Pubmed du 05/09/20

samedi 5 septembre 2020

1. Barrionuevo BA, Chowdhury AR, Lee JM, Dueker ND, Martin ER, Pericak-Vance MA, Cuccaro M. Family History of Eating Disorder and the Broad Autism Phenotype in Autism. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 5)

Autism features occur frequently among individuals with eating disorders (ED). This co-occurrence is not well understood but there is speculation that select traits (e.g., rigidity) are common to both autism and ED. To explore the co-occurrence of autistic traits and ED features, we used the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC ; N = 2,623 families) to test whether first-degree relatives of individuals with autism with a history of ED features had more autism traits, as measured by the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAP-Q), compared to relatives with no history of ED. The frequency of individuals with ED features was 2.2% (N = 57) among mothers, <1% in siblings, and not present in fathers. We restricted our analyses to mothers. Compared to mothers with no history of ED, those with a history of ED had significantly higher scores on the BAP-Q Total Score and each of the three BAP-Q domains. More importantly, when the BAP-Q was used as a classification tool, we found that when compared to mothers with no history of ED, those with a history of ED were most likely to fall into the clinically significant range on the BAP-Q Rigid domain. Our results suggest that a history of ED features among mothers of individuals with autism is associated with the presence of autistic traits. This extends previous work showing a relationship between autism and ED and expands the range of neuropsychiatric traits that have relevance to the BAP among family members of individuals with autism. LAY SUMMARY : Using information from the Simons Simplex Collection we tested whether mothers of individuals with autism with a history of eating disorder had more autism traits (i.e., similar to those in autism but milder) compared to mothers with no history of eating disorder. The most striking difference between the groups was the presence of rigidity in mothers with a history of eating disorder. This extends previous work showing a relationship between autism and eating disorders and suggests the utility of studying eating disorders in future family studies of autism.

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2. McConkey R. A Brief Measure of Parental Wellbeing for Use in Evaluations of Family-Centred Interventions for Children with Developmental Disabilities. Children (Basel) ;2020 (Sep 1) ;7(9)

Increasing emphasis is placed on the provision of family-centred interventions when children have developmental disabilities with the aim of supporting parents as well as fostering the child’s development. Although various instruments have been developed to assess parental health, stress and quality of life, these are rarely used by practitioners because of the burden they place on informants. A brief measure, rooted in the concept of subjective wellbeing, was developed and tested with over 400 parents of children with ASD participating in a home-based intervention. Consisting of eight items and using a 10-point rating scale, the measure was readily understood and accepted by parents. The items contributed to one main factor that confirmed the measure’s construct validity. The internal reliability of the scale was reasonable, and there was promising evidence of test-retest reliability. There is evidence too for criterion validity through a significant relationship with a measure of parental mental health. The summary score derived from the measure was sensitive to the predicted differences on wellbeing scores by parent characteristics as well as to features of their engagement with the intervention. This brief assessment tool could help practitioners to evidence the impact of their family-centred interventions.

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3. Chancel R, Miot S, Dellapiazza F, Baghdadli A. Group-based educational interventions in adolescents and young adults with ASD without ID : a systematic review focusing on the transition to adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2020 (Sep 5)

There is a growing number of young people, diagnosed with an autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), transitioning to adulthood. Among this number, individuals without an intellectual disability have significant adaptive deficits and need individualized care and support services to better target vocational, social, and educational prospects and outcomes. Group-based interventions, including patient education, social-skills training, and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are widely used in clinical settings to improve the daily life and prospects of ASD individuals facing the challenge of transitioning to adulthood. We performed a systematic review of studies concerning the efficiency of group-based educational interventions with a focus on the transition to adulthood for young, ASD individuals without intellectual disability (ID). As a result of this systematic search, 21 studies out of 163 were found to be eligible for inclusion. We observed considerable heterogeneity across the studies, in terms of effect sizes and intervention design, delivery, and the comparison of controls. Strong evidence was found in favor of social-skills training and cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions. Professionals should consider group-based psychoeducational intervention to be an appropriate and relevant service for young subjects with ASD without ID transitioning to adulthood. Further research is needed on larger samples using multicentric designs to validate efficacy before generalization.

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4. Babinska K, Celusakova H, Belica I, Szapuova Z, Waczulikova I, Nemcsicsova D, Tomova A, Ostatnikova D. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Feeding Problems and Their Associations with Dietary Interventions, Food Supplement Use, and Behavioral Characteristics in a Sample of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Sep 1) ;17(17)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, stereotyped behavior. Gastrointestinal (GI), nutritional, and feeding problems are often reported in ASD. We investigated the prevalence of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime difficulties, and their associations with dietary interventions, food supplement use, and behavioral characteristics in a sample involving 247 participants with ASD and 267 controls aged 2-18 years. Data were collected by a questionnaire. GI symptoms were observed in 88.9% of children and adolescents with ASD, more often in girls than in boys. High rates of food selectivity (69.1%) and mealtime problems (64.3%) were found. Food supplements were used by 66.7% of individuals, mainly vitamins/minerals, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. In the ASD sample, 21.2% of subjects followed a diet, mostly based on gluten and milk restriction, including individuals exhibiting food selectivity. Frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems correlated weakly, but significantly with behavioral characteristics in the ASD group, but not with food supplement use. The study demonstrated that higher frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems are a common problem in pre-schoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents with ASD, and together with dietary modification, they are significantly associated with ASD.

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5. Cheung PPP, Brown T, Yu ML, Siu AMH. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Social Cognitive Intervention on the Social Participation of Chinese Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 3)

This study evaluates the efficacy of a school-based social cognitive intervention for children with autism. Seventy-four children and adolescents were taught visually scaffolded, theory of mind-based social skills program. Using a mixed-methods approach, children’s social competence was assessed at pre-test and post-test. Compared to a waitlist control group, children in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater gains on theory-of-mind and social skill measures. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to explore parents’ views and generalization of children’s social skills across settings. Children’s social participation exhibited improvement in home, community, and school settings. The study findings offer promising evidence for a cost-effective program and support of the school-based social skills intervention for children with ASD in Hong Kong context.

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6. Milgramm A, Christodulu KV, Rinaldi ML. Brief Report : Predictors of Teacher-Rated Academic Competence in a Clinic Sample of Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 4)

The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) necessitates a greater understanding of the academic experience of diagnosed children. The present study investigates several predictors of teacher-reported academic competence among a sample of elementary school children. All children in the sample were referred for an ASD evaluation and approximately half received a diagnosis. Children with and without ASD did not differ on overall academic competence, social skills, or problem behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that cognitive ability, social skills, and problem behaviors accounted for significant variance in academic competence. Moderation analyses indicated that the relations between the predictors and academic competence were comparable for children with and without ASD. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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7. Pin TW, So VKK, Siu CSH, Yip SSN, Cheung SS, Kan JY. Development of the Social Motor Function Classification System for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders : A Psychometric Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 5)

To examine reliability and validity of the new Social Motor Function Classification System for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (SMFCS-ASD). The SMFCS-ASD reliability was examined on 25 children (62.4 months SD 7.8) with ASD among six physical therapists. The validity study involved 1001 children (57.0 months, SD 9.9) with ASD using the gross motor scale (GMS) of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2). The indices of agreement and reliability across six examiners were moderate to substantial (Cohen’s κ ≤ 0.65 and ICC > 0.90, all p < 0.001). The SMFCS-ASD was significantly correlated with the GMS of PDMS-2 (all rho from 0.61 to 0.76, p < 0.001). The SMFCS-ASD was reliable and significantly correlated with the GMS of the PDMS-2.

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8. Andari E, Rilling JK. Genetic and epigenetic modulation of the oxytocin receptor and implications for autism. Neuropsychopharmacology ;2020 (Sep 3)

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9. Jiang J, von Kriegstein K. Brain mechanisms of eye contact during verbal communication predict autistic traits in neurotypical individuals. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 3) ;10(1):14602.

Atypical eye contact in communication is a common characteristic in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic traits vary along a continuum extending into the neurotypical population. The relation between autistic traits and brain mechanisms underlying spontaneous eye contact during verbal communication remains unexplored. Here, we used simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye tracking to investigate this relation in neurotypical people within a naturalistic verbal context. Using multiple regression analyses, we found that brain response in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and its connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) during eye contact with a speaker predicted the level of autistic traits measured by Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). Further analyses for different AQ subclusters revealed that these two predictors were negatively associated with attention to detail. The relation between FFA-pSTS connectivity and the attention to detail ability was mediated by individuals’ looking preferences for speaker’s eyes. This study identified the role of an individual eye contact pattern in the relation between brain mechanisms underlying natural eye contact during verbal communication and autistic traits in neurotypical people. The findings may help to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of atypical eye contact behavior during natural communication.

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10. Motanis H, Buonomano D. Decreased reproducibility and abnormal experience-dependent plasticity of network dynamics in Fragile X circuits. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 3) ;10(1):14535.

Fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad range of neural phenotypes. Interpreting these findings has proven challenging because some phenotypes may reflect compensatory mechanisms or normal forms of plasticity differentially engaged by experiential differences. To help minimize compensatory and experiential influences, we used an ex vivo approach to study network dynamics and plasticity of cortical microcircuits. In Fmr1(-/y) circuits, the spatiotemporal structure of Up-states was less reproducible, suggesting alterations in the plasticity mechanisms governing network activity. Chronic optical stimulation revealed normal homeostatic plasticity of Up-states, however, Fmr1(-/y) circuits exhibited abnormal experience-dependent plasticity as they did not adapt to chronically presented temporal patterns in an interval-specific manner. These results, suggest that while homeostatic plasticity is normal, Fmr1(-/y) circuits exhibit deficits in the ability to orchestrate multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and to adapt to sensory patterns in an experience-dependent manner-which is likely to contribute to learning deficits.

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11. Yoshimura Y, Kikuchi M, Saito DN, Hirosawa T, Takahashi T, Munesue T, Kosaka H, Naito N, Ouchi Y, Minabe Y. Markers for the central serotonin system correlate to verbal ability and paralinguistic social voice processing in autism spectrum disorder. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 3) ;10(1):14558.

Impairment in verbal communication abilities has been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dysfunction of the serotonergic system has also been reported in ASD. However, it is still unknown how the brain serotonergic system relates to impairment in verbal communication abilities in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between brain serotonergic condition and brain sensitivity to paralinguistic stimuli (i.e., amplitude in the human voice prosodic change-evoked mismatch field) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) or verbal ability in 10 adults with ASD. To estimate the brain serotonergic condition, we measured the serotonin transporter nondisplaceable binding potential cerebrum-wide using positron emission tomography with [11C]N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine ([11C] DASB). The results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between brain activity to paralinguistic stimuli and brain serotonin transporter binding potential in the left lingual gyrus, left fusiform gyrus and left calcarine cortex. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between verbal ability and serotonergic condition in the right anterior insula, right putamen and right central operculum. These results suggested that the occipital cortex is implicated in recognition of the prosodic change in ASD, whereas the right insula-involved serotonergic system is important in nurturing verbal function in ASD.Trial registration : UMIN000011077.

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