Pubmed du 02/08/20

dimanche 2 août 2020

1. Brewe AM, Mazefsky CA, White SW. Therapeutic Alliance Formation for Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism : Relation to Treatment Outcomes and Client Characteristics. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 31)

Therapeutic alliance may influence treatment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined the trajectory of alliance, observationally-measured at four timepoints during a 16-week mindfulness-based treatment targeting emotion regulation problems in adolescents and young adults with ASD (n = 37, mean age = 15.28, 78.40% male). Variability in alliance as a function of client characteristics and the degree to which alliance predicted emotion regulation outcomes were assessed using parent-report forms. Results demonstrate that alliance fluctuates throughout treatment. Moreover, stronger alliance predicts decreased dysphoria at posttreatment. Results also suggest that increased ASD symptom severity and depression predict weaker alliance early and throughout treatment. Findings highlight a need for clinicians to consider the importance of developing strong alliance for clients with ASD.

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2. Chen L, Chen Y, Zheng H, Zhang B, Wang F, Fang J, Li Y, Chen Q, Zhang S. Changes in the topological organization of the default mode network in autism spectrum disorder. Brain Imaging Behav ;2020 (Jul 31)

Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by abnormal functional and structural features in specific brain regions of the default mode network (DMN). However, little is known about the alterations of the topological organization and the functional connectivity (FC) of the DMN in ASD patients. Thirty-seven ASD patients and 38 healthy control (HC) participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Twenty DMN subregions were specifically selected to construct the DMN architecture. We applied graph theory approaches to the topological configuration and compare the FC patterns of the DMN. We then examined the relationships between the neuroimaging measures of the DMN and clinical characteristics in patients with ASD. The current study revealed that both the ASD and HC participants showed a small-world regimen in the DMN ; however there were no significant differences in global network measures. Compared with the HC group, the ASD group exhibited significantly decreased nodal centralities in the bilateral anterior medial prefrontal cortex and increased nodal centralities in the right lateral temporal cortex and the right retrosplenial cortex. Patients with ASD displayed significantly reduced and increased FC within the DMN. Our findings demonstrated that ASD patients showed a pattern of disrupted FC metrics and nodal network metrics in the DMN, which could be a potential biomarker for objective ASD diagnoses and for the level of autism spectrum traits. HIGHLIGHTS : We used graph theoretical approaches and functional connectivity (FC) to investigate the topological configuration and FC patterns of the DMN in ASD. The current study revealed that both ASD and HC participants exhibited small-world regimes in the DMN, however there were no significant differences in global network measures. The ASD group showed abnormal nodal centralities in the bilateral aMPFC, the right LTC and the Rsp of the DMN, and ASD was characterized by altered FC patterns, including decreased and increased FC within the DMN.

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3. Crane L, Sesterka A, den Houting J. Inclusion and Rigor in Qualitative Autism Research : A Response to Van Schalkwyk and Dewinter (2020). J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Jul 31)

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4. Espadas C, Ballester P, Londoño AC, Almenara S, Aguilar V, Belda C, Pérez E, Peiró AM. Multimorbidity and psychotropic polypharmacy among participants with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability. Psychiatry Res ;2020 (Jul 22) ;292:113321.

Nowadays, adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience several comorbidities whose treatment implies a wide range of psychotropic prescriptions. This study aimed to evaluate medication-related safety, drug-drug interactions, and psychotropics prescription trends. We conducted an observational and multicentric pharmacovigilance study in subjects with ASD and Intellectual disability (ID, n = 83). Clinical information (diagnoses, ongoing medications, comorbidities [multimorbidity ≥ 4 chronic health conditions]) and psychotropic prescriptions (polypharmacy ≥ 4 chronic drugs, daily drug doses, co-prescription) were registered. Ethical approval for this study was obtained. Participants (30±10 years old, 86% men, BMI 27±6 kg/m2) displayed 37% multimorbidity (mean of 3, IQR 2-4), and 57% polypharmacy (13% out of dose recommended range). Most drugs prescribed were psychotropic risperidone which is related to nervous system comorbidities (18% epilepsy, 16% insomnia, and 14% psychotic agitations). Risperidone and quetiapine were co-prescribed in 60% of the cases without any monitoring adverse event routine. The rates of multimorbidity and polypharmacy, among our young adults with ASD and ID, are concerning. Data suggest the need to develop a pharmacovigilance monitoring system to evaluate prescription accuracy, long-term safety of ongoing medications, and the fixed doses in this autistic population with associated ID.

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5. Solmaz V, Erdoğan MA, Alnak A, Meral A, Erbaş O. Erythropoietin shows gender dependent positive effects on social deficits, learning/memory impairments, neuronal loss and neuroinflammation in the lipopolysaccharide induced rat model of autism. Neuropeptides ;2020 (Jul 17):102073.

We aimed to evaluate the effects of EPO in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced rat model of autism in terms of social deficits, learning and memory impairments, as well as their neurochemical correlates. Sixteen female Sprague Dawley rats randomly distributed into two equel groups, then were caged with fertile males for mating. At the 10th day of pregnancy, 0.5 ml %0,9 NaCl saline was given to first group, 100 μg/kg LPS was given to second group to induce autism. On postnatal 21th day, forty-eight littermates were divided into four groups as ; 8 male, 8 female controls, 16 male and 16 female LPS-exposed. Then, LPS groups were also divided in to two groups as saline (1 mg/kg/day) and EPO 600 U/kg/day groups, and animals were treated 45 days. At 50th day, after behavioral evaluations, brain levels of TNF-α, nerve growth factor (NGF) were measured. Histologically, hippocampal neuronal density and GFAP expression were assessed. Three-chamber sociability and social novelty test, passive avoidance learning test were revealed significant differences among the EPO and control groups. Histologically, hippocampal CA1 & CA3 regions displayed significant alterations regarding gliosis (GFAP-positive cells) and regarding frontal cortical thickness in EPO groups compare to controls. Biochemical measurements of the brain levels of TNF-α and NGF levels showed significant differences between controls and EPO groups. According to our findings EPO treatment has beneficial effects on ASD-like symptoms, learning and memory processes, neuronal loss and neuroinflammation in the LPS induced rat model of autism, with some gender differences through inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways.

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6. Ventura G, Calvano CD, Porcelli V, Palmieri L, De Giacomo A, Xu Y, Goodacre R, Palmisano F, Cataldi TRI. Phospholipidomics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) : the tricky case of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their healthy siblings. Anal Bioanal Chem ;2020 (Aug 1)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a broad and heterogeneous group of neurological developmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive behavioural patterns, and altered sensory processing. Currently, no reliable ASD molecular biomarkers are available. Since immune dysregulation has been supposed to be related with ASD onset and dyslipidaemia has been recognized as an early symptom of biological perturbation, lipid extracts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), consisting primarily of lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and NK cells) and monocytes, of 38 children with ASD and their non-autistic siblings were investigated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with electrospray ionization and Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS). Performances of two freeware software for data extraction and processing were compared with acquired reliable data regardless of the used informatics. A reduction of variables from 1460 by the untargeted XCMS to 324 by the semi-untargeted Alex(123) software was attained. All-ion fragmentation (AIF) MS scans along with Alex(123) software were successfully applied to obtain information related to fatty acyl chain composition of six glycerophospholipid classes occurring in PBMC. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were explored to verify the occurrence of significant differences in the lipid pool composition of ASD children compared with 36 healthy siblings. After rigorous statistical validation, we conclude that phospholipids extracted from PBMC of children affected by ASD do not exhibit diagnostic biomarkers. Yet interindividual variability comes forth from this study as the dominant effect in keeping with the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Graphical abstract.

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