Pubmed du 19/07/20

dimanche 19 juillet 2020

1. Garcia JM, Hahs-Vaughn DL. Health Factors, Sociability, and Academic Outcomes of Typically Developing Youth and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Latent Class Analysis Approach. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 17)

To identify profiles of both typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on health indicators, and academic/social engagement. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify profiles of children from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health, based on physical activity, screen time, sleep, and academic/social engagement. A three-profile solution was the best fitting model, with children in profile 3 characterized as having excellent health, and academic/social outcomes, compared to profiles 1 and 2. Compared to TD youth, a greater percentage of youth with ASD fit into the poorer health profiles. Studies should examine whether health interventions for youth with ASD can improve factors, such as academic engagement and social interaction.

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2. Gómez LE, Monsalve A, Morán ML, Alcedo M, Lombardi M, Schalock RL. Measurable Indicators of CRPD for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities within the Quality of Life Framework. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Jul 15) ;17(14)

This article proposes the quality of life (QOL) construct as a framework from which to develop useful indicators to operationalize, measure, and implement the Articles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). A systematic review of the scientific literature on people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) was carried out, with the aim of identifying personal outcomes that can be translated into specific and measurable items for each of the CRPD Articles aligned to the eight QOL domains. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the systematic review was conducted across the Web of Science Core Collection, Current Contents Connect (CCC), MEDLINE, KCI-Korean Journal Database, Russian Science Citation Index and SciELO Citation Index, for articles published between 2008 and 2020. A total of 65 articles focusing on people with IDD were selected. The results were grouped into four broad categories : conceptual frameworks used to monitor the CRPD ; instruments used to assess the rights set out in the CRPD ; recommendations on the use of inclusive research ; and indicators or personal outcomes associated with specific rights contained in the CRPD.

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3. Love AMA, Usher EL, Toland MD, Railey KS, Campbell JM, Spriggs AD. Measuring Police Officer Self-efficacy for Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 17)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently one of the most researched of all childhood developmental disorders and is receiving attention in many domains. The purpose of this study was to design and provide psychometric evidence for a scale that measures police officer self-efficacy for working with individuals with ASD. Psychometric properties of a scale designed to measure knowledge of ASD were also explored. Data from 620 police officers were collected and a 13-item scale was created and evaluated. Results indicated that the scale represented a unidimensional construct. Knowing more about officers’ knowledge and beliefs in their own capabilities to work with individuals with ASD can help inform future police education and training efforts.

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4. Woodard CR, Harmony C, Groden J, Audet K. A Comparison of the Stress Survey Schedule in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children : A Brief Report. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 17)

Past research suggests that stress and anxiety are more prevalent in persons with autism as compared to typically developing persons. The Stress Survey Schedule (SSS) was developed in 2001 as a means to measure stressors common to persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study compared SSS responses of a sample of students diagnosed with ASD and intellectual disability with a group of typically developing students to explore the divergent validity and internal consistency of this measure, and to assess changes in scores among pre-adolescent and adolescent populations. Results indicated significant mean differences in SSS scores between persons with ASD and persons who are typically developing, and mean score differences among identified ASD age groups.

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5. Wu ZY, Huang SD, Zou JJ, Wang QX, Naveed M, Bao HN, Wang W, Fukunaga K, Han F. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) : Disturbance of the melatonin system and its implications. Biomed Pharmacother ;2020 (Jul 15) ;130:110496.

The molecular mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain elusive, which limits the management options available in the clinic. Accumulating evidence indicates that the pineal gland/melatonin system is associated with the progression of ASD. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of various mechanisms involving pathological process of ASD, including the abnormal breakdown of melatonin synthesis, the disturbance of intracellular MTNR1A signaling, the effects exerted by melatonin on hippocampal protein serine/threonine kinases, and immune dysregulation/inflammation during ASD. We believe that an in-depth understanding of the interplay between the action of the melatonin system and the onset of autism could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies against ASD. We anticipate that targeting the neurotransmitters upstream pathway and downstream of melatonin in brain will lead to potential therapeutic treatment for ASD.

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6. Yeung MK, Chan AS. Executive function, motivation, and emotion recognition in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Jul 15) ;105:103730.

BACKGROUND : Several neurocognitive theories have been put forward to explain autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the specificity of executive cognitive, motivational (i.e., reward-related), and emotion-recognition impairments in ASD, and the role of early language delay in these impairments remain largely unclear. AIM : This study aimed to examine executive cognitive, motivational, and emotion-recognition functions while considering the potential effect of language delay in ASD. METHODS : Twenty-two adolescents with high-functioning ASD (20 males) and 22 typically developing (TD) adolescents (16 males) aged 11-18 years were recruited. Each completed seven computerized tasks measuring executive cognitive (i.e., set-shifting, inhibition, updating, and access/generativity), motivational (i.e., flexible reinforcement learning and affective decision-making), and emotion-recognition functions (i.e., facial emotion recognition). RESULTS : We found that ASD participants with early language delay (n = 10) had poorer executive cognitive, motivational, and emotion-recognition functioning than TD controls, and had poorer executive cognitive and motivational functioning than ASD participants without language delay (n = 12). ASD participants without language delay only had poorer emotion recognition than TD controls. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS : These preliminary findings suggest impairments in executive cognitive and motivational functions as well as emotion recognition in ASD with language delay, and impairment only in emotion recognition in ASD without language delay. They implicate a potential partial distinction in mental abilities between ASD with and without early language delay, highlighting the importance of considering language delay when evaluating executive cognitive and motivational functions in ASD.

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