Pubmed du 09/08/20

dimanche 9 août 2020

1. Abouzeid N, Rivard M, Mello C, Mestari Z, Boulé M, Guay C. Parent coaching intervention program based on the Early Start Denver Model for children with autism spectrum disorder : Feasibility and acceptability study. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Aug 4) ;105:103747.

A parent coaching intervention program was launched in a Quebec community-based organization for autism spectrum disorder. This initiative was intended to support families following the child’s diagnosis, as they awaited public early intensive behavioral intervention services. The parent-mediated intervention program, based on the Early Start Denver Model, included a 3 h parent group training, an initial assessment followed by the development of an individualized intervention plan, 8 weeks of live coaching, a final assessment to evaluate children’s progress, and a feedback meeting with families. The present study used a mixed-method design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Ten families (ten mothers and three fathers) and four coaches participated in the present study. Parents and coaches perceived and achieved high levels of implementation overall (91 %) and there was a moderate improvement of parents’ teaching skills. All participating families and coaches were satisfied or highly satisfied with the program and found it acceptable.

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2. Chen B. A preliminary study of atypical cortical changeability of dynamic whole-brain functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder. Int J Neurosci ;2020 (Aug 6):1-22.

Objectives:Designing new objectivelydiagnosticmethods of autism spectrum disorder(ASD) are burning questions.Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) methodology based on fMRI data is an effective lever to investigate changeability evolutionofsignal synchronizationin macroscopic neural activity patterns.Methods:Embracing the network dynamics concepts, this paper introduceschangeability index ([Formula : see text]-score)which is focused on time-varying aspects of FCs, and develops a new framework for researching the roots of ASDbrains at resting statesin holism significance. The important process is to uncover noticeable regions and subsystems endowed with antagonistic stance in [Formula : see text]-scores of between atypical and typical DFCs of 30 healthy controls (HCs) and 48ASDpatients.Results:The abnormities of edge C-scores are found across widespread brain cortex in ASD brains. For whole brain regional C-scores of ASD patients, orbitofrontal middle cortex L, inferior triangular frontal gyrus L, middle occipital gyrus L, postcentral gyrus L, supramarginal L, supramarginal R, cerebellum 8 L, andcerebellum 10 Rare endowed with significantly different [Formula : see text]-scores.At brain subsystems level, C-scores in left hemisphere, right hemisphere,top hemisphere, bottom hemisphere, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellumsubsystemsare abnormal in ASDpatients.Conclusions:The ASD brains have whole-brain abnormity on widespread regions.Through the strict evidence-based study, it was found that the changeability index (C-score) is a meaningful biological marker to explore cortical activity in ASD.

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3. Donati G, Davis R, Forrester GS. Gaze behaviour to lateral face stimuli in infants who do and do not gain an ASD diagnosis. Sci Rep ;2020 (Aug 6) ;10(1):13185.

Cerebral lateralisation of function is common characteristic across vertebrate species and is positively associated with fitness of the organism, in humans we hypothesise that it is associated with cognitive fitness. This investigation evaluated the early development of lateralised gaze behaviour for face stimuli in infants at high and low risk for autism from the British Autism Sibling Infant Study (BASIS). The BASIS cohort includes a low risk group and three high-risk groups who at age 3 were developing (i) typically, (ii) atypically or (iii) had received a diagnosis for ASD. Using eye-tracking data derived from a face pop-out task at 6 and 14 months of age, all non-ASD groups showed a bias for stimuli on the left at both timepoints. At 6 months the ASD group demonstrated a preference for stimuli on the right and were slower than their neurotypical counterparts to look at faces on the left. However, by 14 months these differences disappear. Longitudinal associations between lateral looking behaviour at 6 months and language and motor ability at 14 months were also found. Results suggest that infants who go on to be diagnosed with autism exhibit early differences in gaze behaviour that may be associated with subsequent cognitive outcomes.

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4. Freitas L, Henry JE, Kelley ME, Tonneau F. The effects of stimulus pairings on autistic children’s vocalizations : Comparing forward and backward pairings. Behav Processes ;2020 (Aug 9):104213.

In a procedure known as stimulus-stimulus pairing (Yoon and Bennett, 2000), the experimenter pairs a target sound (e.g., "bah") with a child’s preferred item (e.g., a toy). Even though the stimulus pairings proceed independently of the child’s behavior, this procedure has proved capable of increasing imitation of the target sound in developmentally delayed children (Shillingsburg et al., 2015). The underlying behavioral processes remain poorly known, however, and few systematic variations of the basic procedure have been published. In the present experiment, with autistic children as participants, (a) we compared the effects of forward versus backward pairings on the imitation of target sounds, and (b) we evaluated formally the relation between the children’s preexisting verbal repertoires and the efficacy of the pairing procedure. As is often reported in the Pavlovian literature, backward pairings promoted lower levels of conditional responding than forward pairings. Also, we found a negative relation between a child’s verbal level and pairing efficacy : children with the lower scores on the Behavioral Language Assessment Form (Sundberg and Partington, 1998) exhibited more conditioning. These findings confirm in a single study what has been so far only suspected informally.

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5. Gouveia FV, Germann J, Devenyi GA, Morais R, Santos APM, Fonoff ET, Hamani C, Brentani H, Chakravarty MM, Martinez RCR. Refractoriness of aggressive behaviour to pharmacological treatment : cortical thickness analysis in autism spectrum disorder. BJPsych Open ;2020 (Aug 7) ;6(5):e85.

Aggressive behaviour is a highly prevalent and devastating condition in autism spectrum disorder resulting in impoverished quality of life. Gold-standard therapies are ineffective in about 30% of patients leading to greater suffering. We investigated cortical thickness in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with pharmacological-treatment-refractory aggressive behaviour compared with those with non-refractory aggressive behaviour and observed a brain-wide pattern of local increased thickness in key areas related to emotional control and overall decreased cortical thickness in those with refractory aggressive behaviour, suggesting refractoriness could be related to specific morphological patterns. Elucidating the neurobiology of refractory aggressive behaviour is crucial to provide insights and potential avenues for new interventions.

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6. Guo BQ, Li HB, Ding SB. Blood homocysteine levels in children with autism spectrum disorder : An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res ;2020 (Jul 6) ;291:113283.

Results of studies on peripheral blood levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are inconsistent, and conclusions from two previous meta-analyses on this subject published in 2012 are already outdated. Therefore, we conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the peripheral blood Hcy data in children with ASD compared with healthy controls (HC). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to September 2019 for eligible studies, with no language restriction. Using random-effects model, we computed summary statistics. Thirty-one studies (3304 participants including 1641 cases) were included. The pooled results showed that the peripheral blood Hcy levels were significantly elevated in children with ASD when compared to HC (Hedges’s g = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.76, P < 0.001). By sensitivity analyses, we confirmed that our results were quite robust. Additionally, no publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, our study support the association of increased circulating Hcy levels with ASD in children, and the involvement of Hcy in the occurrence of ASD. However, in view of the significant between-study heterogeneity, the conclusions should be interpreted cautiously and more investigation is required.

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7. Maric DM, Papic V, Radomir M, Stanojevic I, Sokolovac I, Milosavljevic K, Maric DL, Abazovic D. Autism treatment with stem cells : a case report. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ;2020 (Aug) ;24(15):8075-8080.

OBJECTIVE : Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex brain disorder and has multiple causes that occur in diverse combinations. There is a need to classify children with ASD at a very young age so that they can access evidence-based intervention that can significantly improve their outcomes. CASE REPORT : In this report we present a case of autism, which underwent intrathecal autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation along with neurorehabilitation. The primary goal of the treatment is to improve the quality of life of the patient. After the procedure, the child started to speak, therefore, the third communication subscale was scored within the GARS-2 assessment instrument. With these three subscales, a score of 91 has been achieved, representing an autism index of 27%, a significant improvement over the previous score. CONCLUSIONS : Our study demonstrated evidences to support the safety and effectiveness of BMAC transplantation in the management of autism.

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8. McClemont AJ, Morton HE, Gillis JM, Romanczyk RG. Brief Report : Predictors of School Refusal Due to Bullying in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Aug 7)

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for bullying victimization. School refusal is a ’red flag’ for identification of bullying in children with ASD and/or ADHD. This study examined the impact of diagnoses, demographics, and school variables on school refusal due to bullying. Participants were 97 parents of 154 children with ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, other diagnoses, or no diagnosis. Children with ASD + ADHD were most likely to refuse school due to bullying. Classroom aides and behavior problems were protective and risk factors, respectively. In the final regression model, child diagnosis no longer predicted school refusal. School refusal and problem behavior warrant consideration as a marker of distress for victimized children.

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9. McDermott CR, Farmer C, Gotham KO, Bal VH. Measurement of subcategories of repetitive behaviors in autistic adolescents and adults. Autism Adulthood ;2020 (Mar 11) ;2(1):48-60.

BACKGROUND : Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are core features of autism. Factor-analytic studies comprised primarily of children have provided evidence for two domains of RRBs : Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. The present study explores the validity of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) for assessing these RRB subtypes in autistic adolescents and adults. METHODS : The sample included 293 participants (M(age)=19.89, SD=4.88 years) whose RRBs were assessed via ADI-R or RBS-R Caregiver-report or RBS-R Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the validity of the two-factor structure for each instrument. Cronbach’s alpha was computed to assess subscale reliability. Correlations were examined between instrument subscales, NVIQ and age. RESULTS : Exploratory correlations were modest and provided weak evidence in favor of the utility of a CFA for the ADI-R. The RBS-R Caregiver and Self-Report CFA and internal consistencies supported the two-factor RSM and IS model tested. Consistent with previous literature, NVIQ was negatively correlated with the RBS-R Caregiver RSM subscale, but not meaningfully associated with IS. Neither RBS-R Self-Report subscale were meaningfully correlated with NVIQ. Across instruments, RSM subscales were correlated, but associations between IS were minimal. CONCLUSIONS : The present study provides initial support for the use of the RBS-R Caregiver and Self-Report to measure dimensions of RSM and IS behaviors in autistic adolescents and adults. The present data did not support the use of the ADI-R to assess these RRB subtypes in older individuals. Conclusions must be interpreted cautiously in light of the present study’s sample limitations. Additional research is needed to understand differences in caregiver and self-reported RRBs. Further research on RRBs in autistic adolescents and adults, particularly in samples of greater gender and racial/ethnic diversity, is critical to inform community understanding and knowledge of autism in adulthood.

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10. Mukherjee SB, Neelam, Kapoor S, Sharma S. Identification of Essential, Equivocal and Complex Autism by the Autism Dysmorphology Measure : An Observational Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Aug 7)

The Autism Dysmorphology Measure is designed for non-expert clinicians. It uses an algorithm to assess 12 body regions and categorizes Autism on the number of dysmorphic regions identified ; Essential (≤ 3), Equivocal (4-5) or Complex (≥ 6). We evaluated 200 Indian children with Autism (mean age 3.7 years) in a hospital-based cross-sectional study and compared inter-group profiles. We found 31% Essential, 49% Equivocal and 20% Complex Autism. On comparing results with existing literature, it appeared that genetic ancestry and age significantly influenced dysmorphism and hence categorization. No significant differences were observed between complex and essential autism in epilepsy, severity of autism or development, as reported earlier. These shortcomings make the present tool unsuitable for use in young Indian children with Autism.

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11. Park SH, Song YJC, Demetriou EA, Pepper KL, Thomas EE, Hickie IB, Guastella AJ. Validation of the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry Res ;2020 (Jul 13) ;291:113300.

The purpose of the study was to examine the internal consistency and validity of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and without intellectual disability (IQ >= 70). Participants (NN = 123) were consecutively recruited from the Brain and Mind Centre in New South Wales, Australia. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach’s alpha. Item-total correlations were evaluated by Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. The convergent validity of the DASS-21 was examined by measuring its associations with quality of life and other measures of depression and anxiety. Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. The DASS-21 demonstrated good internal consistency, adequate convergent validity, and all items exhibited satisfactory item-total correlations. Considering fit indices and factor loadings, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the original 3-factor oblique model consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress factors. The model fit could be further improved with some modifications. Overall, the results indicate that the DASS-21 is a viable self-report screening measure for depression, anxiety, and stress in individuals with ASD and without intellectual disability.

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12. Restrepo B, Angkustsiri K, Taylor SL, Rogers SJ, Cabral J, Heath B, Hechtman A, Solomon M, Ashwood P, Amaral DG, Nordahl CW. Developmental-behavioral profiles in children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring gastrointestinal symptoms. Autism Res ;2020 (Aug 6)

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We evaluated the frequency and severity of GI symptoms in preschool-aged children with ASD compared to participants with typical development (TD). Our goal was to ascertain whether GI symptoms are associated with differences in sex or developmental and behavioral measures. Participants were between 2 and 3.5 years of age and included 255 children with ASD (184 males/71 females) and 129 age-matched TD controls (75 males/54 females). A parent interview was used to assess GI symptoms (abdominal pain, gaseousness/bloating, diarrhea, constipation, pain on stooling, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, blood in stool or in vomit). Children with GI symptoms in each diagnostic group were compared to children without GI symptoms on measures of developmental, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. GI symptoms were reported more frequently in children with ASD compared to the TD group (47.8% vs. 17.8%, respectively). Children with ASD were also more likely to experience multiple GI symptoms (30.6% vs. 5.4%). GI symptoms were equally common in males and females across both diagnostic groups. There were no statistically significant differences in developmental or adaptive measures based on presence of GI symptoms in either ASD or TD children. Co-occurring GI symptoms were, however, associated with increased self-injurious behaviors, restricted stereotyped behaviors, aggressive behaviors, sleep problems and attention problems in both ASD and TD children. In children with ASD, a higher number of GI symptoms was associated with an increase in self-injurious behaviors, somatic complaints, reduced sleep duration, and increased parasomnias. LAY SUMMARY : ASD is characterized by challenges in social communication and repetitive behaviors. But, people with autism have many other difficulties including gastrointestinal problems. Children with ASD were three times more likely to experience GI symptoms than typically developing peers. Increased GI symptoms are associated with increased problem behaviors such as sleep problems, self-injury, and body aches. Since GI symptoms are often treatable, it is important to recognize them as soon as possible. Both clinicians and parents should become more aware of the high occurrence of GI problems in autistic people.

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13. Shochet IM, Orr JA, Kelly RL, Wurfl AM, Saggers BR, Carrington SB. Psychosocial resources developed and trialled for Indigenous people with autism spectrum disorder and their caregivers : a systematic review and catalogue. Int J Equity Health ;2020 (Aug 6) ;19(1):134.

BACKGROUND : People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face many psychosocial challenges throughout life, highlighting the need for programs and resources promoting psychosocial wellbeing. Indigenous peoples with ASD and/or other neurodevelopmental disorders must overcome cultural and social barriers to access such supports. This study aimed to identify psychosocial programs and resources developed world-wide for this population by systematically reviewing research evaluating programs aiming to promote the psychosocial wellbeing of this population and/or their caregivers ; and collating and reviewing resources developed to promote their psychosocial wellbeing. METHODS : Searches were last conducted in December 2019. The systematic review searched 28 electronic databases, and 25 electronic databases were searched for resources promoting psychosocial wellbeing. Additional published and unpublished studies were identified from relevant reviews, authors of eligible articles, and experts working in Indigenous Health. Articles and resources were screened for inclusion using pre-defined criteria. Articles included in the systematic review were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. The diversity and paucity of outcomes reported precluded pooling of study findings for meta-analysis. RESULTS : Seven articles situated in the USA (2), Canada (3) and Australia (2) ; and eleven resources developed in Australia (9), Canada (1) and New Zealand (1) met inclusion criteria. All articles showed some promising findings for improving psychosocial wellbeing for Indigenous children with ASD and/or another neurodevelopmental disorder, and 5 of 7 evaluated the cultural adaptation of an existing evidence-based program for an Indigenous population. However, methodological quality was moderate or low (57% and 43% of articles respectively) and no studies had adult participants. The psychosocial wellbeing supports provided by the 11 resources included psychoeducation, community support, and services/workshops. CONCLUSIONS : Despite the paucity of research and resources found, important exemplars demonstrate that existing programs can be adapted to support Indigenous people with ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. While future policy should endeavour to facilitate Indigenous people’s access to support services, and encourage researchers to develop and evaluate programs promoting psychosocial wellbeing for this population, given complexities of designing and evaluating new programs, careful and appropriate cultural adaptations of existing evidence-based programs would increase feasibility of ongoing research without compromising outcomes.

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