Pubmed du 11/06/20

jeudi 11 juin 2020

1. Arnold Anteraper S, Guell X, Hollinshead M, D’Mello A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Biederman J, Joshi G. Functional Alterations Associated with Structural Abnormalities in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Connect ;2020 (Jun 10)

BACKGROUND : The combination of structural and functional analyses is a biologically valid approach that offers methodological advantages in ASD neuroimaging science. The paucity of studies combining these methods constitutes an important knowledge gap. In this study, we investigate structural abnormalities and their associated functional differences in a developmentally homogeneous ASD cohort. 
 Methods : Whole-brain VBM analyses were performed on 28 ASD participants and 38 age-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) to derive gray matter (GM) volume differences. The anatomically relevant clusters identified by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) served as seed regions of interest (ROI) for resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) analysis. RESULTS : Whole-brain VBM analyses revealed significant right lateralized GM volume abnormality in the ASD group with lower GM volumes in cerebellar lobules VIIb/VIIIa (cluster 1) and significantly higher GM volumes in posterior middle/superior temporal gyrii (BA 21/22, cluster 2) as compared to HC. Whole-brain RsFc analysis in HF-ASD revealed significant hypo-connectivity of the cerebellar VBM cluster with the right cerebral cortical regions of superior parietal lobule (BA7) and occipital pole (BA19) (overlapping with dorsal attention and visual networks, respectively). Cerebral cortical VBM cluster (cluster 2) revealed significant hypo-connectivity in HF-ASD with other task-positive cerebral cortical including the left lateral prefrontal cortex (frontoparietal network) and some aspects of the insula (ventral attention network) and ectopic positive connectivity (lack of anti-correlations) with posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex (default mode network). CONCLUSIONS : The cerebro-cerebellar intrinsic functional dysconnectivity based on the whole-brain VBM-derived ROIs may advance our understanding of the compensatory mechanisms associated with ASD and offer cerebellum as a potential target for diagnostic, predictive, prognostic, and therapeutic interventions in ASD. Our findings also provide additional support indicating that functional abnormalities as indexed by RsFc exist in ASD, and highlight that there is likely a relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in this disorder. 
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2. Chan KKS, Leung DCK. Linking Child Autism to Parental Depression and Anxiety : Mediating the Roles of Enacted and Felt Stigma. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 10)

This study examined whether child autistic symptoms would heighten parental affective symptoms through evoking enacted stigma from the community (i.e., public and courtesy stigma) and felt stigma within the parents (i.e., vicarious and self-stigma). Cross-sectional questionnaire data were collected from 441 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Path analyses showed that social communication and interaction deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors in child autism were positively associated with public and courtesy stigma. While public stigma was positively associated with parental vicarious stigma, courtesy stigma was positively associated with parental self-stigma. Both vicarious and self-stigma were positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among parents. Findings revealed how child autism could compromise parental well-being through exacerbating the family’s stigmatizing experiences.

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3. Čolić M, Milačić-Vidojević I. Perceived Stigma Among Serbian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Physical Disabilities : Validation of a New Instrument. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 9)

Limited research has been done to explore parental perception of stigma. The present study developed the Parental Perceptions of Public Attitudes Scale to examine perceived stigma among Serbian parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with physical disabilities (PD). The convenience sample consisted of 82 participants. A confirmatory factor analysis was done to validate the scale and a 9-item solution clustered into two factors proved to be the best model. Overall, the parents reported a low-to-moderate level of perceived stigma. Parents of children with ASD reported higher degree of perceived stigma compared to the parents of children with PD. The scale was useful in measuring parental perceived stigma and could be used in other Eastern European countries.

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4. Fujioka T, Fujisawa TX, Inohara K, Okamoto Y, Matsumura Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Katayama T, Munesue T, Tomoda A, Wada Y, Kosaka H. Attenuated relationship between salivary oxytocin levels and attention to social information in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder : a comparative study. Ann Gen Psychiatry ;2020 ;19:38.

BACKGROUND : Previous research studies have assessed the relationship between attention to social information and peripheral (e.g., plasma and salivary) oxytocin (OT) levels in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A relationship between them was observed in TD children, but not in children with ASD. However, this relationship remains unexamined in other age groups. To clarify whether this lack of association is maintained throughout development in individuals with ASD, we aimed to assess the relationship between salivary OT levels and attention to social information in adolescents and adults with and without ASD. METHODS : We recruited male adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 17) and TD participants (n = 24). Using the all-in-one eye-tracking system Gazefinder, we measured the percentage fixation time allocated to social information. We also measured the salivary OT levels and Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) of participants. Subsequently, we confirmed group differences and conducted a correlation analysis to investigate the relationships between these three measures. RESULTS : Salivary OT levels did not show any significant difference between the ASD and TD groups and were negatively correlated with the AQ in the whole-group analysis, but not in within-group analysis. Individuals with ASD had significantly lower percentage fixation times than did TD individuals for eye regions in human faces with/without mouth motion, for upright biological motion, and for people regions in the people and geometry movies. The percentage of fixation for geometric shapes in the people and geometry movies was significantly higher in the ASD than in the TD group. In the TD group, salivary OT levels were positively correlated with percentage fixation times for upright biological motion and people and negatively correlated with inverted biological motion and geometry. However, no significant correlations were found in the ASD group. CONCLUSIONS : Our exploratory results suggest that salivary OT levels in adolescents and adults with ASD are less indicative of attention to social stimuli than they are in TD adolescents and adults. It is suggested that their association is slightly weaker in adolescents and adults with ASD and that this attenuated relationship appears to be maintained throughout development.

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5. Gauthier-Boudreault C, Gallagher F, Trépanier J, Corbin F, Couture M. Factors impacting the transition to adulthood of youth with fragile X syndrome and their families : Facilitators, obstacles and needs. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Jun 11) ;103:103674.

BACKGROUND : The transition from school to adulthood is a critical time for families of youth with disabilities. Few studies have focused on the needs of families of youths with fragile X syndrome. This syndrome is often associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, which creates specific needs that must be documented to improve transition planning. The aim of the current study was to document factors impacting transition planning and describe parents’ experiences during this period. METHOD : Individual interviews were conducted with thirteen parents of young people with fragile X syndrome. Two research team members analysed the interviews separately. RESULTS : Factors related to the youth, the youth’s family and the steps taken by the various institutions involved during this period seem to impact this transition and contributed to families’ anxiety. A clear, uniform transition planning process, initiated early enough to have time for exploratory work placements, and gradual integration emerged as crucial facilitators for the parents in this study. CONCLUSIONS : Understanding the reality of people with fragile X syndrome and their families will help to adapt services and develop concrete plans for their future.

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6. Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis T, Blencowe BJ. Microexons : at the nexus of nervous system development, behaviour and autism spectrum disorder. Curr Opin Genet Dev ;2020 (Jun 11) ;65:22-33.

The discovery and characterization of a network of highly conserved neuronal microexons have provided fundamental new insight into mechanisms underlying nervous system development and function, as well as an important basis for pathway convergence in autism spectrum disorder. In the past few years, considerable progress has been made in comprehensively determining the repertoires of factors that control neuronal microexons. These results have illuminated molecular mechanisms that activate the splicing of microexons, including those that control gene expression programs critical for neurogenesis, as well as synaptic protein translation and neuronal activity. Remarkably, individual disruption of specific microexons in these pathways results in autism-like phenotypes and cognitive impairment in mice. This review discusses these findings and their implications for delivering new therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

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7. Green HL, Shuffrey LC, Levinson L, Shen G, Avery T, Randazzo Wagner M, Sepulveda DM, Garcia P, Maddox C, Garcia F, Hassan S, Froud K. Evaluation of mismatch negativity as a marker for language impairment in autism spectrum disorder. J Commun Disord ;2020 (Apr 24) ;87:105997.

BACKGROUND : The identification of an early and objective marker of language impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has the potential to lead to earlier language intervention for affected children. The mismatch negativity (MMN), a passive auditory evoked potential, offers insight into the brain’s ability to direct attention to novel sounds. Since exposure to speech is necessary for learning to map meaning onto phonemes, we predicted slower MMN responses to speech sounds would indicate presence of language impairment in ASD. METHODS : We explored the relationship between MMN latency in children ages 5-10 with ASD plus language impairment (ASD + LI), ASD minus language impairment (ASD-LI), and typically developing children (TD) during an auditory oddball experiment presenting speech and pure tone sounds. RESULTS : Contrary to our prediction, children with ASD + LI demonstrated decreased MMN latency in the left hemisphere in response to novel vowel sounds compared to children with ASD-LI and TD controls. Parent responses to the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire revealed that all participating individuals with ASD were hypersensitive to sounds. CONCLUSIONS : Our results lend support to the theory that some children with ASD + LI have increased connectivity in primary sensory cortices at the expense of connectivity to association areas of the brain. This may account for faster speech sound processing despite low language scores in these children. Future studies should focus on individuals with language impairment and hyper-or hyposensitivity to sounds.

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8. Janickova L, Rechberger KF, Wey L, Schwaller B. Absence of parvalbumin increases mitochondria volume and branching of dendrites in inhibitory Pvalb neurons in vivo : a point of convergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk gene phenotypes. Mol Autism ;2020 (Jun 9) ;11(1):47.

BACKGROUND : In fast firing, parvalbumin (PV)-expressing (Pvalb) interneurons, PV acts as an intracellular Ca(2+) signal modulator with slow-onset kinetics. In Purkinje cells of PV(-/-) mice, adaptive/homeostatic mechanisms lead to an increase in mitochondria, organelles equally capable of delayed Ca(2+) sequestering/buffering. An inverse regulation of PV and mitochondria likewise operates in cell model systems in vitro including myotubes, epithelial cells, and oligodendrocyte-like cells overexpressing PV. Whether such opposite regulation pertains to all Pvalb neurons is currently unknown. In oligodendrocyte-like cells, PV additionally decreases growth and branching of processes in a cell-autonomous manner. METHODS : The in vivo effects of absence of PV were investigated in inhibitory Pvalb neurons expressing EGFP, present in the somatosensory and medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, thalamic reticular nucleus, hippocampal regions DG, CA3, and CA1 and cerebellum of mice either wild-type or knockout (PV(-/-)) for the Pvalb gene. Changes in Pvalb neuron morphology and PV concentrations were determined using immunofluorescence, followed by 3D-reconstruction and quantitative image analyses. RESULTS : PV deficiency led to an increase in mitochondria volume and density in the soma ; the magnitude of the effect was positively correlated with the estimated PV concentrations in the various Pvalb neuron subpopulations in wild-type neurons. The increase in dendrite length and branching, as well as thickness of proximal dendrites of selected PV(-/-) Pvalb neurons is likely the result of the observed increased density and length of mitochondria in these PV(-/-) Pvalb neuron dendrites. The increased branching and soma size directly linked to the absence of PV is assumed to contribute to the increased volume of the neocortex present in juvenile PV(-/-) mice. The extended dendritic branching is in line with the hypothesis of local hyperconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD mouse models including PV(-/-) mice, which display all ASD core symptoms and several comorbidities including cortical macrocephaly at juvenile age. CONCLUSION : PV is involved in most proposed mechanisms implicated in ASD etiology : alterations in Ca(2+) signaling affecting E/I balance, changes in mitochondria structure/function, and increased dendritic length and branching, possibly resulting in local hyperconnectivity, all in a likely cell autonomous way.

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9. Liao X, Liu Y, Fu X, Li Y. Postmortem Studies of Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Systematic Review. Mol Neurobiol ;2020 (Jun 11)

Although the neurobiological basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not yet been fully clarified, converging lines of evidence implicated a role of neuroinflammation in the etiological pathway of this disorder. The present article provided a systematic review of publications regarding the involvement of different components of neuroinflammation in postmortem brain samples of subjects diagnosed with ASD. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted, which was supplemented by manual searching of reference lists of included articles. The screening for study and extraction of data were conducted by two independent authors after reviewing the abstract and full text. Of 356 articles identified in the literature search, 27 articles comprising 685 subjects (ASD = 313, controls = 351, schizophrenia = 10, epilepsy = 11) covering 19 brain regions met the eligibility criteria for this review. The search yielded 11 studies that estimated astrocyte-related changes, 8 studies that reported microglia-related changes, 2 studies that evaluated oligodendrocyte-related changes, 3 studies that examined changes in glial cells without differentiating cell types, 6 studies that evaluated the levels of cytokines and chemokines, and 7 studies that measured other inflammatory parameters in postmortem brain samples of subjects with ASD compared with controls. Although a few studies noted a lack of changes in neuroinflammatory markers in postmortem brain samples of ASD subjects, the majority of studies supported the presence of neuroinflammation in the neurobiological pattern of ASD as shown by activation of astrocytes and microglia together with abnormal levels of cytokines and chemokines.

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10. Lin PC, Peng LY, Hsiao RC, Chou WJ, Yen CF. Teacher Harassment Victimization in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder : Related Factors and Its Relationships with Emotional Problems. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Jun 6) ;17(11)

This study aimed to examine the prevalence, related factors, and emotional problems associated with teacher harassment victimization in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessed by self-reports and parent reports. A total of 219 adolescents with ASD participated in this study. The self-reported and parent-reported rates of teacher harassment victimization were calculated. Sociodemographic characteristics, parent-reported social communication deficits, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and suicidality were surveyed. In total, 26 (11.9%) adolescents with ASD experienced teacher harassment based on self-reports or parent reports ; the convergence between adolescent and parent reports on adolescent experiences of teacher harassment was low. Victims of teacher harassment exhibited more severe social communication deficits and ODD symptoms than nonvictims of teacher harassment. Victims of teacher harassment displayed more severe depression and anxiety and were more likely to have suicidality. Socio-communication deficits and ODD symptoms were related to teacher harassment victimization, which in turn was significantly associated with emotional problems among adolescents with ASD.

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11. Mansouri M, Pouretemad H, Roghani M, Wegener G, Ardalan M. Autistic-Like Behaviours and Associated Brain Structural Plasticity are Modulated by Oxytocin in Maternally Separated Rats. Behav Brain Res ;2020 (Jun 11):112756.

BACKGROUND : Early psycho-social experiences influence the developing brain and possible onset of various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is characterized by a variety of brain abnormalities, including alteration of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Recently, early life adverse experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), have been shown to constitute risk factors for ASD in preclinical studies. Therefore, the main aims of the current study were to i) explore the association between onset of autistic-like behaviours and molecular/structural changes in the brain following MS, and ii) evaluate the possible beneficial effects of oxytocin treatment on the same parameters. METHOD AND MATERIAL : Male rats were exposed to the maternal separation from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND14. After weaning, daily injections of oxytocin (1 mg/kg, ip) were administered (PND22-30), followed by examination of autism-related behaviours at adolescence (PND 42-50). Brain structural plasticity was examined using stereological methods, and the plasma level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analysed using ELISA. RESULTS : We found that maternal separation induced autistic-like behaviours, which was associated with increase in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (CA1.SR) volume. In addition, we observed increase in the infralimbic brain region volume and in the number of the pyramidal neurons in the same brain region. Maternal separation significantly increased the plasma BDNF levels. Treatment with oxytocin improved autistic like behaviours, normalized the number of neurons and the volume of the infralimbic region as well as the plasma BDNF level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION : Maternal separation induced autistic-like behaviours, brain structural impairment together with plasma BDNF level abnormality, which could be improved by oxytocin treatment.

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12. Owji H, Eslami M, Nezafat N, Ghasemi Y. In Silico Elucidation of Deleterious Non-synonymous SNPs in SHANK3, the Autism Spectrum Disorder Gene. J Mol Neurosci ;2020 (Jun 10)

SHANK3, a member of SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains (SHANK) proteins, plays a crucial role in synaptic development and functions. Mutations in SHANK3 have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. In this study, the functional and structural impacts of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on SHANK3 were predicted. Various databases were used to extract 16,894 non-redundant SNPs, out of which 1179 were annotated as missense variants. Missense variants were categorized as deleterious or non-deleterious. Twenty-nine missense variants were unanimously recognized as deleterious and subjected to structural and stability analyses. Mutations, including L47P, G54W, G172D, G250C/D, and G627E, which posed drastic effects on the secondary structure of SHANK3, were modeled. Stability analyses introduced L47P, G54W, and G250D as the most destabilizing mutations, thus they were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation revealed significant changes in intramolecular interactions and high fluctuations in residues of 1-350 that significantly affect the ANK functional domain. G250C/D and G635R consensus deleterious mutations were found in the first and second binding domains of SHANK3, and none were found in the post-translational modification sites. This study suggests L47P, G54W, and G250C/D deleterious mutations as priorities for future studies on SHANK3.

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13. Posar A, Visconti P. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatr Ann ;2020 (Jun 1) ;49(6):e278-e282.

Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent comorbidities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Heterogeneous sleep problems in children with ASD have been reported, and insomnia has a prevalence in children with ASD ranging from 60% to 86%. Poor sleep can cause harmful effects on cognitive functions, fostering the appearance of aggression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity in children with ASD. Sleep disorders can also be related to the severity of the core symptoms of ASD, including social cognition and communication, stereotypic behavior, and hypersensitivity to the environment. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with ASD is multifactorial, related to complex interactions between biological factors and psychological, socio-environmental, and family factors. From the therapeutic perspective, interventions should only be considered after any medical conditions potentially contributing to sleep disorders have been carefully evaluated. [Pediatr Ann. 2020 ;49(6):e278-e282.].

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14. Ramirez AC, Grebe SC, McNeel MM, Limon DL, Schneider SC, Berry LN, Goin-Kochel RP, Cepeda SL, Voigt RG, Salloum A, Storch EA. Parent-led, stepped-care cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with autism and co-occurring anxiety : study rationale and method. Braz J Psychiatry ;2020 (Jun 8)

Anxiety disorders affect up to 50% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are significantly impairing to the person affected, as well as to their loved ones. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been established as the gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders among typically developing youth and adults, and demonstrates similar efficacy among youth with high-functioning autism (HFA). Many CBT interventions utilize a "full-package" treatment approach to treat co-occurring anxiety in youth with ASD. However, these service delivery systems are often therapist-intensive, costly, and impractical, thereby compromising full engagement and treatment adherence. This paper describes the design, rationale, and methodology of a study examining stepped-care CBT for youth with HFA and co-occurring anxiety - a clinical trial examining the efficacy of low-intensity, parent-led CBT as the first line of treatment and utilizing a more intensive, therapist-led intervention for nonresponders. The study will evaluate the potential benefits of stepped-care and parent-led therapist-assisted interventions, predictors of treatment response, and the economic value of using a stepped-care model. Implications for practice will be discussed.

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15. Shield A, Wang X, Bone D, Narayanan S, Grossman RB. Conversational correlates of rapid social judgments of children and adolescents with and without ASD. Clin Linguist Phon ;2020 (Jun 10):1-13.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication, and even children with ASD with preserved language are often perceived as socially awkward. We ask if linguistic patterns are associated with social perceptions of speakers. Twenty-one adolescents with ASD participated in conversations with an adult ; each conversation was then rated for the social dimensions of likability, outgoingness, social skilfulness, responsiveness, and fluency. Conversations were analysed for responses to questions, pauses, and acoustic variables. Wide intonation ranges and more pauses within children’s own conversational turn were predictors of more positive social ratings while failure to respond to one’s conversational partner, faster syllable rate, and smaller quantity of speech were negative predictors of social perceptions.

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16. Smith E, Constantin A, Johnson H, Brosnan M. Digitally-Mediated Social Stories Support Children on the Autism Spectrum Adapting to a Change in a ’Real-World’ Context. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 9)

Social Stories™ (SS) is a widely used intervention for children on the autism spectrum. A preliminary survey of 103 practitioners highlighted that SS are often used to support adapting to a change. This study investigated the use of digitally-mediated SS to support ten children on the autism spectrum attending a school summer camp. Teacher perceptions of anxiety, understanding and closeness to the goal of the SS were assessed before and after the intervention (prior to the event). The pre- post-intervention comparisons highlighted significant improvements in child understanding, anxiety, and closeness to goal with medium-large effect sizes. The child’s understanding and closeness to SS goal post-intervention related to their difficulties with the SS goal and their anxiety during the event.

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17. van der Zee E, Derksen JJL. The Power of Systemizing in Autism. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ;2020 (Jun 11)

Identifying autism in clinical practice is complex because the causes of autism are still unclear and the features of autism are highly diverse. The Empathizing-Systemizing theory is successful in interpreting the core features of autism, both social and non-social, compared to other current theories of autism. This study provides an overview of the current state of research regarding the systemizing concept. High systemizing abilities are characteristic and specific in autism and as a result, three non-social features of autism are seen : restricted and repetitive behavior, obsessional interests, and, savant skills. We found solid evidence that, in order to identify autism in clinical practice, at least the use of an instrument which is specialized in measuring one’s systemizing abilities is required.

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18. van Laarhoven T, Stekelenburg JJ, Eussen ML, Vroomen J. Atypical visual-auditory predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder : Electrophysiological evidence from stimulus omissions. Autism ;2020 (Jun 10):1362361320926061.

Many autistic individuals experience difficulties in processing sensory information (e.g. increased sensitivity to sound). Here we show that these difficulties may be related to an inability to process unexpected sensory stimulation. In this study, 29 older adolescents and young adults with autism and 29 age-matched individuals with typical development participated in an electroencephalography study. The electroencephalography study measured the participants’ brain activity during unexpected silences in a sequence of videos of a handclap. The results showed that the brain activity of autistic individuals during these silences was increased compared to individuals with typical development. This increased activity indicates that autistic individuals may have difficulties in processing unexpected incoming sensory information, and might explain why autistic individuals are often overwhelmed by sensory stimulation. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the different sensory perception experienced by autistic individuals.

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19. Vecchione R, Vigna C, Whitman C, Kauffman EM, Braun JM, Chen A, Xu Y, Hamra GB, Lanphear BP, Yolton K, Croen LA, Fallin MD, Irva H-P, Newschaffer CJ, Lyall K. The Association Between Maternal Prenatal Fish Intake and Child Autism-Related Traits in the EARLI and HOME Studies. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jun 9)

We examined the association between prenatal fish intake and child autism-related traits according to Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and cognitive development scores in two US prospective pregnancy cohorts. In adjusted linear regression analyses, higher maternal fish intake in the second half of pregnancy was associated with increased child autism traits (higher raw SRS scores ; ß = 5.60, 95%CI 1.76, 12.97). Differences by fish type were suggested ; shellfish and large fish species were associated with increases, and salmon with decreases, in child SRS scores. Clear patterns with cognitive scores in the two cohorts were not observed. Future work should further evaluate potential critical windows of prenatal fish intake, and the role of different fish types in association with child autism-related outcomes.

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20. Whittingham L, Durbin A, Lin E, Matheson FI, Volpe T, Dastoori P, Calzavara A, Lunsky Y, Kouyoumdjian F. The prevalence and health status of people with developmental disabilities in provincial prisons in Ontario, Canada : A retrospective cohort study. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2020 (Jun 11)

BACKGROUND : The present authors lack data on the prevalence of developmental disabilities in people who experience imprisonment and on their characteristics. METHODS : The present authors identified adults with developmental disabilities who were released from Ontario provincial prisons in 2010 and a general population comparator group using administrative data. The present authors examined demographic characteristics, morbidity and healthcare use. RESULTS : The prevalence of developmental disabilities was 2.2% in the prison group (N = 52,302) and 0.7% in the general population (N = 10,466,847). The prevalence of psychotic illness, substance-related disorder and self-harm was higher among people in the prison group with developmental disabilities. People with developmental disabilities were more likely to have emergency department visits and hospitalizations in prison and in the year after release. CONCLUSIONS : People with developmental disabilities are overrepresented in provincial prisons and have a high burden of disease. Strategies are indicated to prevent incarceration and to improve health.

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