Pubmed du 28/03/20

samedi 28 mars 2020

1. Averina OV, Kovtun AS, Polyakova SI, Savilova AM, Rebrikov DV, Danilenko VN. The bacterial neurometabolic signature of the gut microbiota of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of medical microbiology. 2020.

Introduction. The human gut microbiota is currently seen as an important factor that can promote autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development in children.Aim. This study aimed to detect differences in the taxonomic composition and content of bacterial genes encoding key enzymes involved in the metabolism of neuroactive biomarker compounds in the metagenomes of gut microbiota of children with ASD and neurotypical children.Methodology. A whole metagenome sequencing approach was used to obtain metagenomic data on faecal specimens of 36 children with ASD and 21 healthy neurotypical children of 3-5 years old. Taxonomic analysis was conducted using MetaPhlAn2. The developed bioinformatics algorithm and created catalogue of the orthologues were applied to identify bacterial genes of neuroactive compounds in the metagenomes. For the identification of metagenomic signatures of children with ASD, Wilcoxon’s test and adjustment for multiple comparisons were used.Results. Statistically significant differences with decreases in average abundance in the microbiota of ASD children were found for the genera Barnesiella and Parabacteroides and species Alistipes putredinis, B. caccae, Bacteroides intestinihominis, Eubacterium rectale, Parabacteroides distasonis and Ruminococcus lactaris. Average relative abundances of the detected genes and neurometabolic signature approach did not reveal many significant differences in the metagenomes of the groups that were compared. We noted decreases in the abundance of genes linked to production of GABA, melatonine and butyric acid in the ASD metagenomes.Conclusion. For the first time, the neurometabolic signature of the gut microbiota of young children with ASD is presented. The data can help to provide a comparative assessment of the transcriptional and metabolomic activity of the identified genes.

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2. Dellapiazza F, Michelon C, Vernhet C, Muratori F, Blanc N, Picot MC, Baghdadli A. Sensory processing related to attention in children with ASD, ADHD, or typical development : results from the ELENA cohort. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020.

Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are early neurodevelopmental conditions that share clinical characteristics, raising important issues in clinical diagnosis. We aimed to compare (1) sensory processing in four groups of children : ASD alone, ASD + ADHD, ADHD alone, and typical development (TD) and (2) the association between sensory processing and attention in the three groups with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our sample included 120 children aged from 6 to 12 years divided into four groups : ASD alone (N = 43), ASD + ADHD (N = 18), ADHD alone (N = 28), and TD (N = 31). Atypical sensory processing was more frequent in ASD and/or ADHD than in TD, without a significant difference between ASD and ADHD. However, the variance analysis of attention problems revealed differences between the ADHD and ASD groups. Thus, the rate of atypical sensory processing was comparable between the ASD and ADHD groups, suggesting that further studies are needed to explore atypical SP in all neurodevelopmental disorders.

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3. Fein D. Proposed brief diagnostic observational scale for autism spectrum disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020.

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4. Iacob CI, Avram E, Cojocaru D, Podina IR. Resilience in Familial Caregivers of Children with Developmental Disabilities : A Meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate factors associated with resilience in familial caregivers of children with developmental disabilities. The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database, with the registration number CRD42018105180. Several electronic databases were searched for studies. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 26 selected studies that associated resilience to an array of other variables (i.e., psychological distress, social support, coping, perceived health, life satisfaction). Overall, the significant pooled effect sizes were small to medium, ranging from r = 0.291 for coping to r = 0.442 for social support. Although the literature on the topic has improved, there is a lot of study heterogeneity and the need for focusing on male caregivers becomes evident.

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5. Kern JK, Geier DA, Homme KG, Geier MR. A ten year longitudinal examination of the incidence rate and age of childhood encephalopathy diagnoses in an autism spectrum disorder diagnosed cohort. Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. 2020 ; 80(1) : 66-75.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction and stereotypic behaviors with many diagnosed persons experiencing a developmental regression at >1 yearold. It was hypothesized that progressive childhood encephalopathy is an important etiological factor in ASD pathogenesis. This hypothesistesting study examined the relationship between diagnosed childhood encephalopathy and ASD. The Independent Healthcare Research Database is composed of deidentified linked eligibility and claim healthcare records prospectively generated from the Florida Medicaid system. A cohort of 101,736 persons eligible for Florida Medicaid from 19902009 and continuously eligible with >/=10 outpatient office visits during the 120 month period following birth were examined using SAS software. There were 1,397 persons (7,223 personyears) in the ASD diagnosed cohort and 100,339 persons (980,786 personyears) in the undiagnosed cohort. The incidence rate of encephalopathy was examined using Cox proportional hazards ratio models. In the ASD cohort relative to the undiagnosed cohort, a significantly increased incidence rate of diagnosed encephalopathy was observed in the unadjusted and adjusted models. The risk for an encephalopathy diagnosed at >1 yearold was greater than for an encephalopathy diagnosed at <1> 1 yearold.

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6. Levinson S, Eisenhower A, Bush HH, Carter AS, Blacher J. Brief Report : Predicting Social Skills from Semantic, Syntactic, and Pragmatic Language Among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

The language and social skill deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) warrant further study. Existing research has focused on the contributions of pragmatic language to social skills, with little attention to other aspects of language. We examined the associations across three language domains (semantics, syntax, and pragmatics) and their relations to parent- and teacher-rated social skills among children with ASD. When parent-reported language skills were considered simultaneously, only semantics significantly predicted children’s social skills. For teacher-reported language skills, all three language domains predicted children’s social skills, but none made unique contributions above and beyond one another. Further research should consider the impact of social context on language expectations and interventions targeting semantic language on children’s development of social skills.

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7. Maenner MJ, Shaw KA, Baio J, Washington A, Patrick M, DiRienzo M, Christensen DL, Wiggins LD, Pettygrove S, Andrews JG, Lopez M, Hudson A, Baroud T, Schwenk Y, White T, Rosenberg CR, Lee LC, Harrington RA, Huston M, Hewitt A, Esler A, Hall-Lande J, Poynter JN, Hallas-Muchow L, Constantino JN, Fitzgerald RT, Zahorodny W, Shenouda J, Daniels JL, Warren Z, Vehorn A, Salinas A, Durkin MS, Dietz PM. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC : 2002). 2020 ; 69(4) : 1-12.

PROBLEM/CONDITION : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PERIOD COVERED : 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM : The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance program that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). Surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by medical and educational service providers in the community. In the second phase, experienced clinicians who systematically review all abstracted information determine ASD case status. The case definition is based on ASD criteria described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. RESULTS : For 2016, across all 11 sites, ASD prevalence was 18.5 per 1,000 (one in 54) children aged 8 years, and ASD was 4.3 times as prevalent among boys as among girls. ASD prevalence varied by site, ranging from 13.1 (Colorado) to 31.4 (New Jersey). Prevalence estimates were approximately identical for non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black), and Asian/Pacific Islander children (18.5, 18.3, and 17.9, respectively) but lower for Hispanic children (15.4). Among children with ASD for whom data on intellectual or cognitive functioning were available, 33% were classified as having intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] </=70) ; this percentage was higher among girls than boys (40% versus 32%) and among black and Hispanic than white children (47%, 36%, and 27%, respectively). Black children with ASD were less likely to have a first evaluation by age 36 months than were white children with ASD (40% versus 45%). The overall median age at earliest known ASD diagnosis (51 months) was similar by sex and racial and ethnic groups ; however, black children with IQ </=70 had a later median age at ASD diagnosis than white children with IQ </=70 (48 months versus 42 months). INTERPRETATION : The prevalence of ASD varied considerably across sites and was higher than previous estimates since 2014. Although no overall difference in ASD prevalence between black and white children aged 8 years was observed, the disparities for black children persisted in early evaluation and diagnosis of ASD. Hispanic children also continue to be identified as having ASD less frequently than white or black children. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION : These findings highlight the variability in the evaluation and detection of ASD across communities and between sociodemographic groups. Continued efforts are needed for early and equitable identification of ASD and timely enrollment in services.

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8. Marin A, Hutman T, Ponting C, McDonald NM, Carver L, Baker E, Daniel M, Dickinson A, Dapretto M, Johnson SP, Jeste SS. Electrophysiological signatures of visual statistical learning in 3-month-old infants at familial and low risk for autism spectrum disorder. Dev Psychobiol. 2020.

Visual statistical learning (VSL) refers to the ability to extract associations and conditional probabilities within the visual environment. It may serve as a precursor to cognitive and social communication development. Quantifying VSL in infants at familial risk (FR) for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) provides opportunities to understand how genetic predisposition can influence early learning processes which may, in turn, lay a foundation for cognitive and social communication delays. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) signatures of VSL in 3-month-old infants, examining whether EEG correlates of VSL differentiated FR from low-risk (LR) infants. In an exploratory analysis, we then examined whether EEG correlates of VSL at 3 months relate to cognitive function and ASD symptoms at 18 months. Infants were exposed to a continuous stream of looming shape pairs with varying probability that the shapes would occur in sequence (high probability-deterministic condition ; low probability-probabilistic condition). EEG was time-locked to shapes based on their transitional probabilities. EEG analysis examined group-level characteristics underlying specific components, including the late frontal positivity (LFP) and N700 responses. FR infants demonstrated increased LFP and N700 response to the probabilistic condition, whereas LR infants demonstrated increased LFP and N700 response to the deterministic condition. LFP at 3 months predicted 18-month visual reception skills and not ASD symptoms. Our findings thus provide evidence for distinct VSL processes in FR and LR infants as early as 3 months. Atypical pattern learning in FR infants may lay a foundation for later delays in higher level, nonverbal cognitive skills, and predict ASD symptoms well before an ASD diagnosis is made.

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9. Sanchez-Garcia AB, Nieto-Libreros AB, Galindo-Villardon P, Robins DL. Please, Don’t Shoot the Meta-analysis : A Response to "A Commentary to Toddler Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy by Sanchez-Garcia et al. 2019". J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

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10. Shaw KA, Maenner MJ, Baio J, Washington A, Christensen DL, Wiggins LD, Pettygrove S, Andrews JG, White T, Rosenberg CR, Constantino JN, Fitzgerald RT, Zahorodny W, Shenouda J, Daniels JL, Salinas A, Durkin MS, Dietz PM. Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 4 Years - Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Six Sites, United States, 2016. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC : 2002). 2020 ; 69(3) : 1-11.

PROBLEM/CONDITION : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PERIOD COVERED : 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM : The Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (Early ADDM) Network, a subset of the overall ADDM Network, is an active surveillance program that estimates ASD prevalence and monitors early identification of ASD among children aged 4 years. Children included in surveillance year 2016 were born in 2012 and had a parent or guardian who lived in the surveillance area in Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, or Wisconsin, at any time during 2016. Children were identified from records of community sources including general pediatric health clinics, special education programs, and early intervention programs. Data from comprehensive evaluations performed by community professionals were abstracted and reviewed by trained clinicians using a standardized ASD surveillance case definition with criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). RESULTS : In 2016, the overall ASD prevalence was 15.6 per 1,000 (one in 64) children aged 4 years for Early ADDM Network sites. Prevalence varied from 8.8 per 1,000 in Missouri to 25.3 per 1,000 in New Jersey. At every site, prevalence was higher among boys than among girls, with an overall male-to-female prevalence ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-4.1). Prevalence of ASD between non-Hispanic white (white) and non-Hispanic black (black) children was similar at each site (overall prevalence ratio : 0.9 ; 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). The prevalence of ASD using DSM-5 criteria was lower than the prevalence using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria at one of four sites that used criteria from both editions. Among sites where >/=60% of children aged 4 years had information about intellectual disability (intelligence quotient </=70 or examiner’s statement of intellectual disability documented in an evaluation), 53% of children with ASD had co-occurring intellectual disability. Of all children aged 4 years with ASD, 84% had a first evaluation at age </=36 months and 71% of children who met the surveillance case definition had a previous ASD diagnosis from a community provider. Median age at first evaluation and diagnosis for this age group was 26 months and 33 months, respectively. Cumulative incidence of autism diagnoses received by age 48 months was higher for children aged 4 years than for those aged 8 years identified in Early ADDM Network surveillance areas in 2016. INTERPRETATION : In 2016, the overall prevalence of ASD in the Early ADDM Network using DSM-5 criteria (15.6 per 1,000 children aged 4 years) was higher than the 2014 estimate using DSM-5 criteria (14.1 per 1,000). Children born in 2012 had a higher cumulative incidence of ASD diagnoses by age 48 months compared with children born in 2008, which indicates more early identification of ASD in the younger group. The disparity in ASD prevalence has decreased between white and black children. Prevalence of co-occurring intellectual disability was higher than in 2014, suggesting children with intellectual disability continue to be identified at younger ages. More children received evaluations by age 36 months in 2016 than in 2014, which is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals. Median age at earliest ASD diagnosis has not changed considerably since 2014. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION : More children aged 4 years with ASD are being evaluated by age 36 months and diagnosed by age 48 months, but there is still room for improvement in early identification. Timely evaluation of children by community providers as soon as developmental concerns have been identified might result in earlier ASD diagnoses, earlier receipt of evidence-based interventions, and improved developmental outcomes.

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11. Silva DVD, Santos PNM, Silva D. EXCESS WEIGHT AND GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS IN A GROUP OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN. Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo. 2020 ; 38 : e2019080.

OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the nutritional status and gastrointestinal changes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : Cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of 39 children with ASD aged between three and ten years old, registered in the participating association. Nutritional status was evaluated by body mass index/age and weight/age, according to the guidelines from the World Health Organization. In order to investigate whether gastrointestinal alterations occurred, the interviewees answered a questionnaire about the presence of these symptoms within the last 30 days. In order to evaluate food consumption, a 24-hour recall questionnaire was applied and the food reported were grouped as : gluten sources, casein and ultra-processed sources. For the statistical analysis, Epi-Info software version 7.2 was used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the variables associated with gastrointestinal alterations. RESULTS : There was a high prevalence of overweight children with autism spectrum disorder (64.1%). No child was underweight. Thirty-four children (84.2%) had gastrointestinal symptoms. Consumption of gluten was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms (beta=0.38 ; 95%CI 0.07-0.75 ; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS : The high prevalence of being overweight should be considered during the follow-up visits of children with ASD. The influence of gluten consumption on the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms was observed in this study, and the causes involved in these alterations need to be further investigated.

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12. Wieckowski AT, Luallin S, Pan Z, Righi G, Gabriels RL, Mazefsky C. Gender Differences in Emotion Dysregulation in an Autism Inpatient Psychiatric Sample. Autism Res. 2020.

There is a wide range of emotion regulation (ER)-related impairment observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems. Although the importance of ER is widely acknowledged in the ASD literature, little is known about factors associated with variability in ER impairment. Given the identified gender differences in ASD, gender may be a potential contributor to ER. This study examined gender differences in ER in an ASD inpatient psychiatric sample (n = 722 ; 146 females) aged 4-20 years, collected as part of the Autism Inpatient Collection. In addition, the study investigated whether age, nonverbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ), or verbal ability moderate the association between ER and gender. While both male and female inpatients with ASD presented with clinically elevated emotion dysregulation compared to general population norms, results suggest that female psychiatric inpatients have more severe dysregulation, including higher reactivity and dysphoria, than inpatient males. NVIQ and verbal ability did not moderate the association between gender and ER. Age moderated the association between gender and ER, with greater gender difference seen in older individuals, but only for dysphoria. However, overall, these effects were small. Improved understanding of ER presentation in males and females with ASD is critical, as these symptoms may differentially impact individuals with ASD and may warrant a different treatment emphasis. LAY SUMMARY : Previous research has identified several gender differences in presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, as well as difficulties with emotion regulation in individuals with ASD. In order to better understand the factors that may contribute to emotion regulation in ASD, this study examined whether psychiatrically hospitalized males and females with ASD differed in emotion regulation and what factors influenced the differences. Results suggest that females with ASD have slightly but significantly more difficulty with emotion regulation compared to males.

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13. Wintler T, Schoch H, Frank MG, Peixoto L. Sleep, brain development, and autism spectrum disorders : Insights from animal models. J Neurosci Res. 2020.

Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved and powerful drive, although its complete functions are still unknown. One possible function of sleep is that it promotes brain development. The amount of sleep is greatest during ages when the brain is rapidly developing, and sleep has been shown to influence critical period plasticity. This supports a role for sleep in brain development and suggests that abnormal sleep in early life may lead to abnormal development. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. It is estimated that insomnia affects 44%-86% of the ASD population, predicting the severity of ASD core symptoms and associated behavioral problems. Sleep problems impact the quality of life of both ASD individuals and their caregivers, thus it is important to understand why they are so prevalent. In this review, we explore the role of sleep in early life as a causal factor in ASD. First, we review fundamental steps in mammalian sleep ontogeny and regulation and how sleep influences brain development. Next, we summarize current knowledge gained from studying sleep in animal models of ASD. Ultimately, our goal is to highlight the importance of understanding the role of sleep in brain development and the use of animal models to provide mechanistic insight into the origin of sleep problems in ASD.

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