Autism in Adulthood - 2-2 - June 2020

mardi 28 juillet 2020

1. Kirby A, McDonald K. Call for Special Issue Papers : Autism in Adulthood : The State of the Science. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):101-101.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

2. Nicolaidis C. Call for Papers : Autism in Adulthood. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):102-102.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

3. den Houting J. Stepping Out of Isolation : Autistic People and COVID-19. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):103-105.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

4. Cassidy SA, Nicolaidis C, Davies B, Rosa SDR, Eisenman D, Onaiwu MG, Kapp SK, Kripke CC, Rodgers J, Waisman TC. An Expert Discussion on Autism in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):106-117.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

5. Kripke-Ludwig R. Believe in Me : Insights of a Nonspeaking College-Bound Autistic. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):118-120.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

6. Crompton CJ, Michael C, Dawson M, Fletcher-Watson S. Residential Care for Older Autistic Adults : Insights from Three Multiexpert Summits. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):121-127.

As autistic people get older, they may suffer increasingly with poor health and as a result may transition to residential care. Very little is known about the support needs of older autistic adults in general, or their specific needs within residential care services. As such, it is impossible to determine whether existing residential services are meeting the needs of older autistic adults. A first step to resolving this issue is to determine what are the priority topics for research and practice in this area. A multidisciplinary expert group was formed, and three meetings were held in 2018. Group members included older autistic adults, the immediate family members of older autistic adults (siblings and children), service providers, clinicians, and researchers based in the United Kingdom. Their aim was to progress the research and practice agenda in residential care for older autistic adults by identifying priority topics for research and recommendations for practice and policy. Ten key topics were identified, including supporting transitions to residential care, training for staff, and supporting physical health. This article summarizes the discussions around these topics and highlights areas for future research and practice development. Lay Summary Why is this topic important ? We know very little about the support needs of older autistic adults, or their specific needs if they have to enter residential care. We do not know whether existing residential services are providing autism-appropriate support. What is the purpose of this article ? To identify priority topics for future research and practice development relating to older autistic adults in residential care. What did the researchers do ? We formed an expert group, including older autistic people, family members, service providers, clinicians, and researchers, to discuss how residential care is run now and what research and recommendations are needed to adjust residential care to meet autistic needs. What did the expert group recommend ? We identified 10 topics, where important adjustments for the needs of autistic older people may need to be made in existing residential care. These are as follows : managing transitions into residential care ; autism training for residential care staff ; recognizing and respecting autistic differences and understanding autistic well-being ; supporting physical health ; the sensory environment and sensory processing ; design principles ; creating community and belonging ; autonomy and choice ; advocacy ; and evaluating care quality. We hope that identifying these 10 priority topics will act as a starting point for researchers to pursue these important questions. What are potential weaknesses in these recommendations ? Although we included representatives from many areas of the autism community, we were not able to directly include any autistic people currently living in residential care, although we hope that through this work their experiences will be centered in future research. In addition, we did not include the direct perspectives of autistic adults with high support needs (e.g., intellectual disability and communication difficulties) although these perspectives were conveyed by proxy representatives such as siblings and specialist service providers. How will these recommendations help autistic adults now or in the future ? We believe these insights can guide further research with residential care service providers, determining how to provide for the increasing number of older autistic people living in residential care homes. The well-being of these residents must be equivalent to the standard for their nonautistic peer group.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

7. Lebenhagen C. Including Speaking and Nonspeaking Autistic Voice in Research. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):128-131.

Autistic individuals frequently report that their experiences are minimized or reinterpreted by well-meaning nonautistic parents, researchers, educators, and allies. Although the inclusion of autistic voice is improving, obstacles persist, particularly in research with individuals who might be described as non- or minimally speaking. In this perspective piece, I present three arguments : (1) ableist assumptions and practices that equate speaking voice with rational voice have led to the exclusion of autistic voice in research ; (2) technologies such as augmentative and alternative communication, including computers and tablets, can be both emancipatory and oppressive ; and (3) researchers who commit to the practice of ethical listening improve opportunities for non- or minimally speaking autistic individuals to participate in research. Lay summary 1.?Why is the inclusion of non- and minimally speaking voice in research important ? Although the inclusion of autistic voice in research is improving, non- and minimally speaking autistic voice is often left out. Autistic self-advocates challenge researchers to make sure that they consider the authentic experiences and diverse perspectives of non- and minimally speaking autistic individuals. Non- and minimally speaking individuals also remind nonautistic researchers that there are ways to participate in research besides with spoken words. This can broaden their own thinking and benefit their research. It also helps make sure that research topics and experiences are positive and meaningful to autistic individuals. 2.?How can augmentative and alternative communication be both emancipatory and oppressive ? There are many reported benefits to using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), including improved opportunities for non- or minimally speaking autistic individuals to communicate their thoughts and experiences to researchers. However, since the framework of AAC is built on an ableist assumption that verbal speech is better than other forms of communication, non- or minimally speaking autistic individuals may feel that their natural language is less valued. 3.?How can ethical listening be used to support the inclusion of autistic voice in research ? Ethical listening happens when a person pays attention to all of the ways someone is communicating, including both speaking and nonspeaking forms of language. For example, they pay attention to a person’s gestures and nonspeech sounds. Ethical listening improves the inclusion of autistic voice in research because it values nonspoken forms of communication and demonstrates to autistic people that they and their perspectives are important.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

8. Raymaker DM, Teo AR, Steckler NA, Lentz B, Scharer M, Delos Santos A, Kapp SK, Hunter M, Joyce A, Nicolaidis C. “Having All of Your Internal Resources Exhausted Beyond Measure and Being Left with No Clean-Up Crew” : Defining Autistic Burnout. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):132-143.

Background : Although autistic adults often discuss experiencing ?autistic burnout ? and attribute serious negative outcomes to it, the concept is almost completely absent from the academic and clinical literature. Methods : We used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a thematic analysis of 19 interviews and 19 public Internet sources to understand and characterize autistic burnout. Interview participants were autistic adults who identified as having been professionally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition. We conducted a thematic analysis, using a hybrid inductive ?deductive approach, at semantic and latent levels, through a critical paradigm. We addressed trustworthiness through multiple coders, peer debriefing, and examination of contradictions. Results : Autistic adults described the primary characteristics of autistic burnout as chronic exhaustion, loss of skills, and reduced tolerance to stimulus. They described burnout as happening because of life stressors that added to the cumulative load they experienced, and barriers to support that created an inability to obtain relief from the load. These pressures caused expectations to outweigh abilities resulting in autistic burnout. Autistic adults described negative impacts on their health, capacity for independent living, and quality of life, including suicidal behavior. They also discussed a lack of empathy from neurotypical people and described acceptance and social support, time off/reduced expectations, and doing things in an autistic way/unmasking as associated in their experiences with recovery from autistic burnout. Conclusions : Autistic burnout appears to be a phenomenon distinct from occupational burnout or clinical depression. Better understanding autistic burnout could lead to ways to recognize, relieve, or prevent it, including highlighting the potential dangers of teaching autistic people to mask or camouflage their autistic traits, and including burnout education in suicide prevention programs. These findings highlight the need to reduce discrimination and stigma related to autism and disability. Lay summary Why was this study done ? Autistic burnout is talked about a lot by autistic people but has not been formally addressed by researchers. It is an important issue for the autistic community because it is described as leading to distress ; loss of work, school, health, and quality of life ; and even suicidal behavior. What was the purpose of this study ? This study aimed to characterize autistic burnout, understand what it is like, what people think causes it, and what helps people recover from or prevent it. It is a first step in starting to understand autistic burnout well enough to address it. What did the researchers do ? Our research group ?the Academic Autism Spectrum Partnership in Research and Education ?used a community-based participatory research approach with the autistic community in all stages of the study. We analyzed 9 interviews from our study on employment, 10 interviews about autistic burnout, and 19 public Internet sources (five in-depth). We recruited in the United States by publicizing on social media, by word of mouth, and through community connections. When analyzing interviews, we took what people said at face value and in deeper social context, and looked for strong themes across data. What were the results of the study ? The primary characteristics of autistic burnout were chronic exhaustion, loss of skills, and reduced tolerance to stimulus. Participants described burnout as happening because of life stressors that added to the cumulative load they experienced, and barriers to support that created an inability to obtain relief from the load. These pressures caused expectations to outweigh abilities resulting in autistic burnout. From this we created a definition : Autistic burnout is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic life stress and a mismatch of expectations and abilities without adequate supports. It is characterized by pervasive, long-term (typically 3+ months) exhaustion, loss of f nction, and reduced tolerance to stimulus. Participants described negative impacts on their lives, including health, capacity for independent living, and quality of life, including suicidal behavior. They also discussed a lack of empathy from neurotypical people. People had ideas for recovering from autistic burnout including acceptance and social support, time off/reduced expectations, and doing things in an autistic way/unmasking. How do these findings add to what was already known ? We now have data that autistic burnout refers to a clear set of characteristics, and is different from workplace burnout and clinical depression. We have the start of a model for why autistic burnout might happen. We know that people have been able to recover from autistic burnout and have some insights into how. What are the potential weaknesses in the study ? This was a small exploratory study with a convenience sample. Although we were able to bring in some diversity by using three data sources, future work would benefit from interviewing a wider range of participants, especially those who are not white, have higher support needs, and have either very high or very low educational attainment. More research is needed to understand how to measure, prevent, and treat autistic burnout. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? These findings validate the experience of autistic adults. Understanding autistic burnout could lead to ways to help relieve it or prevent it. The findings may help therapists and other practitioners recognize autistic burnout, and the potential dangers of teaching autistic people to mask autistic traits. Suicide prevention programs should consider the potential role of burnout. These findings highlight the need to reduce discrimination and stigma around autism and disability.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

9. Dickter CL, Burk JA, Zeman JL, Taylor SC. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Autistic Adults. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):144-151.

Background : Research examining attitudes toward autistic adults has relied on explicit self-report measures, which may be susceptible to socially desirable responding. Because implicit attitudes predict behavioral rejection, understanding both implicit and explicit attitudes toward autistic adults is important. Furthermore, previous research has almost exclusively examined attitudes toward autistic children and has not investigated attitudes toward autistic adults who may also experience prejudice from their peers. Methods : We created an implicit association test (IAT) to examine implicit attitudes toward autistic adults. In Study 1, we examined 94 neurotypical adults’ (mean [M]age ?= ?31.37 years) implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes toward autistic adults as well as autistic behaviors. In Study 2 (n ?= ?137 ; Mage ?= ?33.43 years), we assessed the same variables using an IAT with descriptive rather than stereotypical words. Results : Participants from both studies demonstrated negative implicit attitudes but positive explicit attitudes toward autistic adults. In Study 2, analyses examining self-reported traits related to autism revealed that more autistic behaviors were associated with less implicit bias. Conclusions : These findings may help explain why autistic adults report discrimination from their peers. The results suggest that there may be benefits in modifying interventions that reduce implicit bias toward other marginalized groups for use with implicit bias against autistic adults. Lay summary Why was this study done ? The goal of this study was to understand how neurotypical adults in the United States feel and think about autistic adults. Negative attitudes can lead to discrimination against autistic adults or to harmful interactions between autistic and neurotypical adults. Although research has previously examined the attitudes that neurotypical adults have toward autistic adults, most of this work has directly asked people about their attitudes, assessing their explicit, or conscious, attitudes. Neurotypical adults, however, may not be able or willing to admit that they have negative attitudes toward autistic adults. Therefore, it is important to evaluate implicit attitudes, which are underlying attitudes at the unconscious level of awareness. What was the purpose of this study ? This study investigated the implicit and explicit attitudes that neurotypical adults in the general U.S. population have about autistic adults. Assessing both kinds of attitudes is important because each type of attitude predicts different sorts of behaviors toward and judgments of individuals. What did the researchers do ? We conducted this study online using a crowdsourcing method of data collection (Amazon’s Mechanical Turk) that gave us access to adults throughout the United States. We developed and administered a reaction-time task to examine implicit attitudes toward autistic adults. In this task, participants rapidly categorized words associated with autism and words not associated with autism as being ?good ? or ?bad.? We assessed explicit attitudes with questions about people’s knowledge of autism and their liking for autistic adults. Study 1 measured 94 neurotypical adults’ (average age ?= ?31.37 years) implicit and explicit attitudes toward autistic adults ; Study 2 measured 137 neurotypical adults’ (average age ?= ?33.43 years) implicit and explicit attitudes. Whereas Study 1’s implicit task used words associated with stereotypes about autistic adults (e.g., extraverted, independent), Study 2 used nonstereotypical words associated with autism (e.g., autistic, spectrum). What were the results of the studies ? Participants in both studies reported positive explicit attitudes but negative implicit attitudes toward autistic adults. In one study, we also found that neurotypical adults with more autistic traits themselves had more positive implicit attitudes toward autistic adults. What do these findings add to what was already known ? Although previous research examined neurotypical adults’ explicit attitudes toward autistic adults the current study demonstrated that neurotypical adults hold negative implicit attitudes toward autistic adults. These findings may help explain why autistic adults experience discrimination from neurotypical adults. Furthermore, our findings suggest that having more autistic traits can lead to a better understanding of the behaviors associated with autism. What are the potential weaknesses in the study ? Limitations of the study were that we collected the data online rather than in person and we only included neurotypical adults as participants. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? These results shed light on underlying reasons for the potential negative judgments and discrimination that autistic adults face from neurotypical adults. These findings should encourage policy makers to design and implement training programs to reduce neurotypical adults’ negative attitudes toward autistic adults.

Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)

10. Jovevska S, Richdale AL, Lawson LP, Uljarević M, Arnold SRC, Trollor JN. Sleep Quality in Autism from Adolescence to Old Age. Autism in Adulthood ;2020 (2020/06/01) ;2(2):152-162.

Background : Sleep problems are common in autism from early childhood. Although research suggests that poor sleep continues at least into early middle age, the pattern of sleep problems has rarely been characterized beyond childhood. The aim of this study was to examine sleep quality from adolescence to old age in autistic individuals as compared with age-matched non-autistic comparison groups from the general population. Methods : Participants ranged from 15 to 80 years ; there were 297 participants in the autistic group (mean [M]age ?= ?34.36 years, standard deviation [SD] ?= ?15.24), and the comparison group had 233 participants (Mage ?= ?33.01 years, SD ?= ?15.53). Sleep quality, sleep onset latency (SoL), total night sleep, and sleep efficiency as measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were compared between groups and across age groups (15 ?19, 20 ?39, 40 ?59, 60+ years). Five predictors of sleep quality (autistic traits, mental health condition, medication, employment, and sex) were also examined. Results : Overall, problematic sleep was more common for the autistic participants (63.7%) than the comparison group (46.4%), and autistic participants had poorer sleep quality and longer SoL (all p ? <?0.001). In early adulthood and middle age, autistic adults had significantly poorer sleep quality and longer SoL than similar age comparison group adults; autistic and comparison group adolescents and the elderly did not differ. In the autistic group, predictors accounted for 21% of sleep quality variance. Sex (p?<?0.001) was the strongest predictor, with all predictors except employment contributing unique variance. In the comparison group, predictors accounted for 25% of the variance in sleep quality. The strongest predictor was mental health condition (p?<?0.001), with all predictors except sex contributing unique variance. Conclusions: Autistic adolescents and adults, particularly females, remain vulnerable to sleep problems, with early and middle adulthood being at times of particular risk. Targeted sleep interventions are required. Lay summary Why was this study done? Difficulty sleeping is a common occurrence among autistic individuals, but we know very little about sleep in autistic adults. What was the purpose of the study? To compare self-reported sleep quality in autistic and non-autistic people aged 15 to 80 years. What did the researchers do? Online surveys were completed by 297 autistic individuals (average age 34.36 years) and 233 non-autistic individuals (average age 33.01 years). Participants were asked questions about their sleep quality, the time it takes them to fall asleep (sleep latency), and the number of hours of sleep they usually get each night (total sleep). Using information about how long they slept and their responses to questions about their bedtime and wake time we calculated the percentage of time they spent in bed asleep (sleep efficiency [SE]). We compared these sleep measures between the autistic and non-autistic participants. We also split the participants into four age groups (15?19, 20?39, 40?59, and 60+ years) to look at any differences at specific age points. Finally, we looked to see whether autistic symptoms, having a mental health problem, being on medication, being unemployed, and/or sex (male/female) predicted sleep quality. What were the results of the study? Poor sleep quality was more common for the autistic participants (63.7%) than non-autistic participants (46.4%). On average, autistic participants also had poorer sleep quality scores and it took them longer to fall asleep than non-autistic participants. Autistic participants in early adulthood (20?39) and middle age (40?59) had poorer sleep quality and took longer to fall asleep than non-autistic adults of the same age. There were no differences between autistic and non-autistic adolescents (15?19) or older adults (60+). For autistic participants, the best predictor of poor sleep quality was being female; other predictors of poor sleep quality were having a mental health problem, more autistic symptoms, and being on medication. Among non-autistic participants, the best predictor of poor sleep quality was having a mental health problem; other predictors were more autistic symptoms, being on medication, and being unemployed. What do these findings add to what is already known? Similar to the findings in autistic children, autistic adults are more likely to have poor sleep quality compared with non-autistic adults. Autistic females are particularly at risk for poor sleep, and autistic adults aged 20 to 59 years are more at risk for poor sleep quality. What are potential weaknesses in the study? Sleep was measured by using a self-report questionnaire, which is not as reliable as using a sleep diary or other objective measures of sleep (e.g., actigraphy). In addition, this study only looked at data collected at one point in time, and as such it is not possible to examine changes over time in sleep quality among autistic adults. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future? The findings in this study identified that sleep difficulties persist across the lifespan for autistic adults. Therefore, there is a critical need for future research to focus on understanding the cause of poor sleep quality in autism and develop sleep interventions for autistic adults.

<a href="https://doi.org/10.1089/aut.2019.0034" target="_blank"><u><font color=blue>Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)</font></u></a>


11. Casagrande K, Frost KM, Bailey KM, Ingersoll BR. {{Positive Predictors of Life Satisfaction for Autistic College Students and Their Neurotypical Peers}}. {Autism in Adulthood};2020 (2020/06/01);2(2):163-170.


Background: Positive psychological traits are associated with higher life satisfaction, academic success, and fewer mental health problems in neurotypical (NT) college students. However, it is unclear whether this is similar for autistic students. This study explores college-specific positive traits, including academic satisfaction, self-efficacy, gratitude, and school connectedness, and their relationship with life satisfaction in autistic college students and their NT peers. Method: Autistic (n?=?42) and NT (n?=?50) college students completed an online survey containing measures of autistic traits, college well-being, and life satisfaction. We explored differences in life satisfaction and college well-being between groups using analysis of variances and explored these relationships based on self-reported autistic traits across groups using correlations. We assessed whether a relationship between college-specific well-being and life satisfaction was moderated by autistic traits using linear regression. Results: Results showed emerging differences in school connectedness such that autistic students were less likely to report feeling connected despite similar scores on other domains of college well-being and life satisfaction; correcting for multiple comparisons this difference was no longer significant. However, autistic traits were significantly related to life satisfaction and school connectedness across the full sample. Differences in school connectedness also explained a significant amount of variance in life satisfaction over and above the influence of autistic traits. The interaction between connectedness and autistic traits was not significant. Conclusions: Results suggests that students who experience higher levels of connection with their university and peers, regardless of the number of autistic traits they endorse, report higher satisfaction with life. Given the importance of social connectedness in college-specific and overall well-being, significant attention should be paid to the protective role of social support systems in addition to academic services when understanding how to support autistic individuals as well as individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria, but share some similar clinical traits. Lay summary What was the purpose of this study? College well-being is related to life satisfaction in neurotypical (NT) college students. However, it is unclear whether this is similar for autistic college students. The purpose of this study was to understand how different aspects of college well-being support life satisfaction in autistic college students compared with their NT peers. What did the researchers do? We invited both autistic and NT college students to complete an online survey. The survey asked about college well-being and life satisfaction. We looked at similarities and differences in responses between autistic and NT students. We also looked at whether college well-being was related to life satisfaction and whether that depended on the number of autistic traits that individuals selected to describe themselves. What were the results of the study? We found that there were no group differences between autistic and NT college students in their overall college well-being or life satisfaction. However, there were differences in life satisfaction and one individual aspect of college well-being, school connectedness, based on autistic traits. Students with more autistic traits were less likely to report feeling connected to their university and peers and were less satisfied with life overall. We also found that school connectedness and the number of autistic traits, rather than diagnostic status, were related to life satisfaction. Students who feel more connected to their university and peers, regardless of the number of autistic traits they endorse, report higher satisfaction with life. What do these findings add to what was already known? While there are many studies of life satisfaction in autistic individuals, most focus on the negative aspects. Our study is the first to look at positive actors, such as college well-being, in autistic students and their NT peers. This is important because both autistic and NT students struggle with academics, social isolation, and mental health in college. However, understanding the positive traits that can help counteract those challenges is important in supporting all students in college. Our findings show that both autistic traits and school connectedness are important, but separate, components for understanding life satisfaction in college students with and without autism. What are the potential weaknesses in the study? This study only recruited autistic participants from disability resource centers of 4-year colleges, so students who were attending community colleges, private institutions, or who did not disclose their diagnosis to the disability resource centers were not included. As autistic students may be more likely to attend community or private colleges or may not disclose their diagnostic status, our results may not apply to other people. Our sample of students was also small, which limits our ability to find differences and have confidence in the results. How will these findings help autistic adults? These findings show the importance of social integration for the well-being of neurodivergent and NT college students and support ongoing requests from autistic students for more nonacademic supports in college. Screening for college well-being and improving social integration are potential ways to increase life satisfaction for neurodivergent college students.

<a href="https://doi.org/10.1089/aut.2019.0050" target="_blank"><u><font color=blue>Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)</font></u></a>


12. Kripke-Ludwig R. {{Re: “Including Speaking and Nonspeaking Autistic Voice in Research” by Lebenhagen}}. {Autism in Adulthood};2019 (2020/06/01);2(2):171-171.



<a href="https://doi.org/10.1089/aut.2019.0078" target="_blank"><u><font color=blue>Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)</font></u></a>


13. Lebenhagen C. {{Response to Kripke-Ludwig re: “Including Speaking and Nonspeaking Autistic Voice in Research”}}. {Autism in Adulthood};2019 (2020/06/01);2(2):172-172.



<a href="https://doi.org/10.1089/aut.2019.0085" target="_blank"><u><font color=blue>Lien vers le texte intégral (Open Access ou abonnement)</font></u></a>


Annonces

Accès direct au catalogue en ligne !

Vous pouvez accéder directement au catalogue en ligne du centre de documentation du CRA Rhône-Alpes en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquez pour consulter le catalogue


Formations pour les Familles et les Proches

le détail des programmes de formation à l’attention des familles et des proches de personnes avec TSA est disponible en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous.

Formation pour les Aidants Familiaux {JPEG}


Sensibilisation à l’usage des tablettes au CRA !

Toutes les informations concernant les sensibilisations du CRA aux tablettes numériques en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :


1-Formation à l’état des connaissances de l’autisme

Plus d’information sur la formation gratuite que dispense le CRA en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Formation à l'état des connaissances de l'autisme {JPEG}


4-Accéder au Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes (LAARA)

Prenez connaissance du Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes, projet de répertoire régional des structures médico-sociales. En cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquer pour accéder au LAARA