Pubmed du 06/06/20

samedi 6 juin 2020

1. An S, Kanderzhanova A, Akhmetova A, Foster F, Chan CK. "Chasing hope" : Parents’ perspectives on complementary and alternative interventions for children with autism in Kazakhstan. Autism ;2020 (Jun 4):1362361320923494.

The article reports the findings of a qualitative research study on how and why parents of autistic children in Kazakhstan utilize complementary and alternative medicine. We found that parents turn to complementary and alternative medicine because of the lack of professional care options available to them and in pursuit for hope and opportunities for their children with ASD.

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2. Beffel JH, Nuttall AK. Influences of parentification and benefit finding on prosocial behavior among typically developing siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Jun 2) ;104:103694.

BACKGROUND : Prior research examining typically developing siblings (TDS) of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reports both higher and lower levels of prosocial behavior among TDS. TDS’ experiences (parent-focused parentification, sibling-focused parentification) and perceptions of experiences (ASD benefit finding, role benefit finding) may interact to influence TDS prosocial behavior. AIMS : 1) Examine influences of TDS’ experiences and perceptions of TDS experiences on prosocial behavior and 2) examine interactions between TDS’ experiences of parentification and perceptions of experiences influencing prosocial behavior while controlling for the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). METHODS AND PROCEDURES : TDS [N = 108 ; M(SD) age = 20.37(1.55)] were college students who reported having a sibling with ASD, defined as "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "Autism", "Asperger’s", and "Pervasive Developmental Disability". TDS completed an online survey about their experiences and perceptions of experiences. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS : Controlling for gender and BAP, there was a significant interaction between ASD benefit finding and sibling-focused parentification such that at low levels of ASD benefit finding, sibling-focused parentification negatively predicted prosocial behavior. Lower BAP scores and female gender were associated with greater levels of prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : TDS experiences and perceptions of experiences are important for understanding TDS prosocial behavior.

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3. Bellon-Harn ML, Ni J, Manchaiah V. Twitter usage about autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2020 (Jun 6):1362361320923173.

Stakeholders within autism spectrum disorder communities use Twitter for specific purposes. The goal of this study was to characterize patterns and themes of tweet content and sentiment and intercommunications between users sending and retweeting content to their respective user networks. The study used cross-sectional analysis of data generated from Twitter. Twitter content, sentiment, users, and community networks were examined from a sample of tweets with the highest Twitter reach and the lowest Twitter reach. Results indicate that Twitter content from both samples was primarily related to empowerment and support. Differences between the number of tweets originating from an individual in the lowest reach sample (i.e. 41%) as compared to the individuals in the highest reach sample (i.e. 18%) were noted. The number of users belonging to an advocacy subcommunity was substantially larger than a clinical and research subcommunity. Results provide insight into the presuppositions of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, their families and significant others, and other stakeholders.

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4. Bochynska A, Coventry KR, Vulchanov V, Vulchanova M. Tell me where it is : Selective difficulties in spatial language on the autism spectrum. Autism ;2020 (Jun 4):1362361320921040.

How we think and talk about space is an essential ability, necessary for understanding the world around us. We recruit spatial thinking every day when finding our way or using tools but also in more advanced tasks, such as reading complex graphs or maps. We do so also in daily communication when we use spatial language, terms such as under, over, to the left of or in front of, and when we give instructions. Spatial terms appear in children’s early vocabularies and continue to develop until late childhood or even early adolescence. Because spatial language develops over many years, some spatial terms are mastered very early, whereas others take longer to acquire. In the current set of studies, we tested how intellectually high-functioning children and adults on the autism spectrum use and understand these early- and late-acquired spatial terms in comparison to typically developing age-matched individuals. We found that children and adults on the autism spectrum experience difficulties with the use of some spatial terms (e.g. near and far or out of and down off) but not with others, which are acquired early (e.g. in and on or over and under). We also found that remembering spatial terms from short stories was more difficult for the individuals on the autism spectrum compared with typically developing individuals. These results reveal difficulties that can profoundly affect everyday communication of children and adults on the autism spectrum but also open new directions of research on language development in autism spectrum disorders.

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5. Carta A, Fucà E, Guerrera S, Napoli E, Valeri G, Vicari S. Characterization of Clinical Manifestations in the Co-occurring Phenotype of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychol ;2020 ;11:861.

Comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequently reported condition. However, the clinical overlaps between the two disorders are not well characterized. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a well-documented measure of emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether CBCL scales were able to detect psychopathological comorbidities as well as emotional and behavioral profiles across three groups of children with ASD, ADHD, and with the co-occurrence of both disorders. The results show that around 30% of participants with ASD exhibited internalizing problems, which was in line with previous findings. Co-occurrence condition showed a clinical intermediate phenotype : relative to ADHD and ASD, youths with co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD phenotype showed respectively lower (p < 0.000) and higher externalizing problems (p < 0.000). No differences emerged in internalizing problems (p > 0.05) across groups. CBCL is a useful measure to study the psychopathological conditions as well as emotional and behavioral profiles associated with ASD, ADHD, and the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD. The identification of psychopathological and behavioral profiles associated with ASD and ADHD is crucial to perform specific and individualized treatments. Our preliminary findings suggested the existence of an intermediate and independent phenotype between ADHD and ASD that seems to be defined by the externalizing problems. Internalizing problems do not significantly differ between the combined phenotype and the two groups.

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6. Granieri JE, McNair ML, Gerber AH, Reifler RF, Lerner MD. Atypical social communication is associated with positive initial impressions among peers with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2020 (Jun 4):1362361320924906.

Atypical social communication is a key indicator of autism spectrum disorder and has long been presumed to interfere with friendship formation and first impressions among typically developing youth. However, emerging literature suggests that such atypicalities may function differently among groups of peers with autism spectrum disorder. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between atypical social communication patterns and first impression sociometric ratings by peers in groups of youth with autism spectrum disorder. Findings suggest that, contrary to typically developing individuals, several forms of atypical communication among youth with autism spectrum disorder are associated with more positive first impressions by others with autism spectrum disorder. This suggests that interventions designed to increase friendships among youth with autism spectrum disorder may benefit from reframing their approach to addressing atypical social communication.

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7. Graziano C, Despang P, Palombo F, Severi G, Posar A, Cassio A, Pippucci T, Isidori F, Matthes J, Bonora E. A New Homozygous CACNB2 Mutation has Functional Relevance and Supports a Role for Calcium Channels in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 6)

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8. Kim SH. Decomposing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Through Neurosubtyping. Biol Psychiatry ;2020 (Jun 15) ;87(12):e37-e38.

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9. McLay L, Hansen SG, Carnett A, France KG, Blampied NM. Attributions, causal beliefs, and help-seeking behavior of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and sleep problems. Autism ;2020 (Jun 6):1362361320924216.

Sleep problems are commonly reported among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Without effective treatment, such problems are unlikely to resolve. To date, we know very little about how and why parents of children with ASD seek help for sleep disturbance. Via an online survey, we gathered information about how parents make sense of their children’s sleep problems, beliefs about their causes, sources of information, and help-seeking behavior. The analysis of responses from 244 parents revealed that parents commonly view sleep problems (a) as a consequence of their child’s ASD, and unlikely to change over time (stable), and (b) as located within the child (intrinsic), stable over time, and difficult to treat. Despite this, parents also rated sleep problems as being important to treat. Eighty-two percent of parents surveyed reported seeking some kind of help for their child’s sleep disturbance, and the average parent had tried six different treatment strategies, most commonly medical approaches (e.g. melatonin). The alignment between parents’ treatment choices and those strategies that are supported by research was poor, but belief in the effectiveness of treatments was closely related to how often the treatment was used. These findings have important implications for parental education and clinical practice in the treatment of sleep problems in children with ASD.

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