Pubmed du 11/08/20

mardi 11 août 2020

1. Adams C, Gaile J. Evaluation of a parent preference-based outcome measure after intensive communication intervention for children with social (pragmatic) communication disorder and high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Aug 6) ;105:103752.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Children with Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SPCD) or High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) have persistent deficits in language structure and language use (pragmatics). This feasibility study evaluated a novel parent preference-based outcome measure and secondary outcomes associated with the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP). METHODS : 15 UK speech and language practitioners identified 20 children aged 5-11 years with pragmatics/language needs. Practitioners received SCIP training and supervision. Children received 20 SCIP therapy sessions. Primary endpoint was a goal attainment scale (SCIP-GAS). Before intervention (T1), parents provided three prioritised communication goals, refined into a series of steps. After intervention (T2) parents and practitioners rated each goal compared to T1 and parents provided a narrative on outcomes. SECONDARY OUTCOMES : Children’s Communication Checklist-2, Social Language Development Test (SLDT), and observational ratings of conversational interaction (TOPICC-2). RESULTS : All children except one progressed on T2 SCIP-GAS parent outcomes. All children progressed on practitioner SCIP-GAS ratings. 82.5 % of parent comments supported their own SCIP-GAS ratings. Secondary outcomes measures : Only SLDT Making Inferences scores and TOPICC-2 ratings showed improvement at T2. CONCLUSIONS : A preference-based social communication measure showed feasibility as an outcome measure following social communication intervention for children who have HFASD or SPCD.

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2. Aubé B, Follenfant A, Goudeau S, Derguy C. Public Stigma of Autism Spectrum Disorder at School : Implicit Attitudes Matter. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Aug 11)

This study examines the public stigma of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by their school-aged peers, focusing on both explicit and implicit attitudes. The twofold aims were to provide a broader picture of public stigma and to explore age-related changes in attitudes. Students completed an explicit measure of the public stigma and an implicit measure of attitudes after watching a video displaying children with ASD vs. typically developing (TD) children. Both measures showed more negative perceptions towards children with ASD compared to TD children. However, while explicit attitudes improved with age, implicit attitudes remained constantly negative. This finding suggests that both explicit and implicit attitudes should be considered when promoting an inclusive climate at school.

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3. Booker SA, Simões de Oliveira L, Anstey NJ, Kozic Z, Dando OR, Jackson AD, Baxter PS, Isom LL, Sherman DL, Hardingham GE, Brophy PJ, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. Input-Output Relationship of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Reveals Intact Homeostatic Mechanisms in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Cell Rep ;2020 (Aug 11) ;32(6):107988.

Cellular hyperexcitability is a salient feature of fragile X syndrome animal models. The cellular basis of hyperexcitability and how it responds to changing activity states is not fully understood. Here, we show increased axon initial segment length in CA1 of the Fmr1(-/y) mouse hippocampus, with increased cellular excitability. This change in length does not result from reduced AIS plasticity, as prolonged depolarization induces changes in AIS length independent of genotype. However, depolarization does reduce cellular excitability, the magnitude of which is greater in Fmr1(-/y) neurons. Finally, we observe reduced functional inputs from the entorhinal cortex, with no genotypic difference in the firing rates of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This suggests that AIS-dependent hyperexcitability in Fmr1(-/y) mice may result from adaptive or homeostatic regulation induced by reduced functional synaptic connectivity. Thus, while AIS length and intrinsic excitability contribute to cellular hyperexcitability, they may reflect a homeostatic mechanism for reduced synaptic input onto CA1 neurons.

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4. Cai KL, Wang JG, Liu ZM, Zhu LN, Xiong X, Klich S, Maszczyk A, Chen AG. Mini-Basketball Training Program Improves Physical Fitness and Social Communication in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Hum Kinet ;2020 (Jul) ;73:267-278.

This investigation examined the effects of a 12-week mini-basketball training program (MBTP) on physical fitness and social communication in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The study applied a quasi-experimental design. Fifty-nine preschool children aged 3-6 years with ASD were assigned to either a MBTP group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 29). Participants in the MBTP group received a scheduled mini-basketball training program (5 sessions per week, forty minutes per session) for twelve consecutive weeks, while the control group was instructed to maintain their daily activities. The physical fitness test and the parent-reported Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS-2) test were performed before and after the intervention. Results indicated that the 12-week MBTP facilitated performance in the physical fitness test, particularly in speed-agility and muscular strength abilities. Additionally, children in the MBTP group demonstrated improvement in SRS-2 performance in social awareness, social cognition, social communication, and autistic mannerisms, whereas no such changes were found in the control group. It may be concluded that the 12-week MBTP could improve physical fitness and social communication in preschool children with ASD, and thus the use of physical exercise intervention as a therapeutic tool for preschoolers with ASD is recommended.

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5. Chung LMY, Law QPS, Fong SSM. Using Physical Food Transformation to Enhance the Sensory Approval of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders for Consuming Fruits and Vegetables. J Altern Complement Med ;2020 (Aug 11)

Introduction : Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly exhibit aberrant tactile, taste, and smell sensitivity to foods. Food transformation that alters the appearance, texture, and temperature of foods is promising for solving this sensitivity problem. Objectives : This study evaluated the effect of physical transformation of fruits and vegetables (FV) to snacks to enhance ASD children’s sensory approval for eating them. Design : This was a quasiexperimental design study. It lasted for 4 weeks with three episodes of FV exposure to the ASD children per week. The original condition was conducted in the first and fourth week, while intervention was performed in the second and third week. Settings : Food exposure took place in schools in a quiet room. Subjects : This study recruited 56 ASD children. Intervention : Food transformation constituted changing bananas into ice-cream, zucchinis and sweet potatoes into chips, apples and kiwis into popsicles, and carrots into juice. Outcome Measures : FV acceptance and habitual consumption were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results : ASD children increased their consumption of all FV, but only banana consumption was statistically significant from 55.3 to 78.0 g (p < 0.05). For habitual consumption, parents reported increases in all FV consumption for all three measured fruits and 2 of 3 measures of vegetables (pre vs. post mean for bananas : 2.4 vs. 2.9, apples 2.6 vs. 3.2, kiwis 2.4 vs. 2.9, zucchinis 1.9 vs. 2.5, and sweet potatoes 1.8 vs. 2.4 ; p < 0.05). Conclusion : Physical changes of foods may improve impaired sensory processing of ASD children to promote their FV acceptance. Project Code : RG 55/2019-2020R.

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6. Dupuis A, Moon MJ, Brian J, Georgiades S, Levy T, Anagnostou E, Nicolson R, Schachar R, Crosbie J. Concurrent Validity of the ABAS-II Questionnaire with the Vineland II Interview for Adaptive Behavior in a Pediatric ASD Sample : High Correspondence Despite Systematically Lower Scores. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Aug 10)

We examined the correlation between interviewer-administered Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (VABS-II) and the parent-rated Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II (ABAS-II) questionnaire in 352 participants (ages 1.5-20.8 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine if ABAS could be used as a screen to reduce the number of VABS interviews. Corresponding domain scores between the two measures were highly correlated but scores were significantly lower on the ABAS-II. Screening with ABAS-II significantly reduced the number of VABS-II interviews required with little cost to overall accuracy. The ABAS-II provides a cost- and time-saving alternative to the VABS-II to rule out functional impairment ; however, scores are not strictly comparable between the two measures.

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7. Graham Holmes L, Shattuck PT, Nilssen AR, Strassberg DS, Himle MB. Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Utilization and Sexuality for Teens on the Autism Spectrum. J Dev Behav Pediatr ;2020 (Aug 7)

OBJECTIVES : Health care providers and educators play critical roles in supporting healthy sexuality development for youth with autism spectrum disorder. There is limited information about the sexual behavior of these youth, especially girls, and about their access to sexuality education or health care services. METHODS : This study addressed these gaps by surveying parents of youth with autism aged 12-18 years (N = 298, 52.7% boys) with a range of intellectual functioning. RESULTS : According to parent report, most youth experienced sexual attraction and were interested in relationships, including same-sex attraction or relationships (13.2%). Girls were more likely than boys to have had a romantic relationship and less likely to have experienced school or legal consequences for sexual behavior. Around one-fifth of youth had engaged in a socially inappropriate sexual behavior, whereas 6.4% had a known sexual abuse history and 14.5% were bullied by peers for lack of sexual knowledge. Almost 40% received no sex education in school or in the community, including 60.9% of youth with parent-reported intelligence quotient under 70. Some parents consulted with school personnel (36.4%) or health care providers (55.9%) about sexuality issues, whereas 19.5% reported taking no action aside from talking to their child about sexuality. Utilization models including predisposing, enabling, and needs-related factors were applied to parent consultation with providers and use of school-based sexuality education programming. CONCLUSION : The results suggest unmet needs for sexual and reproductive health services, particularly among youth who are younger, those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, or those who are homeschooled or who attend private, charter, or therapeutic versus public schools.

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8. Hosozawa M, Sacker A, Cable N. Timing of diagnosis, depression and self-harm in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2020 (Aug 8):1362361320945540.

Children with autism spectrum disorder are at increased risk of depression and self-harming behaviours. The question of whether timing of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is associated with these consequences in adolescence has not yet been studied. This exploratory study aimed to explore the association between depression and self-harming behaviour in adolescence and the parent-reported timing of diagnosis for autism spectrum disorder using a large population-based cohort in the United Kingdom. Most of the children with autism spectrum disorder in our study had within-typical-range cognitive ability. We found a linear association between timing of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and depression and self-harming behaviour in adolescence ; later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, particularly diagnosis in adolescence, was associated with the increased risk of self-reported depressive symptoms and self-harming behaviour in adolescence among children with autism spectrum disorder. Our findings, albeit observational, suggest that interventions targeting the earlier diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and approaches to improve person-environment fit may help prevent secondary mental health problems in this population, particularly among those without cognitive delays and those diagnosed late. Further studies replicating across a wider intellectual spectrum and clarifying the underlying mechanism are warranted.

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9. Kylliäinen A, Häkkinen S, Eränen S, Rantanen K, Ebeling H, Bölte S, Helminen TM. Social competence group intervention (SOCO) for children with autism spectrum disorder : A pilot study. Scand J Psychol ;2020 (Aug 11)

This study aimed to describe concept of social competence as a theoretical background for social skills group intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A model of social competence comprised of three components : social skills, social performance, and social adjustment. We also examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the manualized Social Competence group intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (SOCO) using a variety of outcome measures. The nine-month intervention included children groups, parental support groups and co-operation with teachers. A pilot study involved 23 children aged 7 to 12 years (n = 16 intervention, n = 7 control) and intervention outcomes were measured with questionnaires for parents and teachers, neuropsychological tests, and observations. The parents of the intervention group reported improvements in social skills and social adjustment, whereas the teachers reported increases in social performance. Findings also indicated that affect recognition skills, social overtures, and reactions to peers were improved in the intervention group. Although the evidence of the pilot study should be considered as preliminary, it gives some indication of the feasibility of the SOCO group intervention and supports the usability of the theoretical background and approach for multiple outcome measures.

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10. Lee B, Panda S, Lee HY. Primary Ciliary Deficits in the Dentate Gyrus of Fragile X Syndrome. Stem Cell Reports ;2020 (Aug 11) ;15(2):454-466.

The primary cilium is the non-motile cilium present in most mammalian cell types and functions as an antenna for cells to sense signals. Ablating primary cilia in postnatal newborn neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) results in both reduced dendritic arborization and synaptic strength, leading to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common form of inheritance for intellectual disabilities with a high risk for autism spectrum disorders, and Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model for FXS, demonstrate deficits in newborn neuron differentiation, dendritic morphology, and memory formation in the DG. Here, we found that the number of primary cilia in Fmr1 KO mice is reduced, specifically in the DG of the hippocampus. Moreover, this cilia loss was observed postnatally mainly in newborn neurons generated from the DG, implicating that these primary ciliary deficits may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of FXS.

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11. Li YJ, Xie XN, Lei X, Li YM, Lei X. Global prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight in children, adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev ;2020 (Aug 11)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have unhealthy bodyweight. This meta-analysis was performed to understand the weight status in individuals with ASD or ADHD. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and ISI Web of Science databases were searched from inception until June 2020 to identify relevant studies. Prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of obesity, overweight and underweight were separately pooled using random-effects models. A total of 95 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight were 21.8%, 19.8% and 6.4% in individuals with ASD and 14.7%, 20.9% and 4.0% in individuals with ADHD. In subgroup analyses, an increasing trend in the prevalence of unhealthy weight was observed from children aged 2 to 5 years to adults with ASD (obesity : from 16.7% to 31.3%, overweight : from 16.2% to 27.2%, underweight from 5.3% to 8.6%) and from children aged 6 to 12 years to adults with ADHD (obesity : from 13.5% to 19.3%, overweight : from 18.8% to 31.2%). The worrisome epidemic of obesity and overweight in individuals with ASD, ADHD highlighted the need for weight management.

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12. Macdonald D, Luk G, Quintin EM. Early Word Reading of Preschoolers with ASD, Both With and Without Hyperlexia, Compared to Typically Developing Preschoolers. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Aug 11)

A portion of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit a strength in early word reading referred to as hyperlexia (HPL), yet it remains unclear what mechanisms underlie this strength. Typically developing children (TD) acquire phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge and language skills as precursors to word reading. We compared these skills across English-speaking preschoolers with ASD, both with and without hyperlexia, and TD preschoolers. Findings indicated that the group with both ASD and HPL (ASD + HPL) exhibited advanced word reading and letter naming skills as compared to the other two groups, but did not demonstrate commensurate phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondence, or language skills. Findings support an alternative, non-phonological approach to early word reading in preschoolers with ASD and hyperlexia.

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13. Nayeri T, Sarvi S, Moosazadeh M, Hosseininejad Z, Sharif M, Amouei A, Daryani A. Relationship between toxoplasmosis and autism : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Microb Pathog ;2020 (Aug 7):104434.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a foodborne parasite that is investigated in many psychiatric diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted searching seven electronic databases on the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies among autism patients. The current study involved sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, subgroup analysis, publication bias test, and quality assessment of studies. On the basis of the findings, the odd ratio (OR) of latent Toxoplasma infection 1.93 (95% confidence intervals (CI) : 1.01-3.66) was associated with ASD risk. However, there was no relationship between acute infection and ASD 0.39 (95% CI : 0.18-0.87). The obtained results of Begg’s and Egger’s tests showed no publication bias (P = 0.851 and P = 0.297, respectively). The sensitivity analysis confirmed robust and stable estimates with a significant level of heterogeneity (I(2) = 78.1%, P < 0.000). Of the investigated patients’ characteristics, only the gender variable was analyzed, indicating the combined ORs of 2.63 (95% CI : 0.29-23.63) in female and 2.62 (95% CI : 0.94-7.30) in male participants. This study showed that toxoplasmosis plays an important role as a risk factor for autism. However, further prospective investigations are highly recommended to illuminate the developmental pathways to this disorder and provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

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14. Rosario R, Anderson R. The molecular mechanisms that underlie fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency : is it RNA or protein based ?. Mol Hum Reprod ;2020 (Aug 10)

The FMR1 gene contains a polymorphic CGG trinucleotide sequence within its 5’ untranslated region. More than 200 CGG repeats (termed a full mutation) underlie the severe neurodevelopmental condition fragile X syndrome, while repeat lengths that range between 55 and 200 (termed a premutation) result in the conditions fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Premutations in FMR1 are the most common monogenic cause of POI and are routinely tested for clinically, however the mechanisms that contribute to the pathology are still largely unclear. As studies in this field move towards unravelling the molecular mechanisms involved in FXPOI aetiology, we review the evidence surrounding the two main theories which describe an RNA toxic gain-of-function mechanism, resulting in the loss of function of RNA-binding proteins, or a protein-based mechanism, where repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation leads to the formation of an abnormal polyglycine containing protein, called FMRpolyG.

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15. Segers M, Bebko JM, Zapparoli BL, Stevenson RA. A pupillometry study of multisensory social and linguistic processing in autism and typical development. Dev Psychol ;2020 (Aug 10)

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Many studies have demonstrated atypical responses to audiovisual sensory inputs, particularly those containing sociolinguistic information. It is currently unclear whether these atypical responses are due to the linguistic nature of the inputs or the social aspect itself. Further, it is unclear how atypical sensory responses to sociocommunicative stimuli intersect with autism symptomatology. The current study addressed these outstanding questions by using pupillometry in mental age-matched children with and without autism (N = 71) to examine physiological responses to dynamic, audiovisual stimuli including social, sociolinguistic, socioemotional, and nonsocial stimuli, as well as to temporally manipulated stimuli. Data revealed group differences in pupillary responses with social stimuli but not nonsocial stimuli and, importantly, showed no variation through the inclusion of linguistic or emotional information. This suggests that atypical sensory responses are driven primarily by the inclusion of social information broadly. Further, individual responses to social stimuli were significantly correlated with a wide range of autism spectrum disorder symptomatology, including social communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and sensory processing issues. Pupillary responses to social but not nonsocial presentation were also capable of predicting diagnosis with a high level of selectivity, but only with marginal sensitivity. Finally, responses to the temporal manipulation did not yield any group differences, suggesting that while atypical multisensory temporal processing has been well documented in autism at the level of behavior and perception, these issues may be intact at the physiological level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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16. Smythe T, Zuurmond M, Tann CJ, Gladstone M, Kuper H. Early intervention for children with developmental disabilities in low and middle-income countries - the case for action. Int Health ;2020 (Aug 11)

In the last two decades, the global community has made significant progress in saving the lives of children <5 y of age. However, these advances are failing to help all children to thrive, especially children with disabilities. Most early child development research has focussed on the impact of biological and psychosocial factors on the developing brain and the effect of early intervention on child development. Yet studies typically exclude children with disabilities, so relatively little is known about which interventions are effective for this high-risk group. In this article we provide an overview of child development and developmental disabilities. We describe family-centred care interventions that aim to provide optimal stimulation for development in a safe, stable and nurturing environment. We make the case for improving opportunities for children with developmental disabilities to achieve their full potential and thrive, including through inclusive early childhood development intervention. Finally, we call for the global research community to adopt a systematic approach for better evidence for and implementation of early interventions for children with developmental disabilities in low-resource settings.

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17. Spanos M, Chandrasekhar T, Kim SJ, Hamer RM, King BH, McDougle CJ, Sanders KB, Gregory SG, Kolevzon A, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Sikich L. Rationale, design, and methods of the autism centers of excellence (ACE) network study of oxytocin in autism to improve reciprocal social behaviors (SOARS-B). Contemp Clin Trials ;2020 (Aug 7):106103.

OBJECTIVE : To describe the rationale, design, and methods of the Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE) network Study of Oxytocin in Autism to improve Reciprocal Social Behaviors (SOARS-B). METHOD : This phase 2 clinical trial was designed to evaluate the use of intranasal oxytocin treatment to improve social difficulties in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In total, 290 participants ages 3 to 17 years with a DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD were enrolled to receive 24 weeks of treatment with either oxytocin or a matched placebo. Participants were subsequently treated with open-label oxytocin for 24 additional weeks. Post-treatment assessments were done 4 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Plasma oxytocin and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation level were measured at baseline, week 8, 24 and 36 to explore potential relationships between these biomarkers and treatment response. RESULTS : This report describes the rationale, design, and methods of the SOARS-B clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS : There is a tremendous unmet need for effective pharmacological treatment options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Several studies support the hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin could improve social orienting and the salience of social rewards in ASD, thereby enhancing reciprocal social behaviors. However, due to conflicting results from a number of pilot studies on the prosocial effects of exogenous oxytocin, this hypothesis remains controversial and inconclusive. SOARS-B is the best powered study to date to address this hypothesis and promises to improve our understanding of the safety and efficacy of intranasal oxytocin in the treatment of social deficits in children with ASD.

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18. Zhang H. Synaptic dysregulation in autism spectrum disorders. J Neurosci Res ;2020 (Aug 11)

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19. Zhang Y, Hu N, Cai Q, Zhang F, Zou J, Liu Y, Wei D, Zhu Q, Chen K, Zeng L, Huang X. Treatment with the traditional Chinese medicine BuYang HuanWu Tang induces alterations that normalize the microbiome in ASD patients. Biosci Microbiota Food Health ;2020 ;39(3):109-116.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are prevalent neurobiological conditions with complicated causes worldwide. Increasing researcher awareness of ASD and accumulated evidence suggest that the development of ASD may be strongly linked to the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. In addition, most of the current studies have compared autistic children and neurotypical children or have compared ASD patients before and after antibiotic treatment. Treatment of autism with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has increasingly been promoted, but the relationship between its efficacy and intestinal flora has rarely been reported. Under the premise that treatment with the TCM BuYang HuanWu Tang is effective, we conducted a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify the overall changes in gut microbiota in relation to ASD by comparing the intestinal flora before and after treatment with TCM and contrasting the intestinal flora with that of healthy controls. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria showed a significant increase in children with ASD, which may be a signature of dysbiosis in the gut microbiota. At the genus level, Blautia, Coprococcus 1, the Lachnospiraceae family, and the Ruminococcaceae family were found at the lowest levels of relative abundance in children with ASD, whereas the abundances of Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella, and Flavonifractor were significantly increased compared with those in the healthy control group. In sum, this study characterized the alterations of the intestinal microbiome in children with ASD and its normalization after TCM treatment (TCMT), which may provide novel insights into the diagnosis and therapy of ASD.

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