AIM : The early detection of autistic tendencies in children is essential for providing proper care and education. The auditory steady- state response (ASSR) provides a passive, non-invasive technique for assessing neural synchrony at specific response frequencies in many mental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few studies have investigated its use in young children. This study investigated the ASSR to 20 and 40 Hz in typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD aged 5-7 years. METHODS : The participants were 23 children with ASD and 32 TD children aged 5-7 years. Using a custom-made magnetoencephalography, we measured ASSR at 20 and 40 Hz, compared the results between the groups, and evaluated the association with intellectual function as measured by Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). RESULTS : Responses to 20 and 40 Hz were clearly detected in both groups with no significant difference identified. Consistent with previous findings, right dominance of the 40 Hz ASSR was observed in both groups. In the TD children, the right- side 40 -Hz ASSR was correlated with age. K-ABC score was correlated with the left-side 40-Hz ASSR in both groups. CONCLUSIONS : Right-dominant ASSR was successfully detected in young children in young TD children and children with ASD. No difference in ASSR was observed between the children with ASD and the TD children, although the right-side 40-Hz ASSR increased with age only in the TD children. Left-side 40-Hz ASSR was associated with intelligence score in both groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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15. Wijnhoven L, Creemers DHM, Vermulst AA, Lindauer RJL, Otten R, Engels R, Granic I. Effects of the video game ’Mindlight’ on anxiety of children with an autism spectrum disorder : A randomized controlled trial. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ;2020 (Mar 3) ;68:101548.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience impairing anxiety symptoms. Recently, an applied videogame called Mindlight has been developed that focuses on decreasing anxiety in children. The present study involved a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effect of Mindlight on (sub)clinical anxiety symptoms in children with an ASD. METHODS : In total, 109 children of 8-16 years old with an ASD and (sub)clinical anxiety symptoms were randomly assigned to the experimental (N=53) or the control (N=56) condition. Children in the experimental condition played Mindlight, children in the control condition played a commercial game (Triple Town) for 1h per week, for six consecutive weeks. All children and parents completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention and 3-months follow-up. RESULTS : Results showed no differences in decrease of child-rated anxiety symptoms between both conditions. However, the decrease of parent-rated anxiety symptoms was significantly larger in the experimental condition. LIMITATIONS : Mechanisms of change associated with treatment outcomes were not investigated in the present study. Therefore, it remains unclear which specific or non-specific factors contributed to the decrease in anxiety symptoms in both conditions. CONCLUSIONS : The present study provided some preliminary evidence that video games are a promising new intervention vehicle for children with an ASD and anxiety, at least according to parents. However, further research on working mechanisms is needed, in order to specify to what extent and for which children with ASD Mindlight could be an effective anxiety treatment.

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16. Zablotsky B, Rast J, Bramlett MD, Shattuck PT. Correction to : Health Care Transition Planning Among Youth with ASD and Other Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders. Matern Child Health J ;2020 (Mar 9)

In the original publication of the article, Figure 1 included footnotes which duplicated information appearing in the figure caption. Therefore the notes of "NOTES : ASD = autism spectrum disorder ; MBDD = mental, behavioral, or developmental disorder. Indicators presented are unadjusted estimates. (x) Significantly different than youth with autism spectrum disorder based on adjusted odds ratio (p < .05). (y) Significantly different than youth with other mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders based on adjusted odds ratio (p < .05)." have been removed. The figure 1 appearing in the original version of the article has been corrected.

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17. Ziermans TB, Schirmbeck F, Oosterwijk F, Geurts HM, de Haan L. Autistic traits in psychotic disorders : prevalence, familial risk, and impact on social functioning. Psychol Med ;2020 (Mar 10):1-10.

BACKGROUND : Prevalence estimates of autistic traits in individuals with psychotic disorders (PD) vary greatly and it is unclear whether individuals with a familial risk (FR) for psychosis have an increased propensity to display autistic traits. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the presence of comorbid autism traits disproportionally affects the cognitive and behavioral aspects of social functioning in PD. METHODS : In total, 504 individuals with PD, 587 unaffected siblings with FR, and 337 typical comparison (TC) individuals (16-50 years) were included. Autistic and psychotic traits were measured with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE). Social cognition was assessed with the Picture Sequencing Task (PST) and social behavior with the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). RESULTS : For PD 6.5% scored above AQ clinical cut-off (32), 1.0% for FR, and 1.2% for TC. After accounting for age, sex, and IQ, the PD group showed significantly more autistic traits and alterations in social behavior and cognition, while FR and TC only displayed marginal differences. Within the PD group autistic traits were a robust predictor of social behavior and there were no interactions with positive psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS : Levels of autistic traits are substantially elevated in PD and have a profoundly negative association with social functioning. In contrast, autistic traits above the clinical cut-off are not elevated in those with FR, and only marginally on a dimensional level. These findings warrant specific clinical guidelines for psychotic patients who present themselves with autistic comorbidity to help address their social needs.

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