Pubmed du 22/07/20

mercredi 22 juillet 2020

1. Ameis SH, Lai MC, Mulsant BH, Szatmari P. Coping, fostering resilience, and driving care innovation for autistic people and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Mol Autism ;2020 (Jul 22) ;11(1):61.

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is changing how society operates. Environmental changes, disrupted routines, and reduced access to services and social networks will have a unique impact on autistic individuals and their families and will contribute to significant deterioration in some. Access to support is crucial to address vulnerability factors, guide adjustments in home environments, and apply mitigation strategies to improve coping. The current crisis highlights that our regular care systems are not sufficient to meet the needs of the autism communities. In many parts of the world, people have shifted to online school and increased use of remote delivery of healthcare and autism supports. Access to these services needs to be increased to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19 and future epidemics/pandemics. The rapid expansion in the use of telehealth platforms can have a positive impact on both care and research. It can help to address key priorities for the autism communities including long waitlists for assessment and care, access to services in remote locations, and restricted hours of service. However, system-level changes are urgently needed to ensure equitable access and flexible care models, especially for families and individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. COVID-19 mandates the use of technology to support a broader range of care options and better meet the diverse needs of autistic people and their families. It behooves us to use this crisis as an opportunity to foster resilience not only for a given individual or their family, but also the system : to drive enduring and autism-friendly changes in healthcare, social systems, and the broader socio-ecological contexts.

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2. Carter Leno V, Chandler S, White P, Yorke I, Charman T, Jones CRG, Happé F, Baird G, Pickles A, Simonoff E. Associations between theory of mind and conduct problems in autistic and nonautistic youth. Autism Res ;2020 (Jul 21)

Many autistic young people exhibit co-occurring behavior difficulties, characterized by conduct problems and oppositional behavior. However, the causes of these co-occurring difficulties are not well understood. Impairments in theory of mind (ToM) are often reported in autistic individuals and have been linked to conduct problems in nonautistic individuals. Whether an association between ToM ability and conduct problems exists in autistic populations, whether this association is similar between individuals who are autistic versus nonautistic, and whether these associations are specific to conduct problems (as opposed to other domains of psychopathology) remains unclear. ToM ability was assessed using the Frith-Happé Triangles task in a pooled sample of autistic (N = 128 ; mean age 14.78 years) and nonautistic youth (N = 50 ; mean age 15.48 years), along with parent-rated psychiatric symptoms of conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention and emotional problems. Analyses tested ToM ability between autistic versus nonautistic participants, and compared associations between ToM performance and conduct problems between the two groups. Where no significant group differences in associations were found, the pooled association between ToM and conduct problems was estimated in the combined sample. Results showed no evidence of moderation in associations by diagnostic status, and an association between poorer ToM ability and higher levels of conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention and emotional problems across the total sample. However, these associations became nonsignificant when adjusting for verbal IQ. Results provide support for theoretical models of co-occurring psychopathology in autistic populations, and suggest targets for intervention for conduct problems in autistic youth. LAY SUMMARY : Many young people with autism spectrum disorder show co-occurring behavior problems, but the causes of these are not well understood. This paper found an association between difficulties recognizing what others think and intend (so-called "theory of mind") in a simple animated task, and emotional and behavioral problems in autistic and nonautistic young people. However, a substantial part of this association was explained by individual differences in verbal ability. These findings may have implications for intervention efforts to improve young people’s mental health.

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3. Coburn KL, Williams DL. Development of Neural Structure and Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Potential Implications for Learning Language. Am J Speech Lang Pathol ;2020 (Jul 22):1-15.

Purpose Neurodevelopmental processes that begin during gestation and continue throughout childhood typically support language development. Understanding these processes can help us to understand the disruptions to language that occur in neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method For this tutorial, we conducted a focused literature review on typical postnatal brain development and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography studies of the neurodevelopmental differences that occur in ASD. We then integrated this knowledge with the literature on evidence-based speech-language intervention practices for autistic children. Results In ASD, structural differences include altered patterns of cortical growth and myelination. Functional differences occur at all brain levels, from lateralization of cortical functions to the rhythmic activations of single neurons. Neuronal oscillations, in particular, could help explain disrupted language development by elucidating the timing differences that contribute to altered functional connectivity, complex information processing, and speech parsing. Findings related to implicit statistical learning, explicit task learning, multisensory integration, and reinforcement in ASD are also discussed. Conclusions Consideration of the neural differences in autistic children provides additional scientific support for current recommended language intervention practices. Recommendations consistent with these neurological findings include the use of short, simple utterances ; repetition of syntactic structures using varied vocabulary ; pause time ; visual supports ; and individualized sensory modifications.

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4. Deng X, Yao T, Wang Y, Yang G, Chen W, Huang P, Chen Z. Transcatheter closure of a residual shunt with posteroinferior deficient rim after surgical closure of an ASD : a case report. BMC Cardiovasc Disord ;2020 (Jul 22) ;20(1):343.

BACKGROUND : There are few reports in the literature of device closure of residual shunts following initial surgical closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD). This case study reports one such case. We describe here a case of secundum type ASD that was initially closed surgically, followed by device closure of a residual shunt with a posteroinferior deficient rim. CASE PRESENTATION : A 7-month-old boy was admitted to our hospital for elective surgery to surgically correct a secundum type ASD. Unfortunately, a residual shunt 3.5 mm in diameter appeared before discharge and was enlarged at1-year follow-up. The cause of this residual shunt was dehiscence at the posteroinferior aspect, and the posteroinferior rim was 3.7 mm. After careful discussion and preparation, we proceeded with an interventional procedure. A 16 mm ASD occluder (AGA Medical Corp, Plymouth, Minnesota) was deployed successfully with no residual shunt. In some cases of ASD, interventional therapy is not considered due to the size and position of the defect, but we show here, a successful case of interventional therapy for a residual shunt with a deficient rim. CONCLUSION : We have presented a case in which a postoperative residual shunt with a deficient rim was successfully closed with interventional therapy.

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5. Gaffrey MS, Markert S, Yu C. Social origins of self-regulated attention during infancy and their disruption in autism spectrum disorder : Implications for early intervention. Dev Psychopathol ;2020 (Jul 22):1-13.

To understand the complex relationships between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other frequently comorbid conditions, a growing number of studies have investigated the emergence of ASD during infancy. This research has suggested that symptoms of ASD and highly related comorbid conditions emerge from complex interactions between neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities and early environments, indicating that developing treatments to prevent ASD is highly challenging. However, it also suggests that attenuating the negative effects of ASD on future development once identified is possible. The present paper builds on this by conceptualizing developmental delays in nonsocial skills as the potential product of altered caregiver-infant interactions following the emergence of ASD during infancy. And, following emerging findings from caregiver-infant dyadic head-mounted eye-tracking (D-ET) research, it also suggests that a multiple pathway model of joint attention can provide mechanistic insights into how ASD alters the ability of caregiver and infant to create a context for infant learning. The potential for this view to inform early intervention is further discussed and illustrated through D-ET data collected prior to and following a brief, parent-mediated intervention for infant ASD. While promising, further research informing how a multiple pathway model of joint attention can inform ASD early intervention is needed.

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6. Hidema S, Kikuchi S, Takata R, Yanai T, Shimomura K, Horie K, Nishimori K. Single administration of resveratrol improves social behavior in adult mouse models of autism spectrum disorder. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ;2020 (Jul 22):1-8.

Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol present in grapes, the skin of peanuts, and several other plants with many health benefits. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that may be linked to neural and synaptic development impairments. The present study aimed to analyze the preventive effects of RSV on the development of ASD-like behavior, using oxytocin receptor gene knockout (Oxtr-KO) and valproic acid-induced ASD (VPA-ASD) model mice. Genetic deficiencies in Oxtr are suggested to be involved in ASD etiology. Twenty-four hours after a single RSV injection to the Oxtr-KO mice, the social impairments caused by OXTR deficiency were ameliorated. RSV also improved social impairments in the VPA-ASD mice. Administration of RSV up-regulated silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) gene and early growth response factor 3 (Egr3) gene expressions in the amygdala of the Oxtr-KO mice. Our data suggest that RSV may have therapeutic effects on ASD with multiple targets.

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7. Huang ZA, Zhu Z, Yau CH, Tan KC. Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder From Resting-State fMRI Using Deep Belief Network. IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ;2020 (Jul 21) ;PP

With the increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is important to identify ASD patients for effective treatment and intervention, especially in early childhood. Neuroimaging techniques have been used to characterize the complex biomarkers based on the functional connectivity anomalies in the ASD. However, the diagnosis of ASD still adopts the symptom-based criteria by clinical observation. The existing computational models tend to achieve unreliable diagnostic classification on the large-scale aggregated data sets. In this work, we propose a novel graph-based classification model using the deep belief network (DBN) and the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) database, which is a worldwide multisite functional and structural brain imaging data aggregation. The remarkable connectivity features are selected through a graph extension of K-nearest neighbors and then refined by a restricted path-based depth-first search algorithm. Thanks to the feature reduction, lower computational complexity could contribute to the shortening of the training time. The automatic hyperparameter-tuning technique is introduced to optimize the hyperparameters of the DBN by exploring the potential parameter space. The simulation experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our model, which is 6.4% higher than the best result reported on the ABIDE database. We also propose to use the data augmentation and the oversampling technique to identify further the possible subtypes within the ASD. The interpretability of our model enables the identification of the most remarkable autistic neural correlation patterns from the data-driven outcomes.

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8. Lopata C, Thomeer ML, Rodgers JD, Donnelly JP, Booth AJ. RCT of a Comprehensive Outpatient Treatment for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ;2020 (Jul 22):1-15.

OBJECTIVE : This study tested the efficacy of an intensive outpatient psychosocial treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID). METHOD : Eighty-eight children (ages 7-12 years) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control (waitlist) condition. The 18-week cognitive-behavioral treatment (two 90-min sessions per week) included small-group instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social/social-communication skills, face-emotion recognition, nonliteral language skills, and interest expansion. A behavioral system was used to increase skills development and reduce ASD symptoms. Efficacy was tested immediately following treatment (posttest), with maintenance assessed 4-6 weeks later (follow-up). Measures included parent ratings of the children’s social/social-communication skills, ASD symptoms, broad social skills, and behavior symptoms, child tests of social-cognitive skills (emotion recognition and nonliteral language), and behavioral observations. RESULTS : Significant effects favoring the treatment group were found at posttest on the primary measures of ASD symptoms (Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition ; Constantino & Gruber, 2012) and social/social-communication skills (Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist ; Lopata, Thomeer, Volker, Nida & Lee, 2008), and secondary measures of nonliteral language skills, broad social skills, and behavior symptoms (measures of emotion-recognition skills and social behaviors during structured game sessions were non-significant). The significant treatment effects found at posttest were all maintained at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS : The outpatient treatment improved several core areas of functioning for children with ASD without ID. Additional elements may be needed to expand the efficacy of the treatment so that the observed skills/symptom improvements generalize to social interactions during gameplay.

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9. Lugo J, Fadeuilhe C, Gisbert L, Setien I, Delgado M, Corrales M, Richarte V, Ramos-Quiroga JA. Sleep in adults with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ;2020 (Jul 22)

Sleep-related problems have been frequently reported in neurodevelopmental disorders, with special emphasis in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on sleep disturbances in adults with ASD and/or ADHD (PROSPERO’s CRD42019132916). PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for studies reporting data on sleep objective/subjective measures, as well as prevalence data of sleep disorders, in adults with ASD and/or ADHD. A manual search was conducted throughout reference lists of eligible studies. A total of 1126 studies and 66 references were identified by electronic and manual searches, respectively. Of these, 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that both disorders share a similar sleep-impaired profile with higher sleep onset latency, poorer sleep efficiency, greater number of awakenings during sleep, and a general lower self-perceived sleep quality compared with healthy controls. A higher proportion of N1 sleep was found in ASD participants, while a greater Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep is specific in ADHD adults. More studies are needed, especially those directly comparing ASD and ADHD participants. Controlling for medication, intellectual disability, and concurrent psychiatric disorders is mandatory.

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10. Mahmood HM, Aldhalaan HM, Alshammari TK, Alqasem MA, Alshammari MA, Albekairi NA, AlSharari SD. The Role of Nicotinic Receptors in the Attenuation of Autism-Related Behaviors in a Murine BTBR T + tf/J Autistic Model. Autism Res ;2020 (Jul 21)

Nicotinic receptors are distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. Postmortem studies have reported that some nicotinic receptor subtypes are altered in the brains of autistic people. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the autistic behavior of BTBR T + tf/J mouse model of autism. This study was undertaken to examine the behavioral effects of targeted nAChRs using pharmacological ligands, including nicotine and mecamylamine in BTBR T + tf/J and C57BL/6J mice in a panel of behavioral tests relating to autism. These behavioral tests included the three-chamber social interaction, self-grooming, marble burying, locomotor activity, and rotarod test. We examined the effect of various oral doses of nicotine (50, 100, and 400 mcg/mL ; po) over a period of 2 weeks in BTBR T + tf/J mouse model. The results indicated that the chronic administration of nicotine modulated sociability and repetitive behavior in BTBR T + tf/J mice while no effects observed in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the nonselective nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine, reversed nicotine effects on sociability and increased repetitive behaviors in BTBR T + tf/J mice. Overall, the findings indicate that the pharmacological modulation of nicotinic receptors is involved in modulating core behavioral phenotypes in the BTBR T + tf/J mouse model. LAY SUMMARY : The involvement of brain nicotinic neurotransmission system plays a crucial role in regulating autism-related behavioral features. In addition, the brain of the autistic-like mouse model has a low acetylcholine level. Here, we report that nicotine, at certain doses, improved sociability and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of autism, implicating the potential therapeutic values of a pharmacological intervention targeting nicotinic receptors for autism therapy.

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11. Ola L, Gullon-Scott F. Facial emotion recognition in autistic adult females correlates with alexithymia, not autism. Autism ;2020 (Jul 21):1362361320932727.

Research with autistic males has indicated that difficulties in recognising facial expressions of emotion, commonly associated with autism spectrum conditions, may instead be due to co-occurring alexithymia (a condition involving lack of emotional awareness, difficulty describing feelings and difficulty distinguishing feelings from physical bodily sensations) and not to do with autism. We wanted to explore if this would be true for autistic females, as well as to use more realistic stimuli for emotional expression. In all, 83 females diagnosed with autism spectrum condition completed self-report measures of autism spectrum condition traits and alexithymia and completed a visual test that assessed their ability to identify multimodal displays of complex emotions. Higher levels of alexithymia, but not autism spectrum condition features, were associated with less accuracy in identifying emotions. Difficulty identifying one’s own feelings and externally oriented thinking were the components of alexithymia that were specifically related to facial emotion recognition accuracy. However, alexithymia (and levels of autism spectrum condition traits) was not associated with speed of emotion processing. We discuss the findings in terms of possible underlying mechanisms and the implications for our understanding of emotion processing and recognition in autism.

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12. Olson LA, Mash LE, Linke A, Fong CH, Müller RA, Fishman I. Sex-related patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Autism ;2020 (Jul 21):1362361320938194.

We investigated whether children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders show sex-specific patterns of brain function (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) that are well documented in typically developing males and females. We found, unexpectedly, that boys and girls with autism do not differ in their brain functional connectivity, whereas typically developing boys and girls showed differences in a brain network involved in thinking about self and others (the default mode network). Results suggest that autism may be characterized by a lack of brain sex differentiation.

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13. Tessari L, Angriman M, Díaz-Román A, Zhang J, Conca A, Cortese S. Association Between Exposure to Pesticides and ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Systematic Review of the Literature. J Atten Disord ;2020 (Jul 22):1087054720940402.

OBJECTIVE : To conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the relationship between exposure to pesticides and ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS : Based on a pre-registered protocol in PROPSERO (CRD42018107847), we searched PubMed, Ovid databases, and ISI Web of Knowledge with no date/language/document type restrictions, up to May 2019. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. RESULTS : Among the 29 retained studies, 13 focused on ADHD, 14 on ASD, and two on both disorders. Ten studies reported a significant association between exposure to pesticides and ADHD/ADHD symptoms and 12 studies found a significant association with ASD/ASD traits. The strengths of the association and the possible confounders controlled for varied substantially across studies. CONCLUSION : Whilst there is some evidence suggesting a possible link between pesticides and ADHD/ASD, heterogeneity across studies prevents firm conclusions. We provide methodological indications for future studies.

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14. Wood-Downie H, Wong B, Kovshoff H, Mandy W, Hull L, Hadwin JA. Sex/Gender Differences in Camouflaging in Children and Adolescents with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 20)

This study investigated sex/gender differences in camouflaging with children and adolescents (N = 84) with and without an autism diagnosis/increased levels of autistic traits using two conceptualisations/operationalisations of camouflaging. A significant group-by-gender interaction using ANCOVA, with the covariate of verbal IQ, reflected similar levels of social reciprocity in autistic and neurotypical females, whereas autistic males had lower reciprocity than neurotypical males. Autistic females also had higher reciprocity than autistic males, despite similar levels of autistic traits (behavioural camouflaging). Additionally, autistic males and females had similar theory of mind skills, despite females having increased reciprocity (compensatory camouflaging). These findings provide evidence of increased camouflaging in autistic females, which may contribute to delay in the recognition of difficulties and provision of support.

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