Pubmed du 04/09/20

vendredi 4 septembre 2020

1. Chi IJ, Lin LY. Relationship Between the Performance of Self-Care and Visual Perception Among Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Developing Children. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 3)

Studies investigating the performance of self-care and visual perception in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are limited. The relationship between self-care performance and visual perception ability in young children with ASD is not yet clearly understood. Here, self-care performance was evaluated by the caregivers and therapists of children with ASD. The differences in self-care performance and visual perception ability were investigated in 66 children with ASD and 66 typically developing (TD) children between the ages of 48-83 months. The relationships between self-care and visual perception were tested in both two groups. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) and the Chinese version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-C) were used to assess the children’s self-care performance. The Test of Visual Perceptual Skills-Third Edition (TVPS-3) and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3) were used to evaluate visual perception ability. Young children with ASD obtained significantly lower scores for self-care performance (AMPS and PEDI-C) and visual perception ability (TVPS-3 and DTVP) compared with TD children. Additionally, positive correlations were found between self-care performance and visual perception ability in young children with ASD. The results provide a valuable contribution to our understanding about self-care and visual perception performance of young children with ASD. The findings of this research highlight the need for pediatric practitioners to include self-care and visual-motor integration evaluations for young children with ASD. LAY SUMMARY : Young children with ASD obtained significantly lower scores for self-care performance and visual perception ability compared with TD children. Positive correlations were found between self-care performance and visual perception ability in young children with ASD. The results provide a valuable contribution to our understanding about self-care and visual perception performance of young children with ASD.

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2. DaWalt LS, Taylor JL, Bishop S, Hall LJ, Steinbrenner JD, Kraemer B, Hume KA, Odom SL. Sex Differences in Social Participation of High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 2)

There is lack of consensus in the literature regarding sex differences in social outcomes for individuals on the autism spectrum. Furthermore, little research has focused on the social experiences of high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during the school day. Using a large racially/ethnically diverse sample of high school students with ASD receiving special education services (n = 547 ; 76 females, 471 males), we examined sex differences in social interactions of youth both during and after school. We also tested for sex differences in background and phenotypic characteristics including autism severity, IQ, adaptive behavior, and mental health. Results indicated few statistically significant differences between males and females in social interactions and phenotypic characteristics (including raw scores of autism symptom severity). However, analysis of standardized scores of autism symptoms suggested that symptom scores for females with ASD diverged more from same-sex peers in the normed sample than scores of males with ASD. Lack of sex difference in social participation for youth with ASD in this study stands in contrast to patterns of sex differences in the general population. Findings suggest that few differences between males and females with ASD, both in social participation and autism symptom severity, might result in females with ASD being more dissimilar to their same-sex peers than males with ASD. Implications of findings for understanding sex differences in ASD across the life course are discussed. LAY SUMMARY : The present study examined sex differences in social participation in a large, diverse sample of high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Males and females were very similar in their social interactions both at school and outside of school, based on reports by teachers and parents. Level of autism symptoms was also similar for males and females. However, standardized scores of autism symptoms, which take into account age and sex specific norms, suggested that females with ASD may have behaviors that are more divergent from their same-sex peers than males with ASD.

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3. Knight EJ, Oakes L, Hyman SL, Freedman EG, Foxe JJ. Individuals With Autism Have No Detectable Deficit in Neural Markers of Prediction Error When Presented With Auditory Rhythms of Varied Temporal Complexity. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 3)

The brain’s ability to encode temporal patterns and predict upcoming events is critical for speech perception and other aspects of social communication. Deficits in predictive coding may contribute to difficulties with social communication and overreliance on repetitive predictable environments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a mismatch negativity (MMN) task involving rhythmic tone sequences of varying complexity, we tested the hypotheses that (1) individuals with ASD have reduced MMN response to auditory stimuli that deviate in presentation timing from expected patterns, particularly as pattern complexity increases and (2) amplitude of MMN signal is inversely correlated with level of impairment in social communication and repetitive behaviors. Electroencephalography was acquired as individuals (age 6-21 years) listened to repeated five-rhythm tones that varied in the Shannon entropy of the rhythm across three conditions (zero, medium-1 bit, and high-2 bit entropy). The majority of the tones conformed to the established rhythm (standard tones) ; occasionally the fourth tone was temporally shifted relative to its expected time of occurrence (deviant tones). Social communication and repetitive behaviors were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised. Both neurotypical controls (n = 19) and individuals with ASD (n = 21) show stepwise decreases in MMN as a function of increasing entropy. Contrary to the result forecasted by a predictive coding hypothesis, individuals with ASD do not differ from controls in these neural mechanisms of prediction error to auditory rhythms of varied temporal complexity, and there is no relationship between these signals and social communication or repetitive behavior measures. LAY SUMMARY : We tested the idea that the brain’s ability to use previous experience to influence processing of sounds is weaker in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in neurotypical individuals. We found no difference between individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls in brain wave responses to sounds that occurred earlier than expected in either simple or complex rhythms. There was also no relationship between these brain waves and social communication or repetitive behavior scores.

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4. Schwartz S, Wang L, Shinn-Cunningham BG, Tager-Flusberg H. Atypical Perception of Sounds in Minimally and Low Verbal Children and Adolescents With Autism as Revealed by Behavioral and Neural Measures. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 3)

The common display of atypical behavioral responses to sounds by individuals with autism (ASD) suggests that they process sounds differently. Within ASD, individuals who are minimally or low verbal (ASD-MLV) are suspected to have greater auditory processing impairments. However, it is unknown whether atypical auditory behaviors are related to receptive language and/or neural processing of sounds in ASD-MLV. In Experiment 1, we compared the percentage of time 47 ASD-MLV and 36 verbally fluent (ASD-V) participants, aged 5-21, displayed atypical auditory or visual sensory behaviors during the administration of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). In Experiment 2, we tested whether atypical auditory behaviors were more frequent in ASD-MLV participants with receptive language deficits. In Experiment 3, we tested whether atypical auditory behaviors correlated with neural indices of sensitivity to perceptual sound differences as measured by the amplitude of neural responses to nonspeech intensity deviants. We found that ASD-MLV participants engaged in atypical auditory behaviors more often than ASD-V participants ; in contrast, the incidence of atypical visual behaviors did not differ between the groups. Lower receptive language skills in the ASD-MLV group were predicted by greater incidence of atypical auditory behaviors. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between the amount of atypical auditory behaviors and the amplitude of neural response to deviants. Future work is needed to elucidate whether the relationship between atypical auditory behaviors and receptive language impairments in ASD-MLV individuals results from disruptions in the brain mechanisms involved in auditory processing. LAY SUMMARY : Minimally and low verbal children and adolescents with autism (ASD-MLV) displayed more atypical auditory behaviors (e.g., ear covering and humming) than verbally fluent participants with ASD. In ASD-MLV participants, time spent exhibiting such behaviors was associated with receptive vocabulary deficits and weaker neural responses to changes in sound loudness. Findings suggest that individuals with ASD with both severe expressive and receptive language impairments process sounds differently.

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5. Okai Y, Nakata T, Miura K, Ohno A, Wakako R, Takahashi O, Maki Y, Tanaka M, Sakaguchi Y, Ito Y, Yamamoto H, Kidokoro H, Takahashi Y, Natsume J. Shuffling babies and autism spectrum disorder. Brain Dev ;2020 (Aug 30)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Bottom shuffling is a locomotion strategy that precedes independent walking in some infants. Shuffling babies are generally considered to have favorable outcomes. The aim of the present study was to reveal clinical features and neurodevelopmental outcomes of shuffling babies who visited a child developmental center. METHODS : We studied 48 shuffling babies who visited Toyota Municipal Child Development Center from April 2007 to March 2015. We excluded patients with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, or congenital disorders. In 2018, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of the enrolled children. We investigated family history, neurological findings, and the developmental outcome during the follow-up period. RESULTS : During the follow-up period, 20 children (42%) were diagnosed with ASD. Gross motor development in infancy was not different between infants with and without ASD. The rate of poor eye contact at the first visit and a delay in the first word speech were significantly higher in infants with ASD than in infants without ASD. A family history of bottom shuffling was significantly less frequent in infants with ASD (10%) than in those without (39%). CONCLUSION : Some of bottom shufflers may represent ASD during follow-up. Paying attention to social and cognitive functions in shuffling babies is important.

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6. Bethlehem RAI, Seidlitz J, Romero-Garcia R, Trakoshis S, Dumas G, Lombardo MV. A normative modelling approach reveals age-atypical cortical thickness in a subgroup of males with autism spectrum disorder. Commun Biol ;2020 (Sep 4) ;3(1):486.

Understanding heterogeneity is an important goal on the path to precision medicine for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined how cortical thickness (CT) in ASD can be parameterized as an individualized metric of atypicality relative to typically-developing (TD) age-related norms. Across a large sample (n = 870 per group) and wide age range (5-40 years), we applied normative modelling resulting in individualized whole-brain maps of age-related CT atypicality in ASD and isolating a small subgroup with highly age-atypical CT. Age-normed CT scores also highlights on-average differentiation, and associations with behavioural symptomatology that is separate from insights gleaned from traditional case-control approaches. This work showcases an individualized approach for understanding ASD heterogeneity that could potentially further prioritize work on a subset of individuals with cortical pathophysiology represented in age-related CT atypicality. Only a small subset of ASD individuals are actually highly atypical relative to age-norms. driving small on-average case-control differences.

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7. Majumder M, Johnson RH, Palanisamy V. Fragile X-related protein family : a double-edged sword in neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol ;2020 (Sep 2):1-16.

The fragile X-related (FXR) family proteins FMRP, FXR1, and FXR2 are RNA binding proteins that play a critical role in RNA metabolism, neuronal plasticity, and muscle development. These proteins share significant homology in their protein domains, which are functionally and structurally similar to each other. FXR family members are known to play an essential role in causing fragile X mental retardation syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of autism spectrum disorder. Recent advances in our understanding of this family of proteins have occurred in tandem with discoveries of great importance to neurological disorders and cancer biology via the identification of their novel RNA and protein targets. Herein, we review the FXR family of proteins as they pertain to FXS, other mental illnesses, and cancer. We emphasize recent findings and analyses that suggest contrasting functions of this protein family in FXS and tumorigenesis based on their expression patterns in human tissues. Finally, we discuss current gaps in our knowledge regarding the FXR protein family and their role in FXS and cancer and suggest future studies to facilitate bench to bedside translation of the findings.

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8. Humphrey KN, Horn PS, Olshavsky L, Reebals L, Standridge SM. Well-woman care and HPV vaccination rates in women with Rett syndrome. Disabil Health J ;2020 (Aug 9):100982.

BACKGROUND : Lifespan has increased in individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), but little is currently known about the provision of well-woman care to these individuals. OBJECTIVE : To collect data on well-woman examinations and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in women with RTT to understand the current state of women’s healthcare in individuals with RTT. METHODS : A retrospective cross-sectional chart review and prospective survey of 77 patients with Rett syndrome who were cared for at a single specialty clinic over five years was conducted to collect data on women’s health examinations and HPV vaccination rates. RESULTS : The following percentages represent women with RTT who have met the recommendations of ACOG for well-woman examinations : breast examinations- 40.3%, pelvic examinations- 51.2%, mammograms- 75.0%, external genitourinary examinations -31.6%. Many of these women also had delayed exams. 22.9% of women who were eligible for the HPV vaccine have received it. CONCLUSIONS : Many women with RTT do not undergo well-woman examinations and HPV vaccinations as recommended by ACOG. Since these women are not usually sexually active, many guardians believe the HPV vaccine is unnecessary. However, like other women with disabilities, RTT females are at risk for sexual abuse and disparities in access to women’s health services, so these topics should be discussed with caretakers.

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9. van Kessel R, Hrzic R, Czabanowska K, Baranger A, Azzopardi-Muscat N, Charambalous-Darden N, Brayne C, Baron-Cohen S, Roman-Urrestarazu A. Autism and education-international policy in small EU states : policy mapping in Malta, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Slovenia. Eur J Public Health ;2020 (Sep 3)

BACKGROUND : Special education provides an array of support that can advantageously meet special education needs (SEN) of children with autism. This report maps autism and SEN policies, and tension of international legislation in Malta, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Slovenia. METHODS : A policy path analysis was performed using a scoping review as fundamental methodological framework. RESULTS : Education for children with SEN developed from limited education towards segregation, and further to integration, and inclusion in mainstream education. International policy has greatly influenced the education systems under study. The rights to education and to have SEN addressed have been adopted in all countries. Inclusion is seen to be gradually incorporated by Malta, Cyprus and Luxembourg-closely following values of international documents through concise SEN policies. Slovenia’s education system remains segregated, indicating potential tension. CONCLUSIONS : It appears that mainstream schools offer SEN services until no longer feasible for the child in the majority of investigated countries. Inclusion has become a guiding principle for most education systems under study. Finally, small states either commit to the implementation of inclusion or delay it and attempt to improve the education system for children with SEN in different ways.

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10. Gerges P, Bitar T, Hawat M, Alameddine A, Soufia M, Andres CR, Hleihel W. Risk and Protective Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorders : A Case Control Study in the Lebanese Population. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Aug 31) ;17(17)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Identification of risk and protective factors are necessary to improve the guidance of prevention and intervention strategies. Our study aims to determine the potential risk and protective factors in ASD in the Lebanese population. Our case-control study included 100 ASD patients and 100 healthy matched controls recruited from all the Lebanese districts. The data collected from the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS 23.0. Independent Student T-test and Chi-Square test were carried out for the bivariate analysis of the data. In addition, the variables revealing a p-value < 0.05 were used for the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multivitamins intake, especially omega 3 and vitamin B (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.257 ; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.115-0.579]), rich cereal diet (OR = 0.212 ; 95% CI [0.089-0.510]), and supplementation in iron during pregnancy (OR = 0.229 ; 95% CI [0.083-0.627]) were identified as protective factors against ASD. On the other hand, stress during pregnancy (OR = 6.339 ; 95% CI [2.845-14.125]), the presence of ASD patients in the family (OR = 7.878 ; 95% CI [1.877-33.065]) and the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients in the family (OR = 6.981 ; 95% CI [1.362-35.789]) were associated with ASD. This study shed light on risk and protective factors associated with ASD in the Lebanese population. Further rigorous research, taking into consideration these factors, is needed to assist in early detection, prevention and subsequent intervention targeting ASD and its associated comorbidities, given that our study is not experimental and does not prove causality.

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11. Cassidy SA, Robertson A, Townsend E, O’Connor RC, Rodgers J. Advancing Our Understanding of Self-harm, Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 3)

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12. Logrieco MGM, Ciuffreda GN, Sinjari B, Spinelli M, Rossi R, D’Addazio G, Lionetti F, Caputi S, Fasolo M. What Happens at a Dental Surgery When the Patient is a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder ? An Italian Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 3)

Oral health care can be a difficult experience for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), for their family and for the dentist. The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of the challenges experienced by the three aforementioned figures during oral care treatment. A cohort of 275 parents of typical development children (TD), 57 parents of children with ASD (3-15 years old) and by 61 dentists, completed two different multiple choices questionnaires. The data obtained show a great difficulty in the treatment of children with ASD as seen by the dentists and by the parents. This is due to : caregivers’ demographic issues ; difficulties encountered before and during the dental examination ; scarce presence of experts in ASD treatment.

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13. Márquez-Caraveo ME, Ibarra-González I, Rodríguez-Valentín R, Ramírez-García M, Pérez-Barrón V, Lazcano-Ponce E, Vela-Amieva M. Brief Report : Delayed Diagnosis of Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Children with Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 2)

The objective of our study was to evaluate the frequency of treatable inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in a clinical sample of Mexican children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood samples of 51 unrelated children and adolescents were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to detect treatable IEM of small molecules. One patient with isovaleric acidemia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and another with beta-ketothiolase deficiency and ASD/intellectual disability/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were diagnosed, indicating an IEM frequency of 3.9% (1:26 subjects). The high frequency of treatable IEM indicates the need to perform a minimum metabolic screening as part of the diagnostic approach for patient with NDD, particularly when newborn screening programs are limited to a few disorders.

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14. Milgramm A, Christodulu KV, Rinaldi ML. Brief Report : Predictors of Teacher-Rated Academic Competence in a Clinic Sample of Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 4)

The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) necessitates a greater understanding of the academic experience of diagnosed children. The present study investigates several predictors of teacher-reported academic competence among a sample of elementary school children. All children in the sample were referred for an ASD evaluation and approximately half received a diagnosis. Children with and without ASD did not differ on overall academic competence, social skills, or problem behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that cognitive ability, social skills, and problem behaviors accounted for significant variance in academic competence. Moderation analyses indicated that the relations between the predictors and academic competence were comparable for children with and without ASD. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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15. Ryan C, Cogan S, Phillips A, O’Connor L. Objective and Subjective Measurement of Alexithymia in Adults with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 4)

High rates of alexithymia, a condition characterised by difficulties identifying and describing emotions, are frequently reported in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the dilemma of measuring alexithymia via self-report has rarely been addressed. In this study, we compared objective and subjective measures of alexithymia in adults with ASD and typically developing adults. We found significantly higher levels of alexithymia in the ASD sample as measured by both self-report on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and by the observer rated Alexithymia Provoked Response Scale (APRQ). However, the two measures did not correlate with each other. We explore the different facets of the alexithymia construct that these two measures may be distinguishing.

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16. Hampton LH, Roberts MY, Anderson E, Hobson AN, Kaat AJ, Bishop SL, Krogh-Jespersen S, Wakschlag LS, Bevans KB. Brief Report : What Diagnostic Observation Can Teach Us About Disruptive Behavior in Young Children with Autism. J Dev Behav Pediatr ;2020 (Aug 31)

OBJECTIVE : Approximately 50% of children with autism exhibit severe tantrums, defiance, and/or aggression. We propose that the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)-a standardized clinical observation modeled after, and complementary to, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)-could enhance earlier identification of disruptive behavior (DB) in autism populations and inform treatment planning. METHODS : We adapted the DB-DOS for children with autism based on expert input and preliminary feasibility testing to accommodate varying cognitive and social communication capacities and increase the likelihood of observing DB in this population. Thereafter, we concurrently administered the modified DB-DOS and the ADOS to 12 children with autism aged 36 to 50 months. RESULTS : Overall, children exhibited greater DB, especially behavioral regulation challenges, during the DB-DOS than during the ADOS. CONCLUSION : The use of a developmentally sensitive standardized observation tool that presses for DB to complement standardized observations such as the ADOS shows promise for enabling more precise research on targeted DB interventions. Such a tool holds promise as a reliable and efficient method of identifying comorbid DB disorders in the autism population.

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17. Kabashima Y, Tadaka E, Arimoto A. Development of the parental self-efficacy scale for preventing challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. PLoS One ;2020 ;15(9):e0238652.

BACKGROUND : Almost all children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have experienced challenging behavior, including disruptive and aggressive behavior symptoms to both themselves and others. In conjunction with appropriate strategic parenting, challenging behavior can be prevented by empowering children’s sociality and optimizing their environment. However, a means of measuring such parenting has yet to appear. This study developed the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (PASEC) and evaluated its reliability and validity. METHOD : Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,344 parents of children with ASD at all 521 child development support centers in Japan. Confirmed construct validity of the PASEC was determined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the PASEC was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. The self-efficacy subscale of the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) was administered to assess criterion-related validity of the PASEC. RESULTS : In total, 260 parents provided valid responses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified six items from two factors : empowerment of children’s sociality and optimization of children’s environment. The final model showed goodness-of-fit index, 0.981 ; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.944 ; comparative fit index, 0.999 ; and root mean square error of approximation, 0.019. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire PASEC was 0.82 ; that for each factor was above 0.70. The correlation coefficient between the self-efficacy subscale of the PSOC and the entire PASEC was r = 0.52 (P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS : The PASEC demonstrated adequate reliability and validity to assess parents’ self-efficacy for preventing challenging behavior for children with ASD. That scale can help prevent challenging behavior ; it can contribute to improving the mental health of parents and children with ASD as well as to primary prevention of child maltreatment and abuse.

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18. Hao X, Pan J, Gao X, Zhang S, Li Y. Gut microbiota on gender bias in autism spectrum disorder. Rev Neurosci ;2020 (Sep 4)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Its three core symptoms are social communication disorder, communication disorder, narrow interest and stereotyped repetitive behavior. The proportion of male and female autistic patients is 4:1. Many researchers have studied this phenomenon, but the mechanism is still unclear. This review mainly discusses the related mechanism from the perspective of gut microbiota and introduces the influence of gut microbiota on the difference of ASD between men and women, as well as how gut microbiota may affect the gender dimorphism of ASD through metabolite of microbiota, immunity, and genetics, which provide some useful information for those who are interested in this research and find more gender-specific treatment for autistic men and women.

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19. Bagnall-Moreau C, Huerta PT, Comoletti D, La-Bella A, Berlin R, Zhao C, Volpe BT, Diamond B, Brimberg L. In utero exposure to endogenous maternal polyclonal anti-Caspr2 antibody leads to behavioral abnormalities resembling autism spectrum disorder in male mice. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 2) ;10(1):14446.

The concept that exposure in utero to maternal anti-brain antibodies contributes to the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been entertained for over a decade. We determined that antibodies targeting Caspr2 are present at high frequency in mothers with brain-reactive serology and a child with ASD, and further demonstrated that exposure in utero to a monoclonal anti-Caspr2 antibody, derived from a mother of an ASD child, led to an-ASD like phenotype in male offspring. Now we propose a new model to study the effects of in utero exposure to anti-Caspr2 antibody. Dams immunized with the extracellular portion of Caspr2 express anti-Caspr2 antibodies throughout gestation to better mimic the human condition. Male but not female mice born to dams harboring polyclonal anti-Caspr2 antibodies showed abnormal cortical development, decreased dendritic complexity of excitatory neurons and reduced numbers of inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus, as well as repetitive behaviors and impairments in novelty interest in the social preference test as adults. These data supporting the pathogenicity of anti-Caspr2 antibodies are consistent with the concept that anti-brain antibodies present in women during gestation can alter fetal brain development, and confirm that males are peculiarly susceptible.

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20. Matta SM, Moore Z, Walker FR, Hill-Yardin EL, Crack PJ. An altered glial phenotype in the NL3(R451C) mouse model of autism. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 2) ;10(1):14492.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD ; autism) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by deficits in social communication, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviours. While the precise pathophysiologies are unclear, increasing evidence supports a role for dysregulated neuroinflammation in the brain with potential effects on synapse function. Here, we studied characteristics of microglia and astrocytes in the Neuroligin-3 (NL3(R451C)) mouse model of autism since these cell types are involved in regulating both immune and synapse function. We observed increased microglial density in the dentate gyrus (DG) of NL3(R451C) mice without morphological differences. In contrast, WT and NL3(R451C) mice had similar astrocyte density but astrocyte branch length, the number of branch points, as well as cell radius and area were reduced in the DG of NL3(R451C) mice. Because retraction of astrocytic processes has been linked to altered synaptic transmission and dendrite formation, we assessed for regional changes in pre- and postsynaptic protein expression in the cortex, striatum and cerebellum in NL3(R451C) mice. NL3(R451C) mice showed increased striatal postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein levels and decreased cortical expression of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). These changes could contribute to dysregulated neurotransmission and cognition deficits previously reported in these mice.

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21. Wu XR, Xia B, Ge LH, Qin M, Li RZ, Wang B, Ge FQ, Wang XJ, Chen X, Song GT, Shao LQ, Wang J, Zou J, Lin JJ, Zhao YM, Mei YF, Huang H, Zeng SJ. [Analysis of caries experience and the dental treatments under general anesthesia in 103 cases of children with autism spectrum disorders]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ;2020 (Sep 9) ;55(9):639-646.

Objective : To compare the caries experience and the kinds of dental treatment between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children without systemic disease who were all treated under general anesthesia. Methods : Totally 103 children with ASD who received dental treatments under general anesthesia in 13 professional dental hospitals around China from April to November 2016 were included in the present study. A group of 97 children without systemic disease, according to the age, gender and application propensity score matching method, were chosen as controls, who received dental treatments under general anesthesia between January 2015 to November 2018 in the same hospitals as the children with ASD. Decay missing filling tooth (DMFT/dmft, DMFT for permanent teeth and dmft for primary teeth) indices of two groups of children and the contents of the dental treatments under general anesthesia were analyzed. Results : No significant difference of DMFT/dmft index [M (Q (25), Q (75))] was found between children with ASD group [0 (0, 3)/11(8, 14)] and control group [0 (0, 3)/9(7, 13)] (P>0.05). The average number of dental treatments under general anesthesia and the average number of endodontic treatment in children with ASD were 13 (11, 15) and 3 (2, 6) teeth respectively, while those in the control group were 12 (9, 14) and 2 (1, 4) teeth respectively, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions : No significant difference was found between children with ASD and the normal controls who receive dental treatments under general anesthesia in DMFT/dmft index, but the treatment needs of children with ASD is relatively higher, and their tooth decay is relatively severer.

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