Pubmed du 05/07/20

dimanche 5 juillet 2020

1. Safa A, Noroozi R, Taheri M, Ghafouri-Fard S. Association Analysis of ANRIL Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 2020.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been shown to have a complex inheritance. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with risk of this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the current study, we genotyped four SNPs in a genomic hotspot for human disorders. The selected SNPs were located in adjacency of the antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) and have been shown to be associated with a number of human disorders. Genotyping was performed in 420 ASD cases and 420 normally developed children. After correction of P values for multiple comparisons, there was no significant difference in frequencies of rs1333045, rs1333048, rs4977574, and rs10757278 alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes between ASD children and children with normal development. However, one estimated haplotype (T A A A haplotype corresponding to rs1333045, rs1333048, rs4977574, and rs10757278 SNPs, respectively) tended to be more prevalent among cases compared with controls (OR (95% CI) = 1.77 (1.19-2.64), adjusted P value = 0.07). Besides, the T A G G tended to be less common among ASD cases compared with controls (OR (95% CI) = 0.64 (0.47-0.87), adjusted P value = 0.07). Although we could not detect significant difference in alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes frequencies between cases and controls, the trend toward association between two haplotypes and ASD risk implies that there might be a putative causative variant in the mentioned haplotypes whose association with ASD could be determined in larger cohorts of patients.

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2. Yousaf A, Waltes R, Haslinger D, Klauck SM, Duketis E, Sachse M, Voran A, Biscaldi M, Schulte-Rüther M, Cichon S, Nöthen M, Ackermann J, Koch I, Freitag CM, Chiocchetti AG. Quantitative genome-wide association study of six phenotypic subdomains identifies novel genome-wide significant variants in autism spectrum disorder. Translational psychiatry. 2020 ; 10(1) : 215.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heritable and are characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Twin studies on phenotypic subdomains suggest a differing underlying genetic etiology. Studying genetic variation explaining phenotypic variance will help to identify specific underlying pathomechanisms. We investigated the effect of common variation on ASD subdomains in two cohorts including >2500 individuals. Based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), we identified and confirmed six subdomains with a SNP-based genetic heritability h(2)(SNP) = 0.2-0.4. The subdomains nonverbal communication (NVC), social interaction (SI), and peer interaction (PI) shared genetic risk factors, while the subdomains of repetitive sensory-motor behavior (RB) and restricted interests (RI) were genetically independent of each other. The polygenic risk score (PRS) for ASD as categorical diagnosis explained 2.3-3.3% of the variance of SI, joint attention (JA), and PI, 4.5% for RI, 1.2% of RB, but only 0.7% of NVC. We report eight genome-wide significant hits-partially replicating previous findings-and 292 known and novel candidate genes. The underlying biological mechanisms were related to neuronal transmission and development. At the SNP and gene level, all subdomains showed overlap, with the exception of RB. However, no overlap was observed at the functional level. In summary, the ADI-R algorithm-derived subdomains related to social communication show a shared genetic etiology in contrast to restricted and repetitive behaviors. The ASD-specific PRS overlapped only partially, suggesting an additional role of specific common variation in shaping the phenotypic expression of ASD subdomains.

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