Pubmed du 14/09/20

lundi 14 septembre 2020

1. Aguilar-Lacasaña S, Vilor-Tejedor N, Jansen PR, López-Vicente M, Bustamante M, Burgaleta M, Sunyer J, Alemany S. Polygenic risk for ADHD and ASD and their relation with cognitive measures in school children. Psychol Med ;2020 (Sep 14):1-9.

BACKGROUND : Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are child-onset neurodevelopmental disorders frequently accompanied by cognitive difficulties. In the current study, we aim to examine the genetic overlap between ADHD and ASD and cognitive measures of working memory (WM) and attention performance among schoolchildren using a polygenic risk approach. METHODS : A total of 1667 children from a population-based cohort aged 7-11 years with data available on genetics and cognition were included in the analyses. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for ADHD and ASD using results from the largest GWAS to date (N = 55 374 and N = 46 351, respectively). The cognitive outcomes included verbal and numerical WM and the standard error of hit reaction time (HRTSE) as a measure of attention performance. These outcomes were repeatedly assessed over 1-year period using computerized version of the Attention Network Test and n-back task. Associations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS : Higher polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with lower WM performance at baseline time but not over time. These findings remained significant after adjusting by multiple testing and excluding individuals with an ADHD diagnosis but were limited to boys. PRS for ASD was only nominally associated with an increased improvement on verbal WM over time, although this association did not survive multiple testing correction. No associations were observed for HRTSE. CONCLUSIONS : Common genetic variants related to ADHD may contribute to worse WM performance among schoolchildren from the general population but not to the subsequent cognitive-developmental trajectory assessed over 1-year period.

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2. Burke SL, Cobb J, Agarwal R, Maddux M, Cooke MS. How Robust is the Evidence for a Role of Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities ?. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 14)

Growing interest in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has led to emerging evidence implicating a role for oxidative stress. However, understanding the strength of this association is made challenging by the use of a variety of purported biomarkers of oxidative stress, many of which have either uncertain specificity or flawed methods of analysis. This review aims to address this issue, which is widespread in the ASD and IDD literature, by providing readers with information concerning the strengths and limitations of the choice and analysis of biomarkers of oxidative stress. We highlight that biomarkers and assays should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, precise, robust, and chosen with careful consideration. Future studies should be sufficiently powered and address sample collection, processing, and storage which are, additionally, poorly considered, sources of bad practice, and potential errors. Only with these issues considered, will the data lead to conclusions as to the precise role of oxidative stress in ASDs and IDD.

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3. Carpenter KLH, Hahemi J, Campbell K, Lippmann SJ, Baker JP, Egger HL, Espinosa S, Vermeer S, Sapiro G, Dawson G. Digital Behavioral Phenotyping Detects Atypical Pattern of Facial Expression in Toddlers with Autism. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 14)

Commonly used screening tools for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) generally rely on subjective caregiver questionnaires. While behavioral observation is more objective, it is also expensive, time-consuming, and requires significant expertise to perform. As such, there remains a critical need to develop feasible, scalable, and reliable tools that can characterize ASD risk behaviors. This study assessed the utility of a tablet-based behavioral assessment for eliciting and detecting one type of risk behavior, namely, patterns of facial expression, in 104 toddlers (ASD N = 22) and evaluated whether such patterns differentiated toddlers with and without ASD. The assessment consisted of the child sitting on his/her caregiver’s lap and watching brief movies shown on a smart tablet while the embedded camera recorded the child’s facial expressions. Computer vision analysis (CVA) automatically detected and tracked facial landmarks, which were used to estimate head position and facial expressions (Positive, Neutral, All Other). Using CVA, specific points throughout the movies were identified that reliably differentiate between children with and without ASD based on their patterns of facial movement and expressions (area under the curves for individual movies ranging from 0.62 to 0.73). During these instances, children with ASD more frequently displayed Neutral expressions compared to children without ASD, who had more All Other expressions. The frequency of All Other expressions was driven by non-ASD children more often displaying raised eyebrows and an open mouth, characteristic of engagement/interest. Preliminary results suggest computational coding of facial movements and expressions via a tablet-based assessment can detect differences in affective expression, one of the early, core features of ASD. LAY SUMMARY : This study tested the use of a tablet in the behavioral assessment of young children with autism. Children watched a series of developmentally appropriate movies and their facial expressions were recorded using the camera embedded in the tablet. Results suggest that computational assessments of facial expressions may be useful in early detection of symptoms of autism.

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4. Chetcuti L, Uljarević M, Varcin KJ, Boutrus M, Wan MW, Green J, Iacono T, Dissanayake C, Whitehouse AJO, Hudry K. Subgroups of Temperament Associated with Social-Emotional Difficulties in Infants with Early Signs of Autism. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 14)

Links between temperament and social-emotional difficulties are well-established in normative child development but remain poorly characterized in autism. We sought to characterize distinct temperament subgroups and their associations with concurrent internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of 103 infants (M(age) = 12.39 months, SD = 1.97 ; 68% male) showing early signs of autism. Latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups of infants with distinct temperament trait configurations on the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Derived subgroups were then compared in terms of internalizing and externalizing symptoms on the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Three distinct temperament subgroups were identified : (a) inhibited/low positive (n = 22), characterized by low Smiling and Laughter, low High-Intensity Pleasure, low Vocal Reactivity, and low Approach ; (b) active/negative reactive (n = 23), characterized by high Activity Level, high Distress to Limitations, high Sadness, high Fear, and low Falling Reactivity ; and (c) well-regulated (n = 51), characterized by high Cuddliness, high Soothability, and high Low-Intensity Pleasure. There were no differences in infant sex ratio, mean age or developmental/cognitive ability. Inhibited/low-positive infants had significantly more behavioral autism signs than active/negative reactive and well-regulated infants, who did not differ. Inhibited/low-positive and active/negative reactive infants had higher internalizing symptoms, relative to well-regulated infants, and active/negative reactive infants also had higher externalizing symptoms. These findings align closely with those garnered in the context of normative child development, and point to child temperament as a putative target for internalizing and externalizing interventions. LAY SUMMARY : This study explored whether infants with early signs of autism could be grouped according to temperament characteristics (i.e., emotional, behavioral, and attentional traits). Three subgroups were identified that differed with respect to emotional and behavioral difficulties. Specifically, "inhibited/low-positive" infants had high emotional difficulties, "active/negative reactive" infants had high emotional and behavioral difficulties, while "well-regulated" infants had the lowest difficulties.

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5. Gandhi TK, Tsourides K, Singhal N, Cardinaux A, Jamal W, Pantazis D, Kjelgaard M, Sinha P. Autonomic and Electrophysiological Evidence for Reduced Auditory Habituation in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 14)

It is estimated that nearly 90% of children on the autism spectrum exhibit sensory atypicalities. What aspects of sensory processing are affected in autism ? Although sensory processing can be studied along multiple dimensions, two of the most basic ones involve examining instantaneous sensory responses and how the responses change over time. These correspond to the dimensions of ’sensitivity’ and ’habituation’. Results thus far have indicated that autistic individuals do not differ systematically from controls in sensory acuity/sensitivity. However, data from studies of habituation have been equivocal. We have studied habituation in autism using two measures : galvanic skin response (GSR) and magneto-encephalography (MEG). We report data from two independent studies. The first study, was conducted with 13 autistic and 13 age-matched neurotypical young adults and used GSR to assess response to an extended metronomic sequence. The second study involved 24 participants (12 with an ASD diagnosis), different from those in study 1, spanning the pre-adolescent to young adult age range, and used MEG. Both studies reveal consistent patterns of reduced habituation in autistic participants. These results suggest that autism, through mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated, compromises a fundamental aspect of sensory processing, at least in the auditory domain. We discuss the implications for understanding sensory hypersensitivities, a hallmark phenotypic feature of autism, recently proposed theoretical accounts, and potential relevance for early detection of risk for autism.

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6. Georgiou GP. Identification of Native Vowels in Normal and Whispered Speech by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 14)

The present study aims to investigate the identification of native vowel categories by adult individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and estimate their reaction times in both normal and whisper registers ; their responses were compared with those of typically developing individuals. The results demonstrated that there was no deficit for individuals with ASD in normal speech, but their responses in the whispered speech were impaired. Also, individuals with ASD responded quicker than controls in normal speech but slower in the whispered speech ; still, their responses were quicker than the responses of the controls in the whispered mode. The findings can have implications for the understanding of auditory sensitivities and auditory processing time in individuals with ASD as well as for clinical practice.

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7. Ghrálaigh FN, Gallagher L, Lopez LM. Autism spectrum disorder genomics : The progress and potential of genomic technologies. Genomics ;2020 (Sep 14)

Genomic technologies have accelerated research progress in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genomics and promises to further transform our understanding of the genetic basis of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Here we review the current evidence for the genetic basis of ASD, present the progress of large-scale studies to date and highlight the potential of genomic technologies. In particular, we discuss evidence for the importance of identifying rare genetic variants in family-based studies. Genomics is a key feature of future healthcare and our review illustrates it’s potential to improve our biological understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to ultimately aid ASD diagnosis, inform medical decision making and establish genomics as central to personalised medicine.

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8. Hacohen-Kleiman G, Moaraf S, Kapitansky O, Gozes I. Sex-and Region-Dependent Expression of the Autism-Linked ADNP Correlates with Social- and Speech-Related Genes in the Canary Brain. J Mol Neurosci ;2020 (Sep 14)

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9. Hickey E, Sheldrick RC, Kuhn J, Broder-Fingert S. A commentary on interpreting the United States preventive services task force autism screening recommendation statement. Autism ;2020 (Sep 14):1362361320957463.

In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was "insufficient" ("I" statement) evidence to support universal primary care screening for autism spectrum disorder. The statement led to controversy among research and clinical communities. Although a number of papers have since been published arguing for the potential benefit of autism spectrum disorder screening, none adequately address the potential harms of autism spectrum disorder screening. This evidence gap may relate to confusion regarding how the US Preventive Services Task Force conceptualizes and evaluates potential harm. In this commentary, we explore how the US Preventive Services Task Force operationalizes harm and discuss how the potential for harm was described in the "I" statement on autism spectrum disorder screening. This information can serve as a guide for investigators working to study the benefits and harms of autism spectrum disorder screening in order to fill the research gaps cited by the US Preventive Services Task Force report. Finally, we recommend future research directions for exploring harms of autism spectrum disorder screening, filling cited research gaps, and ultimately ensuring that the benefits of autism spectrum disorder screening truly outweigh the harms for all children and their families.

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10. Jachyra P, Renwick R, Gladstone B, Anagnostou E, Gibson BE. Physical activity participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2020 (Sep 14):1362361320949344.

Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder are less likely to be physically active compared to their age-related peers. Despite the lower levels of physical activity observed among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, it is unknown why they are predominantly inactive. Much of the research so far has focused on understanding how biological aspects influence physical activity participation. But there is little research that has examined how social and cultural components influence their physical activity participation. There is also little research that has sought the perspectives and experiences of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, 10 adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder created a digital story, and also participated in two face-to-face interviews. The purpose of the study was to examine how individual, social, and cultural forces influenced physical activity participation. Analysis of the data highlight that bullying, challenges in community programs, and the prioritization of therapeutic interventions limited participation. On the contrary, participants were more likely to be active when physical activity generated meaning, purpose, a sense of identity, and affective pleasures. The findings add new knowledge suggesting that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder are not simply unmotivated. Rather, physical activity participation was shaped by wider social experiences, norms, values, and practices in which they were immersed. The findings suggest a need for directed efforts to create policies and practices which are individualized and reflective of the needs and abilities of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder to promote physical activity participation and potentially enhance physical health and wellbeing.

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11. Jiwa MI, Armstrong S, Shao Y, Lunsky Y. Development of educational modules for MRTs to better support patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities undergoing imaging procedures : A collaborative patient-oriented initiative. J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ;2020 (Sep 14)

BACKGROUND : Patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience increased anxiety when undergoing medical imaging procedures for a variety of reasons including sensory overload, comprehension difficulty, and meeting unfamiliar people. There are several strategies that medical radiation technologists (MRTs) can apply to improve the imaging process. The purpose of this project was to work together with patients to develop educational modules and resources for MRTs on how to best support patients with IDD during medical imaging procedures. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND FINDINGS : The project team used a four stage process to (1) determine the educational needs of MRTs around imaging procedures for people with IDD and (2) develop a series of online case-based video modules of challenges and improved practices with accompanying digital resources. First, the project team created and distributed a needs assessment survey to MRTs to identify their educational needs, experience, and interest in learning more about how to best support patients with IDD. The results from this needs assessment underscored that developing skills to better support patients with IDD was an area of interest and need amongst OAMRS members, which led to the formation of a working group whose goal was to identify priority topics and how to best teach these topics. Second, we conducted a focus group with adults with IDD, who had experience with imaging procedures, to ensure the lived experience of people with IDD was a pillar of the modules. Third, we developed a set of video scripts and educational slides, informed by the needs assessment with MRTs and the focus group with adults with IDD. The video scripts focused on four scenarios : (1) Waiting for an imaging procedure, (2) & (3) the imaging process (MRI and PET), and (4) the exit interview. Each of these videos focused on common practice errors made during these scenarios, followed by strategies to address those errors. The educational slides focused on : (1) an introduction to people with IDD (2) Communication and (3) Triggers and Strategies. The fourth and final phase focused on filming the teaching videos with actors with IDD and finalizing the educational slides. Together, the set of educational slides and videos formed the modules for MRTs that will be published online. LESSONS LEARNED : Undertaking this process to develop educational modules for MRTs on working with people with IDD taught us that people with IDD have lived experiences which should inform the development of educational material ; they must be treated as partners during this development process ; and a partnered process takes time to carry out. CONCLUSION : The process that was undertaken allowed the team to develop resources, which can be used by MRTs. Evaluation of the educational modules can inform further refinement and improvement.

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12. Johnson KL. US Pilot Curriculum for Transitioning Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders from High School to College and the Workforce. Folia Phoniatr Logop ;2020 (Sep 11):1-7.

OBJECTIVES : Few, evidence-based programs have been developed to prepare social skills for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transitioning to the workplace or college setting. This article describes a pilot curriculum developed for Tarrant County College (TCC) to address the transitional needs of high school students with ASD to a vocation or college. METHODS : TCC enrolled 123 high school students across the ASD who were taught a 2-h, 2-semesters course on how to apply for college as well as employment applications, job interviews, and interpersonal skills. Work preparation and college preparatory skills such as communicating with professors regarding specific student learning accommodations were also included. Publicly available enrollment TCC data were utilized to describe the curricular program outcomes. Program Outcomes : No statistically significant success rate increase was identified among enrolled ASD students obtaining college acceptance by participating in the TCC program. However, 14 students were successful in attaining employment. TCC enrollment data also showed that 1 course addressing high school ASD students’ transitional needs to a vocation or college is not enough to ensure student success. Ongoing mentorship and advising should play a major role in the development of several semester long transitional courses to assist ASD students as they seek employment or a college program. Such a curriculum should include parental support and ongoing employer and college advisor communication regarding curriculum expectations for long-term success in the lives of ASD students, as they gain the skills requisite for independent living.

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13. Kovarski K, Caetta F, Mermillod M, Peyrin C, Perez C, Granjon L, Delorme R, Cartigny A, Zalla T, Chokron S. Emotional face recognition in autism and in cerebral visual impairments : In search for specificity. J Neuropsychol ;2020 (Sep 13)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in the social domain, but also by hyper- and hypo-reactivity. Atypical visual behaviours and processing have often been observed. Nevertheless, several similar signs are also identified in other clinical conditions including cerebral visual impairments (CVI). In the present study, we investigated emotional face categorization in groups of children with ASD and CVI by comparing each group to typically developing individuals (TD) in two tasks. Stimuli were either non-filtered or filtered by low- and high-spatial frequencies (LSF and HSF). All participants completed the autism spectrum quotient score (AQ) and a complete neurovisual evaluation. The results show that while both clinical groups presented difficulties in the emotional face recognition tasks and atypical processing of filtered stimuli, they did not differ from one another. Additionally, autistic traits were observed in the CVI group and symmetrically, some visual disturbances were present in the ASD group as measured via the AQ score and a neurovisual evaluation, respectively. The present study suggests the relevance of comparing ASD to CVI by showing that emotional face categorization difficulties should not be solely considered as autism-specific but merit investigation for potential dysfunction of the visual processing neural network. These results are of interest in both clinical and research perspectives, indicating that systematic visual examination is warranted for individuals with ASD.

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14. Meng J, Li Z, Shen L. Altered neuronal habituation to hearing others’ pain in adults with autistic traits. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 14) ;10(1):15019.

This study tested the hypothesis that autistic traits influence the neuronal habituation that underlies the processing of others’ pain. Based on their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), two groups of participants were classified according to their autistic traits : High-AQ and Low-AQ groups. Their event-related potentials in response to trains of three identical audio recordings, exhibiting either painful or neutral feelings of others, were compared during three experimental tasks. (1) In a Pain Judgment Task, participants were instructed to focus on pain-related cues in the presented audio recordings. (2) In a Gender Judgment Task, participants were instructed to focus on non-pain-related cues in the presented audio recordings. (3) In a Passive Listening Task, participants were instructed to passively listen. In the High-AQ group, an altered empathic pattern of habituation, indexed by frontal-central P2 responses of the second repeated painful audio recordings, was found during the Passive Listening Task. Nevertheless, both High-AQ and Low-AQ groups exhibited similar patterns of habituation to hearing others’ voices, both neutral and painful, in the Pain Judgment and Gender Judgment Tasks. These results suggest altered empathic neuronal habituation in the passive processing of others’ vocal pain by individuals with autistic traits.

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15. Neuhaus E, Bernier RA, Webb SJ. Social Motivation Across Multiple Measures : Caregiver-Report of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 14)

Social motivation is a foundational construct with regard to the etiology, neurobiology, and phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multiple theories suggest that early emerging alterations to social motivation underlie a developmental cascade of social and communication deficits across the lifespan. Despite this significance, methods to measure social motivation vary widely, with little data to date as to how different measures might compare. In this study, we explore three existing caregiver-report measures that have been proposed to quantify social motivation among school-age children with ASD (n = 18 ; all male) and without ASD (n = 36 ; 50% female), with the broad goal of characterizing social motivation across measures and specific aims of investigating (a) diagnostic and sex differences in social motivation, (b) correspondence between measures, and (c) relationships between social motivation and broader social outcomes. Across all three measures, individuals with ASD had lower social motivation by caregiver-report. However, they did display individual differences in the degree of social motivation reported. There were no differences in social motivation between males and females without ASD on any of the three measures. For the full sample, measures of social motivation correlated with one another as anticipated, and stronger social motivation was associated with stronger social skills and fewer social difficulties. Our data suggest that social motivation among children with ASD may be best conceptualized as an individual difference that is diminished on average relative to peers but which varies among children and adolescents with ASD, rather than as an absolute absence or uniform deficit. LAY SUMMARY : Several theories suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience less social motivation than their peers without ASD, contributing to difficulties in social skills. Based on multiple caregiver-report questionnaires, social motivation was reduced on average for school-age children with ASD but also varied among children with ASD. Stronger social motivation was related to stronger social skills and fewer social problems. Future work should include more girls with ASD, consider social motivation across age groups, and include first-hand perspectives from people with ASD.

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16. Ring M, Guillery-Girard B, Quinette P, Gaigg SB, Bowler DM. Short-Term Memory Span and Cross-Modality Integration in Younger and Older Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 14)

This study tested whether adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show the same pattern of difficulties and absence of age-related differences in short-term memory (STM) as those that have been reported in episodic long-term memory (LTM). Fifty-three adults with ASD (age range : 25-65 years) were compared to 52 age-, biological sex-, and intelligence-matched typically developing (TD ; age range : 21-67 years) adults on three STM span tasks, which tested STM performance for letters (Verbal), grid locations (Visuospatial), or letters in grid locations (Multimodal). A subsample of 34 TD and 33 ASD participants ranging in age from 25 to 64 years completed a fourth Multimodal Integration task. We also administered the Color Trails Test as a measure of executive function. ASD participants’ accuracy was lower than that of the TD participants on the three span tasks (Cohen’s d : 0.26-0.50). The Integration task difference was marginally significant (p = .07) but had a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.50). Regression analyses confirmed reduced STM performance only for older TD participants. Analyses also indicated that executive processes played a greater role in the ASD group’s performance. The demonstration of similar difficulties and age-related patterning of STM in ASD to those documented for LTM and the greater recruitment of executive processes by older ASD participants on the Integration task suggest a compensatory role of frontal processes both as a means of achieving undiminished task performance and as a possible protection against older age cognitive decline in ASD. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm this. LAY SUMMARY : Little is known about short-term memory (STM) in younger and older adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study tested different kinds of STM and showed that ASD adults remembered shorter sequences of letters, crosses, or letters in grid cells less well than matched participants with typical development. However, older ASD individuals performed similarly to younger ASD individuals, nor showing the reduction in performance usually seen with older age. The data suggest that ASD individuals use different underlying mechanisms when performing the tasks and that this might help protect their memory as they grow older.

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17. Roberts TPL, Bloy L, Ku M, Blaskey L, Jackel CR, Edgar JC, Berman JI. A Multimodal Study of the Contributions of Conduction Velocity to the Auditory Evoked Neuromagnetic Response : Anomalies in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 14)

This multimodal imaging study used magnetoencephalography, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to identify and contrast the multiple physiological mechanisms associated with auditory processing efficiency in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Efficient transmission of auditory input between the ear and auditory cortex is necessary for rapid encoding of auditory sensory information. It was hypothesized that the M50 auditory evoked response latency would be modulated by white matter microstructure (indexed by diffusion MRI) and by tonic inhibition (indexed by GABA MRS). Participants were 77 children diagnosed with ASD and 40 TD controls aged 7-17 years. A model of M50 latency with auditory radiation fractional anisotropy and age as independent variables was able to predict 52% of M50 latency variance in TD children, but only 12% of variance in ASD. The ASD group exhibited altered patterns of M50 latency modulation characterized by both higher variance and deviation from the expected structure-function relationship established with the TD group. The TD M50 latency model was used to identify a subpopulation of ASD who are significant "outliers" to the TD model. The ASD outlier group exhibited unexpectedly long M50 latencies in conjunction with significantly lower GABA levels. These findings indicate the dependence of electrophysiologic sensory response latency on underlying microstructure (white matter) and neurochemistry (synaptic activity). This study demonstrates the use of biologically based measures to stratify ASD according to their brain-level "building blocks" as an alternative to their behavioral phenotype. LAY SUMMARY : Children with ASD often have a slower brain response when hearing sounds. This study used multiple brain imaging techniques to examine the structural and neurochemical factors which control the brain’s response time to auditory tones in children with ASD and TD children. The relationship between brain imaging measures and brain response time was also used to identify ASD subgroups.

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18. Safer-Lichtenstein J, Hamilton J, McIntyre LL. School-Based Autism Rates by State : An Analysis of Demographics, Political Leanings, and Differential Identification. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 14)

We reviewed federal special education data to determine school-identified prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other disability categories by U.S. state. We also examined whether state-level policies, demographic factors, and rates of other eligibility categories are predictive of these state ASD rates. Results indicate that overall, 1 of 81 school-aged children are served under an ASD special education eligibility. State-level demographic factors, such as socioeconomic status and political leanings were highly predictive of rates of ASD. States with higher rates of ASD had lower rates of intellectual and learning disabilities, but higher rates of Other Health Impairment (OHI).

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19. Tubío-Fungueiriño M, Cruz S, Sampaio A, Carracedo A, Fernández-Prieto M. Social Camouflaging in Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Systematic Review. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 14)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with increasing prevalence, and a male-to-female ratio of 4:1. Research has been suggesting that discrepancy in prevalence may be due to the fact that females camouflage their symptoms. In this study, we aimed to systematically review evidence on the camouflage effect in females with ASD. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed empirical research published from January 2009 to September 2019 on PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and Scopus databases. Thirteen empirical articles were included in this review. Overall, evidence supports that camouflaging seems to be an adaptive mechanism for females with ASD, despite the negative implications of these behaviours in their daily life.

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20. Yan C, Pan X, Wan L, Li H, Li S, Song H, Liu Q, Zhang F, Liu Y, Jiang Y, Wang L, Fang W. Combination of F-ASO and Targeted Medical Therapy in Patients With Secundum ASD and Severe PAH. JACC Cardiovasc Interv ;2020 (Sep 14) ;13(17):2024-2034.

OBJECTIVES : This study was conducted to investigate the combined use of fenestrated atrial septal occluder (F-ASO) and targeted medical therapy (TMT) in patients with secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). BACKGROUND : Treatment of patients with ASD and severe PAH is still challenging. METHODS : After ethical approval was obtained, 56 consecutive patients with ASD with severe PAH were included (7 men, 49 women ; median age 50.5 years ; mean ASD size 26.9 ± 4.6 mm). After 3 months of TMT, transcatheter closure was performed using F-ASO in patients with ratios of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ≥1.5. TMT was continued post-operatively together with 6 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy. The hemodynamic variables during baseline, TMT alone, and combined treatment with F-ASO were compared. RESULTS : After only TMT, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (-14.5 mm Hg ; p < 0.001), pulmonary vascular resistance (-3.9 Wood units ; p < 0.001), and exercise capacity (+72.0 m ; p < 0.001) improved. Ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow increased by 0.9 (p < 0.001), with adverse cardiac remodeling (right ventricular dimension +3.5 mm ; p < 0.001). Closure with F-ASO (median size 34.0 mm) led to further decrease in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (-6.0 mm Hg ; p < 0.001). Follow-up (median duration 10 months) revealed further improvement in exercise capacity (+60.5 m ; p < 0.001), with favorable cardiac remodeling (right ventricular dimension -9.9 mm ; p < 0.001). In addition, all fenestrations were stable (p = 0.699), with negligible shunt (median ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow 1.1) and no complications. One year later, pulmonary artery pressure was normalized in 8 of 19 patients, and PAH recurred in 5 patients after discontinuation of TMT. CONCLUSIONS : In patients with ASD and severe PAH, combination of F-ASO and TMT was a safe and effective procedure. Compared with TMT alone, the combined treatment further improved exercise capacity, with favorable cardiac remodeling.

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21. Zuckerman KE, Chavez AE, Wilson L, Unger K, Reuland C, Ramsey K, King M, Scholz J, Fombonne E. Improving autism and developmental screening and referral in US primary care practices serving Latinos. Autism ;2020 (Sep 14):1362361320957461.

Latino children experience delays in access to diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder. Primary care-based screening of all children for autism spectrum disorder and referring them for services may reduce racial/ethnic differences and improve care. REAL-START, a yearlong screening intervention, was effective in increasing screening for autism spectrum disorder and general developmental delays, increasing therapy referrals, and shortening time for developmental assessment in primary care clinics with Latino patients.

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Formation à l'état des connaissances de l'autisme {JPEG}

4-Accéder au Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes (LAARA)

Prenez connaissance du Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes, projet de répertoire régional des structures médico-sociales. En cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquer pour accéder au LAARA