Pubmed du 07/06/20

dimanche 7 juin 2020

1. Colizzi M, Sironi E, Antonini F, Ciceri ML, Bovo C, Zoccante L. Psychosocial and Behavioral Impact of COVID-19 in Autism Spectrum Disorder : An Online Parent Survey. Brain Sci ;2020 (Jun 3) ;10(6)

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak could result in higher levels of psychological distress, especially among people suffering from pre-existing mental health conditions. Young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly at risk due to their vulnerability to unpredictable and complex changes. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ASD individuals, whether any pre-pandemic sociodemographic or clinical characteristics would predict a negative outcome, and to narratively characterize their needs. Parents and guardians of ASD individuals filled out an online survey consisting of 40 questions investigating socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of their children, impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on their wellbeing and needs to deal with the emergency. Data were available on 527 survey participants. The COVID-19 emergency resulted in a challenging period for 93.9% of families, increased difficulties in managing daily activities, especially free time (78.1%) and structured activities (75.7%), and, respectively, 35.5% and 41.5% of children presenting with more intense and more frequent behavior problems. Behavior problems predating the COVID-19 outbreak predicted a higher risk of more intense (odds ratio (OR) = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-3.29) and more frequent (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.13-2.48) disruptive behavior. Even though ASD children were receiving different types of support, also requiring specialist (19.1%) or emergency (1.5%) interventions in a relatively low proportion of cases, a number of needs emerged, including receiving more healthcare support (47.4%), especially in-home support (29.9%), as well as interventions to tackle a potentially disruptive quarantine (16.8%). The COVID-19 outbreak has undoubtedly resulted in increased difficulties among ASD individuals.

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2. Doherty BR, Longhi E, Cole V, Karmiloff-Smith A, Cornish K, Scerif G. Disentangling autism spectrum and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms over development in fragile X syndrome. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (May 13) ;104:103692.

Even genetic disorders associated with monogenic aetiologies are characterized by complex and variable risk for poor outcomes, highlighting the need to follow trajectories longitudinally. Here, we investigated the longitudinal relationships between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a population at high risk for both : boys with fragile X syndrome. 59 boys with fragile X syndrome aged 3-10 years old at entry participated in this study, and were followed up one and two years after their first visit. As expected, we found strong relationships over three timepoints for ADHD symptoms (as measured by the parent-rated Conners scale) and ASD symptoms (as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire [SCQ]). In addition, using structural equation modeling (SEM) we found that ADHD symptoms at time 2 predicted ASD symptoms at time 3, suggestive of a causal relationship. Importantly, these relationships hold when including chronological age at entry to the study, as well as when including severity of impairment as measured by IQ, and their effects on both ASD and ADHD symptoms do not reach significance. This result highlights the need to study outcomes longitudinally and it informs the comorbidity of the two symptom domains in FXS as well as their potential directionality, both of which have been little researched. In addition, our findings may suggest a future need to study how ADHD symptoms and their treatment impact individuals with ASD.

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3. Eissa N, Azimullah S, Jayaprakash P, Jayaraj RL, Reiner D, Ojha SK, Beiram R, Stark H, Łażewska D, Kieć-Kononowicz K, Sadek B. The Dual-Active Histamine H(3) Receptor Antagonist and Acetylcholine Esterase Inhibitor E100 Alleviates Autistic-Like Behaviors and Oxidative Stress in Valproic Acid Induced Autism in Mice. Int J Mol Sci ;2020 (Jun 3) ;21(11)

The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) functions as auto- and hetero-receptors, regulating the release of brain histamine (HA) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. The enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is involved in the metabolism of brain ACh. Both brain HA and ACh are implicated in several cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, anxiety, and narcolepsy, all of which are comorbid with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, the novel dual-active ligand E100 with high H3R antagonist affinity (hH3R : K(i) = 203 nM) and balanced AChE inhibitory effect (EeAChE : IC(50) = 2 µM and EqBuChE : IC(50) = 2 µM) was investigated on autistic-like sociability, repetitive/compulsive behaviour, anxiety, and oxidative stress in male C57BL/6 mice model of ASD induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, 500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)). Subchronic systemic administration with E100 (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently attenuated sociability deficits of autistic (VPA) mice in three-chamber behaviour (TCB) test (all p < 0.05). Moreover, E100 significantly improved repetitive and compulsive behaviors by reducing the increased percentage of marbles buried in marble-burying behaviour (MBB) (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, pre-treatment with E100 (10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) corrected decreased anxiety levels (p < 0.05), however, failed to restore hyperactivity observed in elevated plus maze (EPM) test. In addition, E100 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) mitigated oxidative stress status by increasing the levels of decreased glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and decreasing the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cerebellar tissues (all p < 0.05). Additionally, E100 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the elevated levels of AChE activity in VPA mice (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate the promising effects of E100 on in-vivo VPA-induced ASD-like features in mice, and provide evidence that a potent dual-active H3R antagonist and AChE inhibitor (AChEI) is a potential drug candidate for future therapeutic management of autistic-like behaviours.

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4. Gillespie-Lynch K, Daou N, Obeid R, Reardon S, Khan S, Goldknopf EJ. What Contributes to Stigma Towards Autistic University Students and Students with Other Diagnoses ?. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 5):1-17.

Little remains known about the degree to which autistic university students are stigmatized relative to students with other diagnoses. We conducted an online survey with students in New York City (n = 633) and Beirut (n = 274). Students with diagnoses that were perceived as dangerous (e.g., psychopathy) were more stigmatized than students with diagnoses that were perceived as less dangerous (e.g., autism). Disruptive autistic behaviors (described via vignettes) evoked more stigma than withdrawn behaviors. Perceived dangerousness predicted autism stigma. Greater acceptance of inequality, less openness, and lower cognitive empathy co-occurred with heightened stigma towards most conditions. Diagnostic labels were typically less stigmatized than behaviors. Findings suggest that interventions are needed to decrease stigma towards varied diagnoses in collegiate communities.

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5. Lima MES, Barros LCM, Aragão GF. Could autism spectrum disorders be a risk factor for COVID-19 ?. Med Hypotheses ;2020 (May 30) ;144:109899.

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemia is infecting millions of people and some studies relate conditions that might increase the risk of developing a fatal course for the disease, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and obesity. In COVID-19 physiopathology, one of the main inflammation mechanisms is the "cytokine storm", causing a pro-inflammatory state, related to cardiac and pulmonary damage. There is also a less effective role of lymphocyte B and T in the humoral immunity due to the reduction of their proliferative response. The physiopathology of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) involves several modifications at the genetic and at the immune level, such as the increase of inflammatory cytokines and abnormal immune response in several levels. We hypothesize that ASD could be a risk-factor as the other conditions are.

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6. Livingston LA, Ashwin C, Shah P. Electronic communication in autism spectrum conditions. Mol Autism ;2020 (Jun 5) ;11(1):44.

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7. Masson HL, Op de Beeck H, Boets B. Reduced task-dependent modulation of functional network architecture for positive versus negative affective touch processing in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage ;2020 (Jun 3):117009.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience impairments in social communication and interaction, and often show difficulties with receiving and offering touch. Despite the high prevalence of abnormal reactions to touch in ASD, and the importance of touch communication in human relationships, the neural mechanisms underlying atypical touch processing in ASD remain largely unknown. To answer this question, we provided both pleasant and unpleasant touch stimulation to male adults with and without ASD during functional neuroimaging. By employing generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis combined with an independent component analysis approach, we characterize stimulus-dependent changes in functional connectivity patterns for processing two tactile stimuli that evoke different emotions (i.e., pleasant vs. unpleasant touch). Results reveal that neurotypical male adults showed extensive stimulus-sensitive modulations of the functional network architecture in response to the different types of touch, both at the level of brain regions and large-scale networks. Conversely, far fewer stimulus-sensitive modulations were observed in the ASD group. These aberrant functional connectivity profiles in the ASD group were marked by hypo-connectivity of the parietal operculum and major pain networks and hyper-connectivity between the semantic and limbic networks. Lastly, individuals presenting more social deficits and a more negative attitude towards social touch showed greater hyper-connectivity between the limbic and semantic networks. These findings suggest that reduced stimulus-related modulation of this functional network architecture is associated with abnormal processing of touch in ASD.

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8. Okyar E, Görker I. Examining the autistic traits in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents. BMC Psychiatry ;2020 (Jun 5) ;20(1):285.

BACKGROUND : Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are two of the most frequently-observed neurodevelopmental disorders. Autistic traits are detected frequently in children who have ADHD. This study aimed to examine autism symptoms in children diagnosed with ADHD and their parents ; and also, to investigate parental risk factors that increase autistic traits in children. Besides the risk factors related to pregnancy, birth and developmental history were examined. METHODS : Two groups were created consisting of 66 children diagnosed with ADHD and 33 children not diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Autism symptoms were screened with the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) in children, and Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in parents. Also, Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine ADHD symptoms in parents. RESULTS : It was determined that there were more autism symptoms in children who were diagnosed with ADHD than in the control group without ADHD. There were more autistic symptoms in boys and the presence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Although there were more ADHD symptoms in the parents of children diagnosed with ADHD, it was determined that they did not differ from parents in the control group in terms of autism symptoms. It was also determined that maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms were predictive for autism symptoms in children. It was also shown that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with more autistic traits. CONCLUSION : ASD and ADHD show high levels of comorbidity. The etiology remains unclear. Both ADHD and ASD show strong hereditary transition. We found that maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms predict autism symptoms in children with ADHD. However, more studies are needed to reveal the etiology.

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