Pubmed du 21/09/20

lundi 21 septembre 2020

1. Bellalou L, Downes N, Cappe E. Development and preliminary validation of a depressive symptomatology detection scale among children and adolescents on the autism spectrum. Autism ;2020 (Sep 21):1362361320958209.

Many individuals on the autism spectrum experience depressive symptoms. These symptoms contribute to poor quality of life and may have a more negative impact than core autistic features. However, identifying depressive symptoms among individuals on the spectrum is a real challenge. In this study, we investigate the psychometric qualities of a French scale for evaluating depressive symptoms among youth on the autism spectrum. Participants were 153 autistic children and adolescents aged between 3 and 17 years. The majority of the sample was male (73.86%). One of their parents completed the scale for evaluating depressive symptoms among youth on the autism spectrum during an interview with a psychologist. Overall, the findings indicate the scale may be reliably used with children and adolescents on the autism spectrum. Experts deemed the items as being representative of depressive symptoms. The scale is composed of two factors : behavioral changes on one hand and cognitive and emotional changes on the other. The results are encouraging and show the scale is a promising instrument for assessing Major Depressive Disorder symptomatology among youth on the spectrum. Future studies should focus on testing this scale among adults and developing an auto-evaluative section.

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2. Charlot LR, Doerfler LA, McLaren JL. Psychotropic medications use and side effects of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res ;2020 (Sep 21)

BACKGROUND : Many people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are treated with psychotropic medications, and polypharmacy is common. Although few studies address psychotropic side effects in the population, people with IDD have been found more likely to experience side effects than others who do not have IDD. Because many individuals with IDD may not report side effects reliably, there is risk that side effects may be missed. METHODS : Psychotropic use and side effects of 71 adults with IDD admitted for a 30-day crisis stay to a Systemic, Therapeutic, Assessment, Resources, and Treatment (START) Resource Center were reviewed. START is a specialised behavioural health outreach, training and crisis programme for individuals with IDD. During crisis stays, centre nurses administer the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects screen, a psychometrically established psychotropic medication side effects screen developed for use with people with IDD. Data reviewed were de-identified data used to inform day-to-day practices and assess outcomes for individuals START served. RESULTS : The average age was 28 years, and 56% of the sample was male. All individuals were taking at least one psychotropic, while 79% were taking three or more. The average number of psychotropics used was 3.94. Antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed medications taken by 85% of the sample ; 49% of whom were not reported to have psychosis. Although the overall number of psychotropics did not correlate with Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects scores, the average scale scores for all participants was high in contrast to prior studies of people with IDD not taking psychotropics, with central nervous system side effects being the most commonly reported. CONCLUSION : In the present study, data for individuals experiencing a crisis were reviewed and indicated high rates of psychotropic polypharmacy and side effects rates higher than previously reported for people with IDD not taking psychotropics. Prospective study in larger samples is needed to determine if missed or under-appreciated psychotropic side effects may play a role in behavioural health challenges of some people with IDD.

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3. Cibrian FL, Madrigal M, Avelais M, Tentori M. Supporting coordination of children with ASD using neurological music therapy : A pilot randomized control trial comparing an elastic touch-display with tambourines. Res Dev Disabil ;2020 (Sep 17) ;106:103741.

AIM : To evaluate the efficacy of Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) using a traditional and a technological intervention (elastic touch-display) in improving the coordination of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as a primary outcome, and the timing and strength control of their movements as secondary outcomes. METHODS : Twenty-two children with ASD completed 8 NMT sessions, as a part of a 2-month intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to either use an elastic touch-display (experimental group) or tambourines (control group). We conducted pre- and post- assessment evaluations, including the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) and motor assessments related to the control of strength and timing of movements. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS : All participants improved their coordination, according to the DCDQ scores, and exhibited better control of their movements according to the strength and timing assessments after the intervention. Participants who used the elastic touch-display scored higher on the DCDQ. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : NMT is an efficacious treatment to improve the coordination skills of children with ASD. Elastic touch-displays provide more benefits than the use of tambourines.

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4. DeBrabander KM, Pinkham AE, Ackerman RA, Jones DR, Sasson NJ. Cognitive and Social Cognitive Self-assessment in Autistic Adults. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 20)

An aspect of metacognition associated with broader functional abilities in several clinical conditions, but previously unexamined in autism, is self-assessment (i.e., the ability to accurately self-evaluate one’s own performance). We compared self-assessment between 37 autistic adults without intellectual disability to 39 non-autistic (NA) controls on a series of three general cognitive and three social cognitive tasks. Whereas autistic adults and NA adults did not differ in their self-assessment accuracy on general cognitive tasks, they did on social cognitive tasks, with autistic adults demonstrating lower accuracy. The direction of their inaccuracy was variable (i.e., both over and underestimation), and self-assessment was largely unrelated to their level of social functioning. Over versus underestimation may have different functional implications, and warrants future investigation.

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5. Eley SEA, McKechanie AG, Campbell S, Stanfield AC. Facilitating individuals and families affected by fragile X syndrome to participate in medication trials. J Intellect Disabil Res ;2020 (Sep 21)

BACKGROUND : Recently, there has been an increasing number of trials of medications for fragile X syndrome (FXS). In order to be adequately powered, trials have involved many centres around the world with relatively small numbers of participants recruited at each site. This study aims to understand the barriers to, and how best to facilitate participation in, medication trials in order to improve recruitment and the experience of participants with FXS. METHODS : A mixed methods design was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Participants were invited to participate through the UK Fragile X Society, a local mailing list and through social media. Those who agreed to participate completed a quantitative questionnaire and indicated whether they would be willing to participate in a follow-up focus group. RESULTS : The questionnaire was completed by 328 individuals who either had FXS, or were a parent, carer or family member of an individual with FXS. Over two-thirds of participants reported concern about side effects, while over one-third mentioned swallowing tablets, blood tests, financial aspects and travel as barriers to participation. Focus groups with 12 individuals highlighted themes of trial challenges, strategies to overcome these and motivating factors to participate. CONCLUSIONS : Many of the factors, which potentially negatively influence participation in a clinical trial for FXS, could be mitigated in relatively simple ways. Easily accessible information, particularly about safety issues, the research team and the trial environment should be standard practice. Desensitisation programmes for blood testing, provision of different preparations of medication (e.g. liquid) and use of a combination of local, remote and site visits to reduce travel and time should also be considered.

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6. Kaliukhovich DA, Manyakov NV, Bangerter A, Ness S, Skalkin A, Boice M, Goodwin MS, Dawson G, Hendren R, Leventhal B, Shic F, Pandina G. Visual Preference for Biological Motion in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder : An Eye-Tracking Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 20)

Participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 121, mean [SD] age : 14.6 [8.0] years) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 40, 16.4 [13.3] years) were presented with a series of videos representing biological motion on one side of a computer monitor screen and non-biological motion on the other, while their eye movements were recorded. As predicted, participants with ASD spent less overall time looking at presented stimuli than TD participants (P < 10(-3)) and showed less preference for biological motion (P < 10(-5)). Participants with ASD also had greater average latencies than TD participants of the first fixation on both biological (P < 0.01) and non-biological motion (P < 0.02). Findings suggest that individuals with ASD differ from TD individuals on multiple properties of eye movements and biological motion preference.

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7. Li T, Li Y, Hu Y, Wang Y, Lam CM, Ni W, Wang X, Yi L. Heterogeneity of Visual Preferences for Biological and Repetitive Movements in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 21)

Previous studies have repeatedly reported atypical visual preferences to repetitive movements and deficient perception of biological movements in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, limited research has investigated the heterogeneity of the visual preferences in individuals with ASD. In the current study, we explored the visual preferences to different movement types (repetitive, biological, and random) in children with ASD using a paired preferential looking paradigm. Thirty-nine children with ASD and 37 typically developing (TD) children participated in our study, with their eye movements recorded as the index of visual preferences. We examined the differences of visual preferences between the ASD and TD group, and the heterogeneity of visual preferences within the ASD group. We found group differences between children with ASD and TD children : Overall, the ASD group preferred repetitive movements while the TD group preferred biological movements. We also detected heterogeneity of visual preferences within the ASD group : Although the majority of children with ASD preferred repetitive movements as previous studies reported, 9 out of 39 children with ASD preferred biological movements similarly as their TD peers. Moreover, the visual preference patterns were correlated with autistic symptoms, especially the socio-communicative impairments. Our study provided evidence of heterogeneity of visual attention and main visual preference to repetitive movements in children with ASD. The findings add to the body of literature of the heterogeneous behavioral symptoms and the atypical visual preferences in individuals with ASD. LAY SUMMARY : The current study examined visual preferences to biological, repetitive, and random movements in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We showed a pair of two videos representing two types of movements (random, repetitive, or biological movements) to children with ASD and typically developing children. We found the main visual preferences for repetitive movements and heterogeneity of visual attention within the ASD group. Our findings provide theoretical and methodological implications for future study of the heterogeneity in the ASD population.

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8. Mooney LN, Nordahl CW, Solomon M, Ghetti S. Children with ASD Show Impaired Item-Space Recollection, But Preserved Item-Color Recollection. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 21)

Although individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been often shown to display similar memory performance on semantic memory tasks compared to typically developing (TD) children, there is ongoing debate about whether and how their ability to remember specific past events (i.e., episodic memory) is impaired. We assessed a sample of 62 children with ASD and 72 TD children, ranging in age between 8 and 12 years on 2 memory tasks. Participants encoded a series of images and their association with either where they appeared on the screen (item-space association task) or with the color of an image’s border (item-color association task). Children with ASD showed worse memory in the item-space association task compared to their TD peers, but comparable memory for the item-color association task. These differences persisted when age, intellectual quotient, and general item recognition memory were accounted for statistically. We interpret these results in light of evidence for specific deficits along the dorsal stream affecting processing of spatiotemporal information in ASD. LAY SUMMARY : Episodic memory requires the ability to bind contextual details (such as color, location, etc.) to an item or event in order to remember the past with specific detail. Here, we compared children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children on tasks examining episodic memory. Children with ASD recalled more poorly previously seen items and their associated space-related details, but they performed comparably to TD children on color details. We discuss the possible mechanisms that contribute to worse spatial processing/recall in ASD.

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9. Qin Y, Kang J, Jiao Z, Wang Y, Wang J, Wang H, Feng J, Jin L, Wang F, Gong X. Polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder affects left amygdala activity and negative emotion in schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry ;2020 (Sep 21) ;10(1):322.

Although the diagnoses based on phenomenology have many practical advantages, accumulating evidence shows that schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share some overlap in genetics and clinical presentation. It remains largely unknown how ASD-associated polygenetic risk contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, we calculated high-resolution ASD polygenic risk scores (ASD PRSs) and selected optimal ten ASD PRS with minimal P values in the association analysis of PRSs, with schizophrenia to assess the effect of ASD PRS on brain neural activity in schizophrenia cases and controls. We found that amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation in left amygdala was positively associated with ASD PRSs in our cohort. Correlation analysis of ASD PRSs with facial emotion recognition test identified the negative correlation of ASD PRSs with negative emotions in schizophrenia cases and controls. Finally, functional enrichment analysis of PRS genes revealed that neural system function and development, as well as signal transduction, were mainly enriched in PRS genes. Our results provide empirical evidence that polygenic risk for ASD contributes to schizophrenia by the intermediate phenotypes of left amygdala function and emotion recognition. It provides a promising strategy to understand the relationship between phenotypes and genotypes shared in mental disorders.

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10. Scott M, Falkmer M, Kuzminski R, Falkmer T, Girdler S. Process evaluation of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers. Scand J Occup Ther ;2020 (Sep 21):1-13.

BACKGROUND : Limited studies exist exploring employers’ capacity in hiring and supporting employees on the autism spectrum, and even fewer have considered interventions targeting employers’ skills and knowledge in enhancing employment opportunities. In response to this need, the Integrated Employment Success Tool (IEST(TM)) was developed and its effectiveness established in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Furthermore, a process evaluation was conducted to determine the usability and implementation of the IEST(TM). AIMS/OBJECTIVES : The process evaluation was conducted to determine employers’ perceived usability, implementation, and perceived barriers and facilitators in using the IEST(TM). MATERIAL AND METHODS : Employers (N = 29) provided their feedback via an online questionnaire. Of these, 11 participants were interviewed, further exploring their experiences. Data were analysed via descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. RESULTS : While employers’ frequency and usage of the IEST(TM) varied across workplaces, it was predominantly used to increase employers’ knowledge of autism and implement workplace strategies. A major barrier was the paper-based format of the intervention, with more than 60% of employers indicating the need for an online version. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE : The process evaluation was a critical step in understanding why the IEST(TM) was effective, and how it could be further optimized for prospective employers.

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11. Videler AC, Heijnen-Kohl SMJ, Wilting R, van Alphen SPJ. [Differential diagnosis personality disorder versus autism spectrum disorder in older adults]. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ;2020 (Jun 4) ;51(2)

Scientific knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in older adults is still scarce. Differential diagnosis of ASD and personality disorders is complicated, especially in later life. There is overlap between ASD and personality disorders, both conceptually and descriptively. The manifestation of both disorders is heterogeneous, influenced by age specific factors and characterised by similar behavioural symptoms and the lack of a sound developmental history. In both disorders, age specific changes can exceed adaptive abilities of patients, so ASD and personality disorders may become manifest for the first time in old age. More research is needed to fully understand the relationship between ASD and personality development across the life span. Also, there is a need for assessment instruments for both adults and older people with comorbid mental disorders and personality disorders in particular. As comorbidity of ASD and personality disorders appears to be common, more research should be done into treatment of comorbid personality disorders, also in later life.

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