Pubmed du 06/08/20

jeudi 6 août 2020

1. Adams C, Gaile J. Evaluation of a parent preference-based outcome measure after intensive communication intervention for children with social (pragmatic) communication disorder and high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Aug 6) ;105:103752.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Children with Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SPCD) or High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) have persistent deficits in language structure and language use (pragmatics). This feasibility study evaluated a novel parent preference-based outcome measure and secondary outcomes associated with the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP). METHODS : 15 UK speech and language practitioners identified 20 children aged 5-11 years with pragmatics/language needs. Practitioners received SCIP training and supervision. Children received 20 SCIP therapy sessions. Primary endpoint was a goal attainment scale (SCIP-GAS). Before intervention (T1), parents provided three prioritised communication goals, refined into a series of steps. After intervention (T2) parents and practitioners rated each goal compared to T1 and parents provided a narrative on outcomes. SECONDARY OUTCOMES : Children’s Communication Checklist-2, Social Language Development Test (SLDT), and observational ratings of conversational interaction (TOPICC-2). RESULTS : All children except one progressed on T2 SCIP-GAS parent outcomes. All children progressed on practitioner SCIP-GAS ratings. 82.5 % of parent comments supported their own SCIP-GAS ratings. Secondary outcomes measures : Only SLDT Making Inferences scores and TOPICC-2 ratings showed improvement at T2. CONCLUSIONS : A preference-based social communication measure showed feasibility as an outcome measure following social communication intervention for children who have HFASD or SPCD.

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2. Ahmed MR, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liao H. Single Volume Image Generator and Deep Learning-based ASD Classification. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ;2020 (May 29) ;Pp

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an intricate neuropsychiatric brain disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors. Deep learning approaches have been applied in clinical or behavioral identification of ASD ; most erstwhile models are inadequate in their capacity to exploit the data richness. On the other hand, classification techniques often solely rely on region-based summary and/or functional connectivity analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Besides, biomedical data modeling to analyze big data related to ASD is still perplexing due to its complexity and heterogeneity. Single volume image consideration has not been previously investigated in classification purposes. By deeming these challenges, in this work, firstly, we design an image generator to generate single volume brain images from the whole-brain image by considering the voxel time point of each subject separately. Then, to classify ASD and typical control participants, we evaluate four deep learning approaches with their corresponding ensemble classifiers comprising one amended Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Finally, to check out the data variability, we apply the proposed CNN classifier with leave-one-site-out 5-fold cross-validation across the sites and validate our findings by comparing with literature reports. We showcase our approach on large-scale multi-site brain imaging dataset (ABIDE) by considering four preprocessing pipelines, which outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Hence, it is robust and consistent.

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3. Ahtam B, Braeutigam S, Bailey A. Semantic Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated With the Timing of Language Acquisition : A Magnetoencephalographic Study. Front Hum Neurosci ;2020 ;14:267.

Individuals with autism show difficulties in using sentence context to identify the correct meaning of ambiguous words, such as homonyms. In this study, the brain basis of sentence context effects on word understanding during reading was examined in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical development (TD) using magnetoencephalography. The correlates of a history of developmental language delay in ASD were also investigated. Event related field responses at early (150 ms after the onset of a final word) and N400 latencies are reported for three different types of sentence final words : dominant homonyms, subordinate homonyms, and unambiguous words. Clear evidence for semantic access was found at both early and conventional N400 latencies in both TD participants and individuals with ASD with no history of language delay. By contrast, modulation of evoked activity related to semantic access was weak and not significant at early latencies in individuals with ASD with a history of language delay. The reduced sensitivity to semantic context in individuals with ASD and language delay was accompanied by strong right hemisphere lateralization at early and N400 latencies ; such strong activity was not observed in TD individuals and individuals with ASD without a history of language delay at either latency. These results provide new evidence and support for differential neural mechanisms underlying semantic processing in ASD, and indicate that delayed language acquisition in ASD is associated with different lateralization and processing of language.

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4. Chen B. A preliminary study of atypical cortical changeability of dynamic whole-brain functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder. Int J Neurosci ;2020 (Aug 6):1-22.

Objectives:Designing new objectivelydiagnosticmethods of autism spectrum disorder(ASD) are burning questions.Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) methodology based on fMRI data is an effective lever to investigate changeability evolutionofsignal synchronizationin macroscopic neural activity patterns.Methods:Embracing the network dynamics concepts, this paper introduceschangeability index ([Formula : see text]-score)which is focused on time-varying aspects of FCs, and develops a new framework for researching the roots of ASDbrains at resting statesin holism significance. The important process is to uncover noticeable regions and subsystems endowed with antagonistic stance in [Formula : see text]-scores of between atypical and typical DFCs of 30 healthy controls (HCs) and 48ASDpatients.Results:The abnormities of edge C-scores are found across widespread brain cortex in ASD brains. For whole brain regional C-scores of ASD patients, orbitofrontal middle cortex L, inferior triangular frontal gyrus L, middle occipital gyrus L, postcentral gyrus L, supramarginal L, supramarginal R, cerebellum 8 L, andcerebellum 10 Rare endowed with significantly different [Formula : see text]-scores.At brain subsystems level, C-scores in left hemisphere, right hemisphere,top hemisphere, bottom hemisphere, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellumsubsystemsare abnormal in ASDpatients.Conclusions:The ASD brains have whole-brain abnormity on widespread regions.Through the strict evidence-based study, it was found that the changeability index (C-score) is a meaningful biological marker to explore cortical activity in ASD.

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5. Donati G, Davis R, Forrester GS. Gaze behaviour to lateral face stimuli in infants who do and do not gain an ASD diagnosis. Sci Rep ;2020 (Aug 6) ;10(1):13185.

Cerebral lateralisation of function is common characteristic across vertebrate species and is positively associated with fitness of the organism, in humans we hypothesise that it is associated with cognitive fitness. This investigation evaluated the early development of lateralised gaze behaviour for face stimuli in infants at high and low risk for autism from the British Autism Sibling Infant Study (BASIS). The BASIS cohort includes a low risk group and three high-risk groups who at age 3 were developing (i) typically, (ii) atypically or (iii) had received a diagnosis for ASD. Using eye-tracking data derived from a face pop-out task at 6 and 14 months of age, all non-ASD groups showed a bias for stimuli on the left at both timepoints. At 6 months the ASD group demonstrated a preference for stimuli on the right and were slower than their neurotypical counterparts to look at faces on the left. However, by 14 months these differences disappear. Longitudinal associations between lateral looking behaviour at 6 months and language and motor ability at 14 months were also found. Results suggest that infants who go on to be diagnosed with autism exhibit early differences in gaze behaviour that may be associated with subsequent cognitive outcomes.

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6. Khalifa G, Rosenbaum P, Georgiades K, Duku E, Di Rezze B. Exploring the Participation Patterns and Impact of Environment in Preschool Children with ASD. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Aug 6) ;17(16)

Participation in everyday activities at home and in the community is essential for children’s development and well-being. Limited information exists about participation patterns of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines these participation patterns in both the home and community, and the extent to which environmental factors and social communication abilities are associated with participation. Fifty-four parents of preschool-aged children with ASD completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Young Children and the Autism Classification System of Functioning : Social Communication. The children had a mean age of 48.9 (8.4) months. Patterns of participation were studied using descriptive statistics, radar graphs, and Spearman correlations. Children with ASD participated in a variety of activities at home and in the community, but showed a higher participation frequency at home. Parents identified different barriers (e.g., social demands) and supports (e.g., attitudes) in both settings. There was a moderate positive association between children’s social communication abilities and their levels of involvement during participation and the diversity of activities. This study highlights the importance of social communication abilities in the participation of preschool children with ASD, and the need to support parents while they work to improve their child’s participation, especially within their communities.

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7. Khalili Alashti S, Fallahi J, Jokar A, Fardaei M. CRISPR/Cas9 knock-in toward creating a Rett syndrome cell model with a synonymous mutation in the MECP2 gene. J Gene Med ;2020 (Aug 6):e3258.

BACKGROUND : Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutation in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. This gene encodes a methylated DNA-binding protein, which acts as a transcriptional regulatory factor. The aim of this study was to establish a cell model of Rett syndrome with the MECP2 synonymous mutation c.354G> T (p.Gly118Gly). In addition, the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of this mutation was also investigated. METHODS : To create a cell line containing the synonymous variant in MECP2 locus, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair precise gene editing method was used. In addition, by the synthesis of cDNA, the effect of this variant on splicing was investigated. RESULTS : Using this model and molecular analysis, we identified that c.354G>T synonymous variant created a novel 5’ cryptic splice donor site within the exon 3 of MECP2 gene, which resulted in a deletion of 25 nucleotides in the 3’ end of exon 3 and presumably protein truncation. CONCLUSIONS : The findings obtained in the present study show that apparently neutral synonymous polymorphism, which may be commonly classified as non-pathogenic, may indeed be led to creating an aberrant splice site, thereby resulting in disease.

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8. Leonardi E, Cerasa A, Famà FI, Carrozza C, Spadaro L, Scifo R, Baieli S, Marino F, Tartarisco G, Vagni D, Pioggia G, Ruta L. Alexithymia Profile in Relation to Negative Affect in Parents of Autistic and Typically Developing Young Children. Brain Sci ;2020 (Jul 29) ;10(8)

In our study, we explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with and without ASD using a multi-method approach based on self-rated and external rater assessment. We also assessed the level of self-report measures of negative affect states such as trait anxiety and depression, and investigated the correlation between the alexithymia construct, trait anxiety, and depression within the broader autism phenotype (BAP). A total sample of 100 parents (25 mothers and 25 fathers in each group) were administered the TAS-20 and the TSIA to measure self-reported and observer-rated alexithymia traits, as well as self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Study results showed that the TSIA but not the TAS-20 was able to detect significant group differences in alexithymia traits among parents of children with and without ASD, with parents of ASD children displaying significantly higher levels of alexithymia. Furthermore, differently from the TAS-20, no significant correlations between the TSIA and measures of anxiety and depression were detected. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of using multi-method approaches to control for potential measurement bias and to detect psychological constructs such as alexithymia in subclinical samples such as parents of children with ASD.

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9. McCleery JP, Zitter A, Solórzano R, Turnacioglu S, Miller JS, Ravindran V, Parish-Morris J. Safety and feasibility of an immersive virtual reality intervention program for teaching police interaction skills to adolescents and adults with autism. Autism Res ;2020 (Aug 6)

Low-cost, wireless immersive virtual reality (VR) holds significant promise as a flexible and scalable intervention tool to help individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) learn and develop critical practical life skills, including interacting safely and effectively with police officers. Previous research suggests that VR is a motivating intervention platform, but many individuals with ASD also exhibit anxiety and sensory sensitivities which might make it difficult to tolerate VR experiences. Here, we describe the results of a relatively large-scale, National Institutes of Health-funded systematic examination of the safety, feasibility, and usability of an immersive VR training program in adolescents and adults with ASD, aged 12 and older. Sixty verbally fluent individuals with no personal or immediate family history of seizures or migraines participated in either one (n = 30) or three 45-min (n = 30) VR sessions using a lightweight wireless headset, and were monitored for side effects. Participants also reported on system usability, enjoyment, and willingness to engage in further VR sessions. Results confirm that immersive VR is safe, feasible, and highly usable for verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. LAY SUMMARY : Immersive virtual reality (VR) holds promise as a means to provide social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether associated anxiety and sensory symptoms might limit feasibility. Here, we report data that indicate that immersive VR is both safe and feasible for use in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD, for up to three 45-min sessions.

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10. Molinaro A, Micheletti S, Rossi A, Gitti F, Galli J, Merabet LB, Fazzi EM. Autistic-Like Features in Visually Impaired Children : A Review of Literature and Directions for Future Research. Brain Sci ;2020 (Aug 1) ;10(8)

There remains great interest in understanding the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to the extraordinarily high prevalence of ASD in blind and visually impaired children. The broad variability across individuals and assessment methodologies have made it difficult to understand whether autistic-like symptoms shown by some children with VI might reflect the influence of the visual deficit, or represent a primary neurodevelopmental condition that occurs independently of the VI itself. In the absence of a valid methodology adapted for the visually impaired population, diagnosis of ASD in children with VI is often based on non-objective clinical impression, with inconclusive prevalence data. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge and suggest directions for future research.

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11. Paraschivescu C, Barbosa S, Lorivel T, Glaichenhaus N, Davidovic L. Cytokine changes associated with the maternal immune activation (MIA) model of autism : A penalized regression approach. PLoS One ;2020 ;15(8):e0231609.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy induces a cytokine storm that alters neurodevelopment and behavior in the progeny. In humans, MIA increases the odds of developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In mice, MIA can be induced by injecting the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) to pregnant dams. Although the murine model of MIA has been extensively studied, it is not clear whether MIA results in cytokine changes in the progeny at early postnatal stages. Further, the murine model of MIA suffers from a lack of reproducibility and high inter-individual variability. Multivariable (MV) statistical analysis is widely used in human studies to control for confounders and covariates such as sex, age and exposure to environmental factors. We therefore reasoned that animal studies in general and studies on the MIA model in particular could benefit from MV analyses to account for complex phenotype interactions and high inter-individual variability. Here, we used MV statistical analysis to identify cytokines associated with MIA after adjustment for covariates. Besides confirming the association between previously described variables and MIA, we identified new cytokines that could play a role in behavioural alterations in the progeny during the early postnatal period.

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12. Reid KB, Sacrey LR, Zwaigenbaum L, Raza S, Brian J, Smith IM, Bryson S, Armstrong V, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Vaillancourt T, Roncadin C. The association between social emotional development and symptom presentation in autism spectrum disorder. Dev Psychopathol ;2020 (Aug 5):1-11.

Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR ; no family history of ASD ; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.

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13. Restrepo B, Angkustsiri K, Taylor SL, Rogers SJ, Cabral J, Heath B, Hechtman A, Solomon M, Ashwood P, Amaral DG, Nordahl CW. Developmental-behavioral profiles in children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring gastrointestinal symptoms. Autism Res ;2020 (Aug 6)

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We evaluated the frequency and severity of GI symptoms in preschool-aged children with ASD compared to participants with typical development (TD). Our goal was to ascertain whether GI symptoms are associated with differences in sex or developmental and behavioral measures. Participants were between 2 and 3.5 years of age and included 255 children with ASD (184 males/71 females) and 129 age-matched TD controls (75 males/54 females). A parent interview was used to assess GI symptoms (abdominal pain, gaseousness/bloating, diarrhea, constipation, pain on stooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, blood in stool or in vomit). Children with GI symptoms in each diagnostic group were compared to children without GI symptoms on measures of developmental, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. GI symptoms were reported more frequently in children with ASD compared to the TD group (47.8% vs. 17.8%, respectively). Children with ASD were also more likely to experience multiple GI symptoms (30.6% vs. 5.4%). GI symptoms were equally common in males and females across both diagnostic groups. There were no statistically significant differences in developmental or adaptive measures based on presence of GI symptoms in either ASD or TD children. Co-occurring GI symptoms were, however, associated with increased self-injurious behaviors, restricted stereotyped behaviors, aggressive behaviors, sleep problems and attention problems in both ASD and TD children. In children with ASD, a higher number of GI symptoms was associated with an increase in self-injurious behaviors, somatic complaints, reduced sleep duration, and increased parasomnias. LAY SUMMARY : ASD is characterized by challenges in social communication and repetitive behaviors. But, people with autism have many other difficulties including gastrointestinal problems. Children with ASD were three times more likely to experience GI symptoms than typically developing peers. Increased GI symptoms are associated with increased problem behaviors such as sleep problems, self-injury, and body aches. Since GI symptoms are often treatable, it is important to recognize them as soon as possible. Both clinicians and parents should become more aware of the high occurrence of GI problems in autistic people.

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14. Selvey P, Stypulkowski K, Waisbren S. Surgical management of the patient living with autism. Surg Open Sci ;2019 (Oct) ;1(2):90-96.

BACKGROUND : Although 1 in 59 children currently born are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known on how to best manage those patients who require surgical intervention.The purpose of this study is to (1) investigate the best care strategies for surgical patients living with autism spectrum disorder (2) provide recommendations on how to apply those strategies to clinical practice. METHODS : A literature review was conducted to investigate the best clinical practices for optimizing surgical care for individuals living with autism spectrum disorder. Relevant articles were selected and examined, and individual references from those articles were manually searched using Ovid Medline and Google Scholar. RESULTS : The wide spectrum of symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder pose unique challenges for surgical management. Early coordination with the patient and family optimizes the development of an effective care plan. Strategies include identifying triggers for anxiety as well as soothing mechanisms, performing surgery in the morning, completing preoperative paperwork prior to surgery, choosing appropriate analgesia and anxiolytics, and fast resumption of normal routines. Based on these findings a surgical checklist was created to aid in treating the patient with autism spectrum disorder. The checklist provides insight into navigating the surgical experience and emphasizes planning surgical interventions to most effectively fit individual patient needs. CONCLUSION : The surgical treatment of those living with autism spectrum disorder poses unique challenges for the health care team. The widespread adoption of such individualized approaches encompassing pre/intra/post-operative will become more important as these children grow into adults with increased needs for surgical services.

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15. Shochet IM, Orr JA, Kelly RL, Wurfl AM, Saggers BR, Carrington SB. Psychosocial resources developed and trialled for Indigenous people with autism spectrum disorder and their caregivers : a systematic review and catalogue. Int J Equity Health ;2020 (Aug 6) ;19(1):134.

BACKGROUND : People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face many psychosocial challenges throughout life, highlighting the need for programs and resources promoting psychosocial wellbeing. Indigenous peoples with ASD and/or other neurodevelopmental disorders must overcome cultural and social barriers to access such supports. This study aimed to identify psychosocial programs and resources developed world-wide for this population by systematically reviewing research evaluating programs aiming to promote the psychosocial wellbeing of this population and/or their caregivers ; and collating and reviewing resources developed to promote their psychosocial wellbeing. METHODS : Searches were last conducted in December 2019. The systematic review searched 28 electronic databases, and 25 electronic databases were searched for resources promoting psychosocial wellbeing. Additional published and unpublished studies were identified from relevant reviews, authors of eligible articles, and experts working in Indigenous Health. Articles and resources were screened for inclusion using pre-defined criteria. Articles included in the systematic review were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. The diversity and paucity of outcomes reported precluded pooling of study findings for meta-analysis. RESULTS : Seven articles situated in the USA (2), Canada (3) and Australia (2) ; and eleven resources developed in Australia (9), Canada (1) and New Zealand (1) met inclusion criteria. All articles showed some promising findings for improving psychosocial wellbeing for Indigenous children with ASD and/or another neurodevelopmental disorder, and 5 of 7 evaluated the cultural adaptation of an existing evidence-based program for an Indigenous population. However, methodological quality was moderate or low (57% and 43% of articles respectively) and no studies had adult participants. The psychosocial wellbeing supports provided by the 11 resources included psychoeducation, community support, and services/workshops. CONCLUSIONS : Despite the paucity of research and resources found, important exemplars demonstrate that existing programs can be adapted to support Indigenous people with ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. While future policy should endeavour to facilitate Indigenous people’s access to support services, and encourage researchers to develop and evaluate programs promoting psychosocial wellbeing for this population, given complexities of designing and evaluating new programs, careful and appropriate cultural adaptations of existing evidence-based programs would increase feasibility of ongoing research without compromising outcomes.

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16. Uçar N, Grant WB, Peraita-Costa I, Morales Suárez-Varela M. How 25(OH)D Levels during Pregnancy Affect Prevalence of Autism in Children : Systematic Review. Nutrients ;2020 (Jul 31) ;12(8)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of dysfunctions in social interaction, communication, and behaviors. The etiology of ASD is not yet fully understood ; however, it consists of the interaction between genetics and the environment. An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early-childhood vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the etiology of some cases of ASD. Herein, we systematically review the literature for studies on vitamin D status during pregnancy and ASD outcomes. Forty-three studies in the PubMed and 124 studies in EMBASE databases were initially found. After screening, 26 were identified as candidate studies for inclusion. Finally, 14 articles met the inclusion criteria, which originated from nine countries. The studies included 10 original research studies and four review studies conducted between 2012 and 2020. The strength of evidence that vitamin D levels during pregnancy increase the risk of developing autism is very low. This is because the evidence relies exclusively on observational studies that did not equally consider all important confounders and that assessed the indirect relationship between vitamin D as a surrogate for sunlight exposure and autism risk. The findings of this systematic review are consistent with the hypothesis that low vitamin D levels might contribute to the development of autism. However, we must also recognize the possible confusion bias and therefore experimental studies with very large sample sizes, given incidence of autism, that allow us to detect blood levels in pregnant women would be helpful to clarify this point.

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17. Wuang YP, Huang CL, Tsai HY. Sensory Integration and Perceptual-Motor Profiles in School-Aged Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ;2020 ;16:1661-1673.

PURPOSE : This study aimed to investigate the sensory integration and perceptual-motor performances in elementary school children (5-12 years) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwan. The impacts of comprehensive body functions on activity participations in ASD were also investigated to provide evidence for clinical applications and further study. METHODS : One hundred and seventeen children with ASD (42 females ; aged 5-13 years, average age 8 years 3 months) were recruited. All participants were assessed with standardized measures of body functions and activity participations. The body function measures included Bruininks-Oseretsky of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, Sensory Profile, Test of Sensory Integration Functions, and Test of Visual Perception Skills - Third Edition. The activity participation measures included the Chinese versions of both Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and School Function Assessment. RESULTS : School-aged children with ASD had different levels of impairments on body function measures. Most participant scores fell within the impairment range on 13 to 15 items out of the total 19 sensory and perceptual-motor measure subtests, with worst performance on coordination-related motor task and most sensory integrative dimensions. The results indicated a significant main effect for age and sex on some body functions and activity participations. Correlation analyses indicated strong associations between body function and activity participation across settings in ASD. CONCLUSION : Our findings characterized the developmental continuum of body functions of school-aged children with ASD and showed their associations with adaptation and participation. While emphasizing the development of functional skills to facilitate age-appropriate activity participation in multiple scenarios, interventions aiming to improve body functions are indispensable.

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