Pubmed du 17/07/20

vendredi 17 juillet 2020

1. Bowden N, Thabrew H, Kokaua J, Audas R, Milne B, Smiler K, Stace H, Taylor B, Gibb S. Autism spectrum disorder/Takiwātanga : An Integrated Data Infrastructure-based approach to autism spectrum disorder research in New Zealand. Autism. 2020 : 1362361320939329.

New Zealand has few estimates of the prevalence autism spectrum disorder and no national registry or data set to identify and track cases. This hinders the ability to make informed, evidence-based decisions relating to autism spectrum disorder. In this study, we utilised linked health and non-health data to develop a method for identifying cases of autism spectrum disorder among children and young people in New Zealand. In addition, we examined rates of co-occurring mental health, neurodevelopmental and related conditions among this cohort and compared these to the general population. The method identified almost 10,000 children and young people with autism spectrum disorder in New Zealand. Co-occurring mental health or related problems were found in over 68% of this group (nearly seven times higher than the general population), and around half were identified with multiple co-occurring conditions. The most frequently identified conditions were intellectual disability, disruptive behaviours and emotional problems. We have developed a useful method for monitoring service and treatment-related trends, number and types of co-occurring conditions and examining social outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder. While the method may underestimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in New Zealand, it provides a significant step towards establishing a more comprehensive evidence base to inform autism spectrum disorder-related policy.

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2. Canitano R, Bozzi Y, Dhossche D. Editorial : Autism Spectrum Disorders : Developmental Trajectories, Neurobiological Basis, Treatment Update, Volume 2. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020 ; 11 : 589.

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3. Cook A, Ogden J, Winstone N. The effect of school exposure and personal contact on attitudes towards bullying and autism in schools : A cohort study with a control group. Autism. 2020 : 1362361320937088.

Autistic children are more likely than non-autistic children to be bullied at school. This study therefore explored whether the kind of school setting and the level of personal contact with autistic people can affect children’s attitudes towards bullying and autism. Surveys were completed at the beginning and end of the school year by 775 children aged 11-12 years, from six schools : three with specialist centres for autistic children and three without. Participants read stories describing bullying situations, then provided their views in relation to the story and in relation to autism. Children in schools with centres increased their feelings of anger, pity, sadness and shame in response to the bullying situations. In contrast, children in schools with no centre showed less sociable responses to bullying, except in response to a story describing an autistic child, being excluded by classmates. Furthermore, children who increased the time they spent with autistic individuals over the course of the year showed a greater rise in positive attitudes towards autistic people. This highlights the need for both personal contact and an inclusive school environment, to improve attitudes towards autism and reduce tolerance for bullying.

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4. Digard BG, Sorace A, Stanfield A, Fletcher-Watson S. Bilingualism in autism : Language learning profiles and social experiences. Autism. 2020 : 1362361320937845.

Bilingualism changes the way people relate to others. This is particularly interesting in the case of autism, where social interaction presents many challenges. A better understanding of the overlap between the social variations of bilingualism and autism could unveil new ways to support the social experiences of autistic people. This research aims to understand the language learning and social experiences of autistic people who speak one, two or more languages. A total of 297 autistic adults (aged between 16 and 80 years) completed an online questionnaire that included general demographic questions, social life quality self-rating questions, language history questions, and open questions about the respondents’ bilingualism experience. Respondents had a wide range of language experiences : there were 89 monolingual English speakers, 98 bilinguals, 110 respondents knew three languages or more, all with a wide range of abilities in their languages. In the full group, younger respondents were more satisfied with their social life, and respondents with many languages were more satisfied with their social life than respondents with few languages. In the multilingual group, younger respondents were more satisfied with their social life, and the more skilled in their third language the more satisfied with their social life. This is the first study describing the language history and social experiences of a large group of bilingual and multilingual autistic adults. It highlights how autistic people can encounter a new language, learn it and use it in their daily life, and how their bilingualism experiences shape their social life.

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5. Garcia JM, Hahs-Vaughn DL. Health Factors, Sociability, and Academic Outcomes of Typically Developing Youth and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Latent Class Analysis Approach. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

To identify profiles of both typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on health indicators, and academic/social engagement. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify profiles of children from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health, based on physical activity, screen time, sleep, and academic/social engagement. A three-profile solution was the best fitting model, with children in profile 3 characterized as having excellent health, and academic/social outcomes, compared to profiles 1 and 2. Compared to TD youth, a greater percentage of youth with ASD fit into the poorer health profiles. Studies should examine whether health interventions for youth with ASD can improve factors, such as academic engagement and social interaction.

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6. Guinchat V, Vlamynck E, Diaz L, Chambon C, Pouzenc J, Cravero C, Baeza-Velasco C, Hamonet C, Xavier J, Cohen D. Compressive Garments in Individuals with Autism and Severe Proprioceptive Dysfunction : A Retrospective Exploratory Case Series. Children (Basel, Switzerland). 2020 ; 7(7).

(1) Background : Compression garments (CGs) are an adjuvant treatment for generalized joint hypermobility (GJH), including the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome/hypermobility types. The effects of CGs are likely to be related to better proprioceptive control. We aimed to explore the use of CGs in individuals with autism and severe proprioceptive dysfunction (SPD), including individuals with GJH, to control posture and challenging behaviors. (2) Methods : We retrospectively described 14 patients with autism and SPD, including seven with comorbid GJH, who were hospitalized for major challenging behaviors with remaining behavioral symptomatology after the implementation of multidisciplinary approaches, including medication, treatment of organic comorbidities, and behavioral restructuring. Each patient received a CG to wear for at least 1 h (but most often longer) per day for six weeks. We assessed challenging behaviors in these participants with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), sensory integration with the Dunn questionnaire, and postural sway and motor performance using a self-designed motricity path at baseline, two weeks, and six weeks. (3) Results : We observed a significant effect on most ABC rating scores at two weeks, which persisted at six weeks (total score, p = 0.004 ; irritability, p = 0.007 ; hyperactivity, p = 0.001 ; lethargy, p = 0.001). Postural control in dorsal and profile positions was significantly improved between before and after wearing the CGs (p = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively). Motor performance was also significantly improved. However, we did not observe a significant change in Dunn sensory scores. During the six-week duration, the treatment was generally well-tolerated. A comorbid GJH diagnosis was not associated with a better outcome. (4) Conclusions : CGs appear to be a promising adjuvant treatment for both behavioral and postural impairments in individuals with autism and SPD.

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7. Love AMA, Usher EL, Toland MD, Railey KS, Campbell JM, Spriggs AD. Measuring Police Officer Self-efficacy for Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently one of the most researched of all childhood developmental disorders and is receiving attention in many domains. The purpose of this study was to design and provide psychometric evidence for a scale that measures police officer self-efficacy for working with individuals with ASD. Psychometric properties of a scale designed to measure knowledge of ASD were also explored. Data from 620 police officers were collected and a 13-item scale was created and evaluated. Results indicated that the scale represented a unidimensional construct. Knowing more about officers’ knowledge and beliefs in their own capabilities to work with individuals with ASD can help inform future police education and training efforts.

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8. McCauley JB, Elias R, Lord C. Trajectories of co-occurring psychopathology symptoms in autism from late childhood to adulthood. Development and psychopathology. 2020 : 1-16.

Given high rates of co-occurring conditions in youth and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is critical to examine the developmental trajectories of these symptoms of psychopathology. Using data from a cohort of participants (n = 194), most of whom were first assessed for ASD in very early childhood, we investigated the trajectories of co-occurring depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from late childhood to adulthood. Additionally, childhood predictors and adult outcomes associated with these symptom trajectories were examined. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we found two distinct classes of individuals exhibiting each of these co-occurring symptom patterns : one class exhibited fairly low symptoms across time, and one class with elevated symptoms with varied fluctuation across time (ADHD symptoms starting high but decreasing, anxiety symptoms high and stable, and depressive symptoms fluctuating but peaking at clinically significant levels in young adulthood). All high trajectory classes were associated with age 9 adaptive skills ; verbal IQ predicted higher anxiety and depressive symptom classes. After accounting for verbal IQ, all high symptom trajectory classes were negative predictors of objective adult outcomes. These findings call for wide-ranging considerations of the needs of individuals across ability levels, autism symptoms, and behavioral and emotional challenges.

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9. Nair A, Jolliffe M, Lograsso YSS, Bearden CE. A Review of Default Mode Network Connectivity and Its Association With Social Cognition in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early-Onset Psychosis. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020 ; 11 : 614.

Recent studies have demonstrated substantial phenotypic overlap, notably social impairment, between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of social impairments across these distinct neuropsychiatric disorders has not yet been fully examined. Most neuroimaging studies to date have focused on adults with these disorders, with little known about the neural underpinnings of social impairments in younger populations. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature available through April 2020 on imaging studies of adolescents with either ASD or early-onset psychosis (EOP), to better understand the shared and unique neural mechanisms of social difficulties across diagnosis from a developmental framework. We specifically focus on functional connectivity studies of the default mode network (DMN), as the most extensively studied brain network relevant to social cognition across both groups. Our review included 29 studies of DMN connectivity in adolescents with ASD (Mean age range = 11.2-21.6 years), and 14 studies in adolescents with EOP (Mean age range = 14.2-24.3 years). Of these, 15 of 29 studies in ASD adolescents found predominant underconnectivity when examining DMN connectivity. In contrast, findings were mixed in adolescents with EOP, with five of 14 studies reporting DMN underconnectivity, and an additional six of 14 studies reporting both under- and over-connectivity of the DMN. Specifically, intra-DMN networks were more frequently underconnected in ASD, but overconnected in EOP. On the other hand, inter-DMN connectivity patterns were mixed (both under- and over-connected) for each group, especially DMN connectivity with frontal, sensorimotor, and temporoparietal regions in ASD, and with frontal, temporal, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in EOP. Finally, disrupted DMN connectivity appeared to be associated with social impairments in both groups, less so with other features distinct to each condition, such as repetitive behaviors/restricted interests in ASD and hallucinations/delusions in EOP. Further studies on demographically well-matched groups of adolescents with each of these conditions are needed to systematically explore additional contributing factors in DMN connectivity patterns such as clinical heterogeneity, pubertal development, and medication effects that would better inform treatment targets and facilitate prediction of outcomes in the context of these developmental neuropsychiatric conditions.

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10. Reina AM, Adams EV, Allison CK, Mueller KE, Crowe BM, van Puymbroeck M, Schmid AA. Yoga for Functional Fitness in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. International journal of yoga. 2020 ; 13(2) : 156-9.

BACKGROUND : Yoga is an effective intervention to improve functional fitness in adults with and without disabilities, but little research exists regarding yoga’s impact on functional fitness for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). AIMS : The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of a group yoga intervention on the functional fitness of adults with IDDs. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This yoga intervention included 12 sessions of yoga over 7 weeks (60-min sessions twice a week) at a special population recreation and leisure program. The functional fitness test was used to examine physical functioning before and after the yoga intervention. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Eight adults completed the baseline and posttest measures (age mean = 31 ; standard deviation = 6.55 ; 50% male). There were significant improvements in lower-body strength (9.00 ± 4.63 vs. 11.50 ± 3.16, P = 0.04, 28% improvement), upper-body strength (11.25 ± 3.54 vs. 14.25 ± 3.37, P = 0.018, 27% improvement), and agility and balance (9.29 ± 4.1 vs. 6.60 ± 1.54, P = 0.036, 29% improvement). Functional fitness often declines for people with IDD at a faster rate than the general population ; thus, these significant changes indicate that a yoga intervention may enhance functional fitness for people with IDD. Clinicians or other healthcare providers might consider yoga as a means to improve functional fitness in adults with IDDs.

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11. Schott W, Nonnemacher S, Shea L. Service Use and Unmet Needs Among Adults with Autism Awaiting Home- and Community-Based Medicaid Services. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Autistic adults in need of long-term services and supports spend months on waiting lists before receiving such services through Medicaid. Data from a state-wide survey of adults and their caregivers on a waiting list for autism waivers suggest that the majority have unmet needs for functional skills services (63.6%), employment or vocation services (62.1%), and mental and behavioral health services (52.8%). Almost a third require case management services (28.3%). Predictors of greater service need are African American race and the number of physical and behavioral health diagnoses. Predictors of greater service receipt were employment status, housing type, and school enrollment ; there was lower service receipt for African American race, Hispanic ethnicity, over age 21 years, and college completion.

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12. Sledziowska M, Kalbassi S, Baudouin SJ. Complex interactions between genes and social environment cause phenotypes associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders in mice. eNeuro. 2020.

The aetiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. Neuroligin3, a synaptic adhesion protein, and Cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1), a regulator of protein translation and actin polymerisation, are two proteins associated with ASD, that interact in neurons, in vivo Here, we investigated the role of the Neuroligin3/CYFIP1 pathway in behavioural functioning and synapse formation in mice and found that it contributes to motor learning and synapse formation in males. Similar investigation in female mice revealed an absence of such phenotypes, suggesting that females are protected against mutations affecting this pathway. Previously, we showed that the social environment influences the behaviour of male mice. We extended this finding and found that the transcriptome of wild type mice housed with their mutant littermates, lacking Neuroligin3, differed from the transcriptome of wild type mice housed together. Altogether, these results identify the role of the Neuroligin3/CYFIP1 pathway in male mouse behaviour and highlight its sensitivity to social environment.Significance statement The causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of mutations in two genes associated with ASD : Nlgn3 and Cyfip1, and the effect of the social environment, on phenotypes relevant for ASD. We show that when both mutations are present the behaviour can be restored, emphasising the importance of considering gene interactions. We also show sex differences in behaviour, suggesting that female subjects should be included in the studies of ASD. We show that wild type animals can exhibit phenotypes associated with ASD as a result of being housed with their mutant littermates, highlighting the necessity to re-evaluate the use of wild type animals as controls to define phenotypic traits of mouse models.

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13. Sun Y, Pan H, Shen S, Xia Z, Yu Z, Li C, Sun P, Xin C. Alisma Shugan Decoction (ASD) Ameliorates Hepatotoxicity and Associated Liver Dysfunction by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and p65/Nrf2/JunD Signaling Dysregulation In Vivo. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2020 ; 26 : e921738.

BACKGROUND Liver fibrosis, defined as the aberrant accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen in the liver, is a common feature of chronic liver disease, and often culminates in portal hypertension, liver cirrhosis, and hepatic failure. Though therapeutically manageable, fibrosis is not always successfully treated by conventional antifibrotic agents. While the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Alisma Shugan Decoction (ASD) has several health benefits, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and limitation of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, it remains unclear if it has any hepato-protective potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present study examined the therapeutic effect of ASD in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury and fibrosis rat models. RESULTS We demonstrated that 50 mg/kg ASD significantly reversed TAA-induced elevation of alanine or aspartate transaminase levels, elicited no dyscrasia, and conferred a 40% (p<0.01) or 20% (p<0.05) survival advantage, compared to rats treated with TAA or TAA+ASD, respectively. Treatment with ASD reversed TAA-induced liver injury and fibrogenesis via repression of alpha-SMA protein and reduction of the collagen area and fibrosis score. Concurrently, ASD markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of fibrogenic procollagen, ICAM-1, MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13, and production of TIMP-1, ICAM-1, CXCL7, or CD62L cytokine in rat liver injury models. Interestingly, ASD-elicited reduction of liver injury and fibrogenesis was mediated by dysregulated p65/NrF-2/JunD signaling, with a resultant 3.18-fold (p<0.05) increase in GSH/GSSH ratio, and a 3.61-fold (p<0.01) or 1.51-fold (p<0.01) reduction in the 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, indicating reduced oxidative stress in the ASD-treated rats, and suggesting an hepato-protective role for ASD. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the present study provides supplementary evidence of the therapeutic benefit of ASD as an efficient treatment option in cases of liver injury and fibrosis. Further large-cohort validation of these findings is warranted.

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14. Terlouw G, van ’t Veer JT, Prins JT, Kuipers DA, Pierie JEN. Design of a Digital Comic Creator (It’s Me) to Facilitate Social Skills Training for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Design Research Approach. JMIR mental health. 2020 ; 7(7) : e17260.

BACKGROUND : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often face difficulties in social situations and are often lagging in terms of social skills. Many interventions designed for children with ASD emphasize improving social skills. Although many interventions demonstrate that targeted social skills can be improved in clinical settings, developed social skills are not necessarily applied in children’s daily lives at school, sometimes because classmates continue to show negative bias toward children with ASD. Children with ASD do not blame the difficult social situations they encounter on their lack of social skills ; their main goal is to be accepted by peers. OBJECTIVE : This study aims to design a comic creator-It’s me-that would create comics to serve as transformational boundary objects to facilitate and enact a horizontal interaction structure between high-functioning children with ASD and their peers, aiming to increase mutual understanding between children at school. METHODS : This research project and this study are structured around the Design Research Framework in order to develop the comic through an iterative-incremental process. Three test sessions, which included 13, 6, and 47 children, respectively, were initiated where the focus shifted in time from usability during the first two tests to the initial assessment of acceptance and feasibility in the third session. A stakeholder review, which included six experts, took place after the second test session. RESULTS : A digital comic creator, It’s me, was produced within this study. Children can create their own personal comic by filling in a digital questionnaire. Based on concepts of peer support, psychoeducation, and horizontal interaction, It’s me has a rigorous base of underlying concepts that have been translated into design. Based on the first test sessions, the comic has shown its potential to initiate personal conversations between children. Teachers are convinced that It’s me can be of added value in their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS : It’s me aims to initiate more in-depth conversations between peers, which should lead to more mutual understanding and better relationships between children with ASD and their peers. The first test sessions showed that It’s me has the potential to enact horizontal interaction and greater understanding among peers. It’s me was designed as a boundary object, aiming to connect the objectives of different stakeholders, and to trigger reflection and transformation learning mechanisms. The applied design research approach might be of added value in the acceptance and adoption of the intervention because children, professionals, and teachers see added value in the tool, each from their own perspectives.

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15. Woodard CR, Harmony C, Groden J, Audet K. A Comparison of the Stress Survey Schedule in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children : A Brief Report. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020.

Past research suggests that stress and anxiety are more prevalent in persons with autism as compared to typically developing persons. The Stress Survey Schedule (SSS) was developed in 2001 as a means to measure stressors common to persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study compared SSS responses of a sample of students diagnosed with ASD and intellectual disability with a group of typically developing students to explore the divergent validity and internal consistency of this measure, and to assess changes in scores among pre-adolescent and adolescent populations. Results indicated significant mean differences in SSS scores between persons with ASD and persons who are typically developing, and mean score differences among identified ASD age groups.

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16. Yates L, Hobson H. Continuing to look in the mirror : A review of neuroscientific evidence for the broken mirror hypothesis, EP-M model and STORM model of autism spectrum conditions. Autism. 2020 : 1362361320936945.

The mirror neuron system has been argued to be a key brain system responsible for understanding the actions of others and for imitation. It has therefore been proposed that problems within this system could explain the social difficulties experienced by people with autism spectrum condition. This idea is referred to as the broken mirror hypothesis. However, research has produced insufficient evidence to support the broken mirror hypothesis in its original form. Therefore, two other models have been suggested : EP-M model and the social top-down response modulation (STORM) model. All models suggest something is different regarding the mirror neuron system in autism spectrum condition : either within the mirror neuron system itself or within the systems that control the activity of the mirror neuron system. This literature review compares these three models in regard to recent neuroscientific investigations. This review concludes that there is insufficient support for both the broken mirror hypothesis, but converging evidence supports an integrated EP-M and STORM model.

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