Pubmed du 20/07/20

lundi 20 juillet 2020

1. Almehmadi W, Tenbrink T, Sanoudaki E. Pragmatic and Conversational Features of Arabic-Speaking Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Examining Performance and Caregivers’ Perceptions. J Speech Lang Hear Res ;2020 (Jul 20) ;63(7):2308-2321.

Purpose This study investigates the features of pragmatic and conversational skills in the language of Arabic-speaking adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by comparing them with typically developing (TD) Arabic-speaking adolescents in Saudi Arabia. It aims to identify the differences in the pragmatic skills of the two groups and the perception of those skills by caregivers, with respect to four main pragmatic areas : discourse management, communicative function, conversational repair, and presupposition abilities. Method Data for this study were collected from 15 Saudi adolescents with ASD and a control group of 15 TD adolescents, matched for gender and language abilities. All the participants were in the normal IQ range. The caregivers of the adolescents with ASD and TD adolescents also participated in this study. Data were collected on the adolescents’ performances using the Yale in vivo Pragmatic Protocol. In addition, the Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills (PPECS) was used to collect data on the caregivers’ perceptions of the adolescents’ abilities. The combination of tools in this study allows for a unique comparison between actual performance and caregivers’ perceptions. Results As expected, both the adolescents’ performances and the caregivers’ perceptions reflected an overall deficit in the pragmatic and conversational skills of adolescents with ASD. However, we also identified an inconsistency between the caregivers’ estimation of the participant’s pragmatic abilities and the actual abilities demonstrated by the adolescents. In particular, TD adolescents performed significantly better than adolescents with ASD in the pragmatic areas of turn-taking, topic maintenance, and topic initiation, but the caregivers did not detect differences between the two groups in these discourse management abilities. Conclusions This study has important implications for both ASD interventions and assessment. It provides a comprehensive assessment approach for measuring pragmatic skills, including both direct (participants’ performances) and indirect (caregivers’ perceptions) measures. Future research may benefit from adopting the combined approach used in this study to explore pragmatics in ASD. Differences between caregivers’ perceptions and the performances of individuals with ASD should be considered, as well as the influence of various factors on their communication.

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2. Dallman AR, Artis J, Watson L, Wright S. Systematic Review of Disparities and Differences in the Access and Use of Allied Health Services Amongst Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 18)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often benefit from allied health services such as occupational therapy, speech and language pathology, and applied behavioral analysis. While there is consistent evidence of disparities in access and use of medical services (e.g. dentistry), no such systematic review has examined disparities and differences in allied health use amongst children with ASD. In this systematic review, we examine disparities and differences in service access and use for children with ASD. Our findings suggest that children who are older, have less severe ASD symptoms, are from minority groups, and those from particular geographic regions are less likely to receive allied health services. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

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3. Faletra FF, Saric M, Saw J, Lempereur M, Hanke T, Vannan MA. Imaging for Patient’s Selection and Guidance of LAA and ASD Percutaneous and Surgical Closure. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ;2020 (Jul 10)

This review comprises 2 main subjects : the percutaneous and surgical closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and atrial septal defect (ASD). The aim of the authors was to provide a detailed description of : 1) anatomy of LAA, normal interatrial septum, and the various types of ASD as revealed by noninvasive imaging techniques ; 2) preprocedure planning of secundum ASD and LAA percutaneous closure ; 3) key steps of the procedural guidance emphasizing the role of 2-dimensional/3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography ; and 4) surgical closure of LAA and ASD.

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4. Hedger N, Chakrabarti B. To covet what we see : Autistic traits modulate the relationship between looking and choosing. Autism Res ;2020 (Jul 20)

Behavioral studies indicate that autistic traits predict reduced gaze toward social stimuli. Moreover, experiments that require participants to make an explicit choice between stimuli indicate reduced preferences for social stimuli in individuals with high autistic traits. These observations, in combination, fit with the idea that gaze is actively involved in the formation of choices-gaze toward a stimulus increases the likelihood of its subsequent selection. Although these aspects of gaze and choice behavior have been well characterized separately, it remains unclear how autistic traits affect the relationship between gaze and socially relevant choices. In a choice-based eye-tracking paradigm, we observed that autistic traits predict less frequent and delayed selection of social stimuli. Critically, eye tracking revealed novel phenomena underlying these choice behaviors : first, the relationship between gaze and choice behavior was weaker in individuals with high autistic traits-an increase in gaze to a stimulus was associated with a smaller increase in choice probability. Second, time-series analyses revealed that gaze became predictive of choice behaviors at longer latencies in observers with high autistic traits. This dissociation between gaze and choice in individuals with high autistic traits may reflect wider atypicalities in value coding. Such atypicalities may predict the development of atypical social behaviors associated with the autism phenotype. LAY SUMMARY : When presented with multiple stimuli to choose from, we tend to look more toward the stimuli we later choose. Here, we found that this relationship between looking and choosing was reduced in individuals with high autistic traits. These data indicate that autistic traits may be associated with atypical processing of value, which may contribute to the reduced preferences for social stimuli exhibited by individuals with autism.

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5. Lamy M, Pedapati EV, Dominick KL, Wink LK, Erickson CA. Recent Advances in the Pharmacological Management of Behavioral Disturbances Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Paediatr Drugs ;2020 (Jul 20)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition affecting an estimated one in 36 children. Youth with ASD may have severe behavioral disturbances including irritability, aggression, and hyperactivity. Currently, there are only two medications (risperidone and aripiprazole) approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of irritability associated with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments are commonly used to target ASD-associated symptoms including irritability, mood lability, anxiety, and hyperactivity. However, evidence for the efficacy of many commonly used treatments is limited by the lack of large placebo-controlled trials of these medications in this population. Research into the pathophysiology of ASD has led to new targets for pharmacologic therapy including the neuroimmune system, the endocannabinoid system, and the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence base for commonly used treatments, as well as emerging treatment options for common behavioral disturbances seen in youth with ASD.

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6. Pina-Camacho L, Boada L, Díaz-Caneja CM, García-Alcón A, Burdeus M, Serrano-Drozdowskyj E, Fraguas D, Moreno C, Parellada M. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia Autism Severity Scale (PAUSS) in young people with autism and schizophrenia. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ;2020 (Jul 20)

INTRODUCTION : Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) share symptoms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autistic phenotypic profiles in SSD may be associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to assess the evidences for reliability and convergent validity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) Autism Severity Scale (PAUSS) in a sample of young people with ASD and SSD, and to use the PAUSS to explore correlates of "autistic profiles" in the SSD sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS : ASD (n=33, age=13-27 years) and SSD subjects (n=26, age=16-35 years) underwent PANSS, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) assessments. We derived PAUSS total/domain scores from the PANSS and applied these back-to-back with ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS), ADI-R current behavior algorithm (CBA) scores, and SRS scores. RESULTS : Our results show evidence for an acceptable PAUSS score reliability and convergent validity both in the ASD and SSD samples. PAUSS total and socio-communication scores significantly correlated with ADOS Overall/Social Affect CSS, both in ASD and in SSD. SSD with higher PAUSS scores ("autistic-SSD") showed Overall/Social Affect CSS scores positioned in between ASD and "non-autistic SSD". The PAUSS total score was significantly associated with global functioning in SSD (adjusted R(2)=0.311). CONCLUSIONS : There seems to be evidence for the reliability and validity of PAUSS scores for quantifying autism symptom severity transdiagnostically and to identify "autistic phenotypes" in adolescents/young adults with SSD.

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7. Schreiter ML, Beste C. Inflexible adjustment of expectations affects cognitive-emotional conflict control in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Cortex ;2020 (Jun 26) ;130:231-245.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by a range of challenges including cognitive and socio-emotional differences as well as difficulties to flexibly adjust to unpredictable situations. It has recently been suggested that people with ASD hold rigid expectations about upcoming events that tend to be shaped by information that is unlikely to repeat in the future. Prior expectations play an important role for proactive conflict control exemplified in the Gratton, or the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Here, we examine proactive cognitive-emotional conflict control in ASD compared to neuro-typical controls and the underlying neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical processes using EEG methods and an emotional Stroop task with sequentially manipulated trial transitions. We show that, in ASD the presence of cognitive-emotional conflict in a previous trial affects the ability to process emotional conflict in a subsequent trial. That is, ASD individuals show a prominent CSE effect on emotional stimuli while neuro-typical controls do not. The neurophysiological data revealed that this proactive reconfiguration of stimulus-response associations during conflict resolution is associated with activation within anterior cingulate (BA24 and 32) and insular cortices (BA13). Purely perceptual, attentional and motor response-related processes could not explain these effects. Our results suggest that when faced with cognitive-emotional conflict, ASD individuals seem to rely on their subjective expectation about an upcoming trial type independent of the objective likelihood of that upcoming trial transition. The present results lend support to theoretical propositions on precision weighting of prediction error in ASD and have theoretical and clinical implications in the context of cognitive-emotional regulation and conflict control.

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8. Tiede GM, Walton KM. Social endophenotypes in autism spectrum disorder : A scoping review. Dev Psychopathol ;2020 (Jul 20):1-29.

Endophenotypes are measurable markers of genetic vulnerability to current or future disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well-suited to be examined within an endophenotype framework given past and current emphases on the broader autism phenotype and early detection. We conducted a scoping review to identify potential socially-related endophenotypes of ASD. We focused on paradigms related to sociality (e.g., theory of mind (TOM), social attention), which comprise most of this literature. We integrated findings from traditional behavioral paradigms with brain-based measures (e.g., electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging). Broadly, infant research regarding social attention and responsivity (Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) domain of affiliation) and attention to faces and voices (social communication) finds consistent abnormality in vulnerable infant siblings. Several additional paradigms that have shown differences in vulnerable infants and young children include animacy perception tasks (perception and understanding of others), measures of recognition and response to familiar faces (attachment), and joint attention and false-belief tasks (understanding mental states). Research areas such as alexithymia (the perception and understanding of self), empathic responding, and vocal prosody may hold interest ; however, challenges in measurement across populations and age ranges is a limiting factor. Future work should address sex differences and age dependencies, specificity to ASD, and heterogeneous genetic pathways to disorder within samples individuals with ASD and relatives.

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9. Wilson AC, Bishop DVM. "Second guessing yourself all the time about what they really mean…" : Cognitive differences between autistic and non-autistic adults in understanding implied meaning. Autism Res ;2020 (Jul 20)

This study investigated cognitive differences between autistic and non-autistic people in understanding implied meaning in conversation using a novel computerized test, the Implicature Comprehension Test. Controlling for core language ability, autistic participants (N = 66) were over twice as likely to endorse a non-normative interpretation of an implied meaning and over five times as likely to select "do not know" when asked about the presence of an implied meaning, compared to non-autistic participants (N = 118). A further experiment suggested that the selection of "do not know" reflected a cognitive preference for certainty and explicit communication, and that the normative inference could often be made when the test format was more constrained. Our research supports the hypothesis that autistic individuals can find it challenging to process language in its pragmatic context, and that cognitive preferences play a role in this. LAY SUMMARY : We investigated differences between autistic and non-autistic people in understanding implied meanings in conversation. We found that autistic people were more likely to select a different interpretation of implied meanings compared to other people, and also much more likely to avoid processing implied meanings when the task allowed this. Our research supports the view that autistic people can find it challenging to process indirect meanings, and that they tend to prefer explicit forms of communication.

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10. Wood-Downie H, Wong B, Kovshoff H, Mandy W, Hull L, Hadwin JA. Sex/Gender Differences in Camouflaging in Children and Adolescents with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 20)

This study investigated sex/gender differences in camouflaging with children and adolescents (N = 84) with and without an autism diagnosis/increased levels of autistic traits using two conceptualisations/operationalisations of camouflaging. A significant group-by-gender interaction using ANCOVA, with the covariate of verbal IQ, reflected similar levels of social reciprocity in autistic and neurotypical females, whereas autistic males had lower reciprocity than neurotypical males. Autistic females also had higher reciprocity than autistic males, despite similar levels of autistic traits (behavioural camouflaging). Additionally, autistic males and females had similar theory of mind skills, despite females having increased reciprocity (compensatory camouflaging). These findings provide evidence of increased camouflaging in autistic females, which may contribute to delay in the recognition of difficulties and provision of support.

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