Pubmed du 09/05/20

samedi 9 mai 2020

1. Fuentes J, Basurko A, Isasa I, Galende I, Muguerza MD, Garcia-Primo P, Garcia J, Fernandez-Alvarez CJ, Canal-Bedia R, Posada de la Paz M. The ASDEU autism prevalence study in northern Spain. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020.

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was studied in children in the County of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain) as part of the European Union’s Autism Spectrum Disorder in Europe project (ASDEU-https://asdeu.eu). To identify cases in a total community sample of 7- to 9-year-old pupils (N = 14,734), a multistage approach was adopted : in the first stage, a teacher nomination (TN) form was completed by school teachers ; and in the second stage, all families with a child nominated by their teachers were invited to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). A total of 108 (59%) schools participated fully, yielding a final sample of 9177 of 14.734 (61.9%) pupils. A total of 212 (2.3%) children were nominated via the TN form, and of these, 105 (49.5%) returned the completed SCQ. Twenty-five (23.8%) cases with SCQ scores >/= 15 were invited to undergo a free clinical assessment, and 10 (40%) new cases of ASD were identified. The prevalence estimate included the 55 cases already being supported by the Gipuzkoa’s only ASD association, the Gipuzkoa Autism Society (Asociacion Guipuzcoana de Autismo/GAUTENA)), as well as the 10 new subjects identified by the ASDEU field diagnostic process. A sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate new potential ASD cases among the non-participant schools, leading to a final figure of 87 cases of ASD in this age-bracket at the date of the study. This global probabilistic estimate, including non-participating schools, would thus provide a population prevalence of 0.59% (95% CI 0.48-0.73), a result lower than those reported by some other studies. Attrition rates in cross-sectional studies are challenging and support the need for developing longitudinal ASD incidence surveillance study areas (ASD observatories).

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2. Howard K, Gibson J, Katsos N. Parental Perceptions and Decisions Regarding Maintaining Bilingualism in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

A growing body of evidence suggests that bilingual exposure does not negatively impact children on the autism spectrum. This study sought to illuminate parents’ perceptions and choices regarding maintaining bilingualism in autism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 family members in England and Wales. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Although parents expressed positive attitudes towards bilingualism, these views were not always congruent with their language practices. Instead, several factors influenced decisions about language maintenance in autism, including the severity of the child’s autism, advice received, and the importance of English as the dominant societal language. This article calls for greater support for families in making language decisions that are suitable for the individual child and their family.

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3. Li X, Wang L, Qin B, Zhang Y, Zhou Z, Qin Y, Bao G, Huang J, Cai J. A Sleeping rs-fMRI Study of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Current medical imaging. 2020.

OBJECTIVES : The brain functional network of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the earlier stages of life has been almost unknown due to difficulties in obtaining a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). This study aimed to perform rs-MRI under a sedated sleep state and reveal possible alterations in the brain functional network. METHODS : Rs-fMRI was performed in a group of preschool children (aged 2-6 years, 53 with ASD, 63 as controls) under a sedated sleeping state. Based on graph theoretical analysis, global and local topological metrics were calculated to investigate alterations in brain functional networks. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted between the abnormal attribute values and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. RESULTS : The graph theoretical analysis showed that the nodal degree of the right medial frontal gyrus and the nodal efficiency of the right lingual gyrus in the ASD group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation (R=0.318, P<0.05) between the right midfrontal gyrus nodal degree values and CARS scores in the ASD patients. CONCLUSION : Alterations of some nodal attributes in the brain network has occurred in preschool autistic children and could serve as potential imaging biomarkers for evaluating ASD in earlier stages.

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