Pubmed du 23/03/20

lundi 23 mars 2020

1. Drogomyretska K, Fox R, Colbert D. Brief Report : Stress and Perceived Social Support in Parents of Children with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Previous literature has indicated that perceptions of social support (PSS) may be an important predictor of parental stress levels, particularly for parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study implemented structural equation modelling to further investigate the relationship between PSS and parental stress in a sample of 454 parents of children diagnosed with ASD. Results indicate that PSS derived from friends was the most important factor in protecting against stress, with PSS from both a significant other and family appearing to be less pervasive in this regard. In addition, the importance of PSS was further underlined by the finding that it remained a significant predictor of parental stress after controlling for the absence/presence of professional support.

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2. Moore S, Kinnear M, Freeman L. Autistic doctors : overlooked assets to medicine. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020 ; 7(4) : 306-7.

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3. Shephard E, Milosavljevic B, Mason L, Elsabbagh M, Tye C, Gliga T, Jones EJ, Charman T, Johnson MH. Neural and behavioural indices of face processing in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) : A longitudinal study from infancy to mid-childhood. Cortex. 2020 ; 127 : 162-79.

Impaired face processing is proposed to play a key role in the early development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to be an endophenotypic trait which indexes genetic risk for the disorder. However, no published work has examined the development of face processing abilities from infancy into the school-age years and how they relate to ASD symptoms in individuals with or at high-risk for ASD. In this novel study we investigated neural and behavioural measures of face processing at age 7 months and again in mid-childhood (age 7 years) as well as social-communication and sensory symptoms in siblings at high (n = 42) and low (n = 35) familial risk for ASD. In mid-childhood, high-risk siblings showed atypical P1 and N170 event-related potential correlates of face processing and, for high-risk boys only, poorer face and object recognition ability compared to low-risk siblings. These neural and behavioural atypicalities were associated with each other and with higher social-communication and sensory symptoms in mid-childhood. Additionally, more atypical neural correlates of object (but not face) processing in infancy were associated with less right-lateralised (more atypical) N170 amplitudes and greater social-communication problems in mid-childhood. The implications for models of face processing in ASD are discussed.

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4. Zhang Z, Peng P, Zhang D. Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-analysis of fMRI Studies. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Abnormalities in executive function (EF) are clinical markers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying abnormal EF in ASD remain unclear. This meta-analysis investigated the construct, abnormalities, and age-related changes of EF in ASD. Thirty-three fMRI studies of inhibition, updating, and switching in individuals with high-functioning ASD were included (n = 1114 ; age range 7-57 years). The results revealed that the EF construct in ASD could be unitary (i.e., common EF) in children/adolescents, but unitary and diverse (i.e., common EF and inhibition) in adults. Abnormalities in this EF construct were found across development in individuals with ASD in comparison with typically developing individuals. Implications and recommendations are discussed for EF theory and for practice in ASD.

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