Pubmed du 16/05/20

samedi 16 mai 2020

1. Anderson CM, Iovannone R, Smith T, Levato L, Martin R, Cavanaugh B, Hochheimer S, Wang H, Iadarola S. Thinking Small to Think Big : Modular Approach for Autism Programming in Schools (MAAPS). J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

To date there are no evidence-based comprehensive interventions for use in school settings. There are numerous barriers to delivery of high-quality interventions in schools that have limited the transfer of research-based interventions to school settings. Modular Approach to Autism Programing for Schools (MAAPS) is a framework for implementation of evidence-based interventions in school settings that is designed to address these barriers. The development and initial evaluation of MAAPS was conducted using an implementation-science framework and results indicate that MAAPS is aligned with needs and resources available in schools, that it had excellent social validity, and that there is good evidence that MAAPS is effective for addressing core and associated features of autism in educational settings.

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2. Bentenuto A, Bertamini G, Perzolli S, Venuti P. Changes in Developmental Trajectories of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Parental Based Intensive Intervention. Brain Sci. 2020 ; 10(5).

(1) Background : Research highlights the positive effects of early intensive intervention with parent and school involvement for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) on general developmental outcomes and social skills in randomized controlled trials. However, given the inter-individual variability in the response to treatment, it is necessary to investigate intervention effects in terms of mediators and moderators in order to explain variability and to highlight mechanisms of change. (2) Methods : 25 children in the experimental group were exposed to early intensive intervention and 14 children in the control group were subjected to "as usual" intervention. The initial assessment was obtained at the time of diagnosis (T1) and the follow-up assessment was conducted after 15 months of intervention (T2) in both groups. (3) Results : Participants in the experimental group achieved more prominent gains in both cognitive and socio-interactive skills. The role of specific factors able to predict general quotient and language quotient after intervention were investigated, pointing out the contribution of personal-social and performance abilities. (4) Conclusions : The findings support the importance of parental involvement in targeting ASD core symptoms. Further, results informed our understanding of early predictors in order to identify specific elements to be targeted in the individualized intervention design.

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3. Espelöer J, Hellmich M, Vogeley K, Falter-Wagner CM. Brief Report : Social Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorder is Based on Deficits in Social Competence. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

This study differentially examined the relation between two clinical constructs : "social anxiety" and "social competence" in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Employing two questionnaires (SASKO ; IU), individuals with ASD (n = 23) showed increased scores of SOCIAL ANXIETY (SASKO) and of INTOLERANCE OF UNCERTAINTY (IU), compared to a non-clinical comparison group (NC ; n = 25). SOCIAL ANXIETY scores were equally increased for ASD and a reference population of individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD ; n = 68). However, results showed increased SOCIAL COMPETENCE DEFICITS in ASD compared to SAD and NC groups. This study allows drawing the conclusion that social anxiety symptoms in ASD can be traced back to autism-specific deficits in social skills and are therefore putatively based on different, substantially "deeper" implemented cognitive mechanisms.

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4. Harper-Hill K, Trembath D, Clark M, Bruck S, Saggers B. Meeting the communication needs of students on the autism spectrum in Australian classrooms : Adjustments reported by educators and specialists. International journal of speech-language pathology. 2020 : 1-10.

Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine educators’ and specialists’ provision of communication adjustments for students on the autism spectrum in mainstream and supported education settings.Method : Secondary analysis of data collected from educators and specialists in the Australian Autism Educational Needs Analysis was undertaken. Thematic analysis of adjustment descriptions identified 11 categories. The use of the 11 specific adjustment categories with reference to (a) participant group (educator versus specialists), and (b) setting (mainstream versus supported) were described and associations investigated using Chi-square analyses.Result : Only 32% of the 381 educators and specialists reported using adjustments. Of the adjustments reported, those categorised as "Multimodal Communication", "Structured Teaching", and "Assistive Technology" were frequently included by both groups. Significant associations were apparent between groups and the use of specific adjustments including naturalistic communication strategies. Significant differences were evident in the proportion of specific adjustments used by participants in supported as opposed to mainstream settings.Conclusion : Possible reasons for the differences in the adjustments reported by educators and specialists and the role that setting may play in these are discussed. These include resourcing, the choice of adjustment being driven by school setting rather than student need, and possible differences between professionals in describing the adjustments made.

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5. Kong X, Liu J, Liu K, Koh M, Tian R, Hobbie C, Fong M, Chen Q, Zhao M, Budjan C, Kong J. Altered Autonomic Functions and Gut Microbiome in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) : Implications for Assisting ASD Screening and Diagnosis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological and developmental disorder, and a growing body of literature suggests the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in individuals with ASD. ANS is part of the "gut brain axis", which consists of an intricate interplay between the gut microbiome, mucosal immune system, enteric nervous system, ANS, and central processes receiving input from the vagus nerve. Measurements of the gut microbiome and the autonomic indices can serve as non-invasive markers of the status of the gut-brain axis in ASD. To our knowledge, no previous studies have explored the relationship between ANS and gut microbiome in individuals with ASD. Furthermore, while previous studies investigated the use of autonomic indices and gut microbiome independently as markers of ASD-related comorbidities, such as anxiety, cardiovascular issues, and gastrointestinal dysfunction, the use of combined autonomic indices and gut microbiome factors to classify ASD and control subjects has not been explored. In this study, we characterized autonomic function of a group of individuals with ASD in comparison to their paired, first-degree relative controls. Second, we explored the ASD gut-brain-axis through the relationship between gut microbiome markers and autonomic indices, as well as the correlation between the gut-brain-axis and clinical presentation of ASD. Lastly, this study explores the predictive capability of gut-brain-axis biomarkers (including autonomic and microbiome indices) in subtyping ASD cases, serving as a starting point to investigate the possibility of assisting in ASD screening and diagnosis that still heavily relies on psychological testing, which may be based on highly subjective standards.

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6. Lenart J, Augustyniak J, Lazarewicz JW, Zieminska E. Altered expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic genes in the valproic acid-induced rat model of autism : A screening test. Toxicology. 2020 ; 440 : 152500.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include neurodevelopmental disorders in which behavioral deficits can result from neuronal imbalance of excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the brain. Here we used RT-qPCR to screen for the expression of 99 genes associated with excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rats in an established VPA model of ASD. The largest changes in the expression of glutamatergic genes were found in the cerebral cortex, where 12 genes including these encoding some of the subunits of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, were upregulated, while 2 genes were downregulated. The expression of genes encoding the presynaptic glutamatergic proteins vGluT1 and mGluR7 and PKA, involved in downstream glutamatergic signaling, was elevated more than 100-fold. Changes in GABAergic gene expression were found in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus ; 3 genes were upregulated, and 3 were downregulated. In conclusion, these results revealed that, in the ASD model, several glutamatergic genes in the rat cerebral cortex were upregulated, which contrasts with small and balanced changes in the expression of GABAergic genes. The VPA rat model, useful in studying the molecular basis of ASD, may be suitable for testing experimental therapies in these disabilities.

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7. Millstein RA, Lindly OJ, Luberto CM, Perez GK, Schwartz GN, Kuhlthau K, Park ER. An Exploration of Health Behaviors in a Mind-Body Resilience Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2020.

OBJECTIVE : Parents of children with special needs such as learning and attentional disabilities (LADs) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for stress-related disorders. The demands of parenting may compete with time for self-care behaviors such as physical activity, healthy eating, and adequate sleep. The objective was to describe health behaviors among this understudied population and assess the changes after a resilience intervention. METHODS : This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled pilot virtual mind-body resilience intervention (Stress Management and Resiliency Training : A Relaxation Response Resiliency Program) trial for parents of children with LADs (n = 52) and ASD (n = 47). Parents completed self-report questionnaires about their weekly physical activity, eating behaviors, sleep duration, and fatigue before and after the 8-week intervention. Descriptive statistics and pre-post intervention effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated. RESULTS : Both parent groups reported suboptimal levels of health behaviors at baseline, but ASD parents reported lower health behaviors than LAD parents. LAD parents improved more on physical activity, with a higher percentage meeting recommendations at postintervention follow-up (d = 0.71) than ASD parents (d = 0.01). Eating behaviors showed small effect size improvements for both groups. Although sleep duration improved only with small or medium effect sizes for both groups, ASD parents rated their fatigue lower after the intervention (d = 0.81). CONCLUSION : Parents of children with special needs who participated in a virtual resilience intervention demonstrated suboptimal health behaviors. There is a need for targeted interventions for health behaviors that can promote resilience in these high-stress populations.

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8. Peristeri E, Baldimtsi E, Andreou M, Tsimpli IM. The impact of bilingualism on the narrative ability and the executive functions of children with autism spectrum disorders. J Commun Disord. 2020 ; 85 : 105999.

While there is ample evidence that monolingual children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) face difficulties with narrative story-telling and executive functions (EF), there is considerable uncertainty about how bilingualism impacts these skills in autism. The current study explores the effect of bilingualism on the narrative and EF skills of forty 7-to-12-year-old bilingual and monolingual children with ASD, as well as forty age-matched bilingual and monolingual children of typical development (TD). Narrative production data were elicited using the Edmonton Narrative Norms Instrument (ENNI ; Schneider et al., 2005), which was developed to measure narrative production at a microstructural and macrostructural level. The same children were administered two EF tasks, namely, a global-local visual attention task and a 2-back working memory task. In story-telling, bilingual children with ASD achieved higher scores than monolingual children with ASD on story structure complexity and use of adverbial clauses, and they tended to use significantly fewer ambiguous referential forms than their monolingual peers with ASD. In the global-local task, bilingual children with ASD were faster and more accurate in global trials than monolingual children with ASD, who tended to be more susceptible to interference from locally presented information than the other experimental groups. Higher accuracy and faster response times were also observed for bilingual children with ASD in the 2-back task. Further correlation analyses between the story-telling and EF tasks revealed that bilingual children with ASD drew on a broader range of EF in narrative production than their monolingual peers. The overall findings reveal that bilingual children with ASD outperformed their monolingual peers with ASD in both the microstructure and macrostructure of their narrative production, as well as in their visual attention and working memory skills.

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9. Saito M, Hirota T, Sakamoto Y, Adachi M, Takahashi M, Osato-Kaneda A, Kim YS, Leventhal B, Shui A, Kato S, Nakamura K. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of autism spectrum disorders and the patterns of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders in a total population sample of 5-year-old children. Mol Autism. 2020 ; 11(1) : 35.

BACKGROUNDS : Whether there is a true increase in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequency or not remains unclear. Additionally, the rates of co-existing neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a total population sample has not been fully examined before. Therefore, using a total population sample in Japan, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and cumulative incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) annually, to determine whether there is a true increase in ASD prevalence by estimating the cumulative incidence of ASD annually, and to examine the rates of co-existing neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). METHOD : In this cross-sectional sequential design study, all 5-year-old children in the catchment area underwent the screening annually from the year 2013-2016. Screen-positive children were invited to participate in a comprehensive assessment, including child and parent interview, behavioral observation, and cognitive and motor function testing. All cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary research team. RESULTS : Caregivers of 3954 children returned the screening, among which 559 children underwent the assessment with 87 children receiving an ASD diagnosis. Adjusted ASD prevalence was 3.22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66-3.76%). The male to female ratio of the crude prevalence was 2.2:1. The cumulative incidence of ASD up to 5 years of age for the total study years was 1.31% (95% CI 1.00-1.62%). A generalized linear model revealed no significant linear trends in 5-year cumulative incidence over the study years. Only 11.5% of children had ASD alone ; the remaining 88.5% were found to have at least one co-existing NDD. LIMITATIONS : Modest sample size for a total population study. CONCLUSIONS : Our findings demonstrate the stability of the 5-year cumulative incidence of ASD, implying no true rise in ASD incident cases over the 4-year study period in the study catchment area. High rates of co-existing NDDs reflect the importance of investigating broad developmental challenges in children with ASD.

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10. Shaughnessy AF. Autism Screening with Follow-Up Overidentifies Autism Spectrum Disorder. American family physician. 2020 ; 101(10) : 630.

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11. Surgent OJ, Walczak M, Zarzycki O, Ausderau K, Travers BG. IQ and Sensory Symptom Severity Best Predict Motor Ability in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Motor challenges are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, there is substantial heterogeneity in motor ability within ASD, and it is unknown what behavioral characteristics best explain individual differences in motor ability in ASD and related conditions. This observational study examined motor ability as a function of sensory features, attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, ASD symptoms, and IQ in 110 children with ASD, typical development, or an intermediate behavioral profile. While motor challenges were more prevalent in the ASD group compared to other groups, sensory symptom severity and IQ across all individuals best predicted motor performance above-and-beyond group status. Therefore, motor challenges may be best characterized by individual variation in sensory features and cognitive abilities rather than diagnostic group.

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12. Vettori S, Dzhelyova M, Van der Donck S, Jacques C, Steyaert J, Rossion B, Boets B. Frequency-Tagging Electroencephalography of Superimposed Social and Non-Social Visual Stimulation Streams Reveals Reduced Saliency of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020 ; 11 : 332.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social communication and interaction. The social motivation hypothesis states that a reduced interest in social stimuli may partly underlie these difficulties. Thus far, however, it has been challenging to quantify individual differences in social orientation and interest, and to pinpoint the neural underpinnings of it. In this study, we tested the neural sensitivity for social versus non-social information in 21 boys with ASD (8-12 years old) and 21 typically developing (TD) control boys, matched for age and IQ, while children were engaged in an orthogonal task. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) during fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) of social versus non-social stimuli to obtain an objective implicit neural measure of relative social bias. Streams of variable images of faces and houses were superimposed, and each stream of stimuli was tagged with a particular presentation rate (i.e., 6 and 7.5 Hz or vice versa). This frequency-tagging method allows disentangling the respective neural responses evoked by the different streams of stimuli. Moreover, by using superimposed stimuli, we controlled for possible effects of preferential looking, spatial attention, and disengagement. Based on four trials of 60 s, we observed a significant three-way interaction. In the control group, the frequency-tagged neural responses to faces were larger than those to houses, especially in lateral occipito-temporal channels, while the responses to houses were larger over medial occipital channels. In the ASD group, however, faces and houses did not elicit significantly different neural responses in any of the regions. Given the short recording time of the frequency-tagging paradigm with multiple simultaneous inputs and the robustness of the individual responses, the method could be used as a sensitive marker of social preference in a wide range of populations, including younger and challenging populations.

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13. Waizbard-Bartov E, Ferrer E, Young GS, Heath B, Rogers S, Wu Nordahl C, Solomon M, Amaral DG. Trajectories of Autism Symptom Severity Change During Early Childhood. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Autism symptom severity change was evaluated during early childhood in 125 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children were assessed at approximately 3 and 6 years of age for autism symptom severity, IQ and adaptive functioning. Each child was assigned a change score, representing the difference between ADOS Calibrated Severity Scores (CSS) at the two ages. A Decreased Severity Group (28.8%) decreased by 2 or more points ; a Stable Severity Group (54.4%) changed by 1 point or less ; and an Increased Severity Group (16.8%) increased by 2 or more points. Girls tended to decrease in severity more than boys and increase in severity less than boys. There was no clear relationship between intervention history and membership in the groups.

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14. Zhao F, Chen Z, Rekik I, Lee SW, Shen D. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Central-Moment Features From Low- and High-Order Dynamic Resting-State Functional Connectivity Networks. Front Neurosci. 2020 ; 14 : 258.

The sliding-window-based dynamic functional connectivity networks (D-FCNs) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) are effective methods for diagnosing various neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, traditional D-FCNs are low-order networks based on pairwise correlation between brain regions, thus overlooking high-level interactions across multiple regions of interest (ROIs). Moreover, D-FCNs suffer from the temporal mismatching issue, i.e., subnetworks in the same temporal window do not have temporal correspondence across different subjects. To address the above problems, we first construct a novel high-order D-FCNs based on the principle of "correlation’s correlation" to further explore the higher level and more complex interaction relationships among multiple ROIs. Furthermore, we propose to use a central-moment method to extract temporal-invariance properties contained in either low- or high-order D-FCNs. Finally, we design and train an ensemble classifier by fusing the features extracted from conventional FCN, low-order D-FCNs, and high-order D-FCNs for the diagnosis of ASD and normal control subjects. Our method achieved the best ASD classification accuracy (83%), and our results revealed the features extracted from different networks fingerprinting the autistic brain at different connectional levels.

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