Pubmed du 25/09/20

vendredi 25 septembre 2020

1. Ahmed KL, Simon AR, Dempsey JR, Samaco RC, Goin-Kochel RP. Evaluating Two Common Strategies for Research Participant Recruitment Into Autism Studies : Observational Study. J Med Internet Res ;2020 (Sep 24) ;22(9):e16752.

BACKGROUND : Ongoing research is necessary to better understand the causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the developmental outcomes for individuals diagnosed with ASD, and the efficacy of the interventions. However, it is often difficult to recruit sufficient numbers of participants for studies, and despite the prevalence of ASD (currently estimated to affect 1 in 54 children), little research has focused on how to efficiently recruit participants with ASD. OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of two different paid advertisements-social media and radio advertising-in recruiting participants for a study enrolling people with ASD and their family members by examining the number of participants enrolled, the cost per participant, and the geographic reach of each type of advertising. METHODS : We examined participant enrollment in a study following nonoverlapping paid advertisements on a popular FM radio station (aired in three cities across two states) and Facebook (six advertisements that ran in five cities across two states). The total paid investment in the radio campaign was $12,030 and that in the Facebook campaign was $2950. Following the advertising campaigns, 1391 participants in the study who were affiliated with the Houston, Texas, site received email invitations to participate in a brief survey about the ways in which they learned about the study (eg, social media, medical provider, website) and which of these were most influential in their decisions to participate ; 374 (26.8%) of the participants completed this survey. RESULTS : Social media advertising outperformed radio in all three parameters examined by enrolling more participants (338 vs 149), with a lower average cost per participant ($8.73 vs $80.74) and a wider geographic reach, based on a comparison of the number of zip codes within and outside of Texas for questionnaire respondents who rated social media as the most influential method of contact (n=367, χ(2)(1)=5.85, P=.02). Of the 374 survey participants, 139 (37.2%) reported that they had seen the study on social media prior to enrollment, while only 9 (2.4%) said they heard about it via radio. CONCLUSIONS : Our findings suggest that advertising on social media can efficiently reach a large pool of potential participants with ASD, increasing the likelihood of meeting study enrollment goals. Researchers should consider allocating at least some portion of recruitment dollars to social media platforms as a means of quickly and inexpensively reaching out to their target populations, including for studies with in-person procedures.

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2. Aleo S, Milani D, Pansa A, Marchisio P, Guerneri S, Silipigni R. Autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability in an inherited 2q14.3 micro-deletion involving CNTNAP5. Am J Med Genet A ;2020 (Sep 25)

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3. Arthur T, Vine S, Brosnan M, Buckingham G. Predictive sensorimotor control in autism. Brain ;2020 (Sep 25)

Autism spectrum disorder has been characterized by atypicalities in how predictions and sensory information are processed in the brain. To shed light on this relationship in the context of sensorimotor control, we assessed prediction-related measures of cognition, perception, gaze and motor functioning in a large general population (n = 92 ; Experiment 1) and in clinically diagnosed autistic participants (n = 29 ; Experiment 2). In both experiments perception and action were strongly driven by prior expectations of object weight, with large items typically predicted to weigh more than equally-weighted smaller ones. Interestingly, these predictive action models were used comparably at a sensorimotor level in both autistic and neurotypical individuals with varying levels of autistic-like traits. Specifically, initial fingertip force profiles and resulting action kinematics were both scaled according to participants’ pre-lift heaviness estimates, and generic visual sampling behaviours were notably consistent across groups. These results suggest that the weighting of prior information is not chronically underweighted in autism, as proposed by simple Bayesian accounts of the disorder. Instead, our results cautiously implicate context-sensitive processing mechanisms, such as precision modulation and hierarchical volatility inference. Together, these findings present novel implications for both future scientific investigations and the autism community.

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4. Babu PRK, Lahiri U. Multiplayer Interaction Platform with Gaze Tracking for Individuals with Autism. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ;2020 (Sep 25) ;Pp

Deficits in interpersonal communication along with difficulty in putting oneself into the shoes of others characterizes individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Additionally, they exhibit atypical looking pattern causing them to miss aspects related to understanding other’s preference for a context that is crucial for effective social communication. Prior research studies show the use of multiplayer platforms can improve interaction among these individuals. However, these multiplayer platforms do not demand players to understand each other’s preference, important for effective social interaction. In this work, we have developed a multiplayer interaction platform using virtual reality augmented with eye-tracking technology. Thirty-six participants comprising of individuals with ASD (n=18 ; GroupASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals (n=18 ; GroupTD) interacted in pairs within each participant group using our platform. Results indicate that both GroupASD and GroupTD showed improvement in performance across the tasks with the GroupTD performing better than the GroupASD. Additionally, the eye-gaze data indicated an underlying relationship between one’s looking pattern and task performance that was differentiated between the GroupASD and GroupTD. The current results indicate a potential of our multiplayer interaction platform to serve as a complementary tool in the hands of the interventionist promoting social reciprocity and interaction among individuals with ASD.

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5. Bizzego A, Lim M, Schiavon G, Esposito G. Children with Developmental Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries : More Neglected and Physically Punished. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2020 (Sep 25) ;17(19)

Little is known about parenting in the context of developmental disabilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), penalized by both lack of data and a research bias toward western societies. In this study, we apply data mining methods on a large (N = 25,048) dataset from UNICEF to highlight patterns of association between developmental disabilities of children and parental involvement. We focus on the co-presence of multiple disabilities and the quality of childcare in three parenting domains : discipline, caregiving, and education. Our results show that, in LMIC, children with more severe developmental conditions are also more likely to receive low-quality parental care. Specific policies of parental training are needed to improve parental practices in LMIC.

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6. DiCriscio AS, Troiani V. Resting and Functional Pupil Response Metrics Indicate Features of Reward Sensitivity and ASD in Children. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 25)

The current study examined the relationship between quantitative measures of reward and punishment sensitivity, features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and resting and functional pupil response metrics across a clinically heterogeneous sample. Scores on a parent-report measure of punishment and reward sensitivity were correlated with ASD features. We also assessed whether pupil measurements could be used as a physiologic correlate of reward sensitivity and predictor of ASD diagnosis. In a logistic regression model, pupil dilation metrics, sex, and IQ, correctly classified 86.3% of participants as having an ASD diagnosis versus not. This research highlights individual differences of reward sensitivity associated with ASD features. Results support the use of pupil metrics and other patient-level variables as predictors of ASD diagnostic status.

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7. Hoyo V, Kadlec MB. From Syringe to Spoon Feeding : A Case Report of How Occupational Therapy Treatment Successfully Guided the Parents of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Prematurity in an Outpatient Clinic. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 23)

This case report details how occupational therapy treatment in an outpatient setting successfully guided the parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder and a history of prematurity from restrained syringe feedings to the acceptance of spoon feedings. Occupational therapy practitioners are qualified, needed and available to assess and treat feeding disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder and a history of prematurity. Family-centered practice must be utilized for successful outcomes in an outpatient service delivery model.

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8. Ku B, MacDonald M, Hatfield B, Gunter K. Parental Influence on the Physical Activity Behaviors of Young Children With Developmental Disabilities. Adapt Phys Activ Q ;2020 (Sep 24):1-20.

The purpose of this study was to test a modified conceptual model of the associations between parental supports and physical activity (PA) orientations and the PA behaviors of young children with developmental disabilities (DDs). In total, 135 parents of young children with DDs completed a questionnaire, which consisted of 67 questions. A pathway analysis indicated that tangible and intangible parental supports were significantly associated with PA behaviors in young children with DDs (β = 0.26, p = .01, and β = 0.24, p = .02, respectively). Tangible parental support was positively associated with parents’ PA behaviors and PA enjoyment (β = 0.22, p < .001, and β = 0.13, p = .04, respectively). Intangible parental support was positively associated with parents’ PA behaviors and PA importance (β = 0.19, p = .05, and β = 0.33, p < .001, respectively). In addition, parental PA behaviors and parents’ perceptions of their children’s motor performance were both directly associated with PA behaviors in young children with DDs. These results highlight the importance of parental support and PA orientations in relation to the PA behaviors of young children with DDs.

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9. Laue HE, Korrick SA, Baker ER, Karagas MR, Madan JC. Prospective associations of the infant gut microbiome and microbial function with social behaviors related to autism at age 3 years. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 23) ;10(1):15515.

The hypothesized link between gut bacteria and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been explored through animal models and human studies with microbiome assessment after ASD presentation. We aimed to prospectively characterize the association between the infant/toddler gut microbiome and ASD-related social behaviors at age 3 years. As part of an ongoing birth cohort gut bacterial diversity, structure, taxa, and function at 6 weeks (n = 166), 1 year (n = 158), 2 years (n = 129), and 3 years (n = 140) were quantified with 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 101 six weeks, n = 103 one year). ASD-related social behavior was assessed at age 3 years using Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) T-scores. Covariate-adjusted linear and permutation-based models were implemented. Microbiome structure at 1 year was associated with SRS-2 total T-scores (p = 0.01). Several taxa at 1, 2, and 3 years were associated with SRS-2 performance, including many in the Lachnospiraceae family. Higher relative abundance of Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Ruminococcus torques at 1 year related to poorer SRS-2 performance. Two functional pathways, L-ornithine and vitamin B6 biosynthesis, were associated with better social skills at 3 years. Our results support potential associations between early-childhood gut microbiome and social behaviors. Future mechanistic studies are warranted to pinpoint sensitive targets for intervention.

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10. Lewis LF, Ward C, Jarvis N, Cawley E. "Straight Sex is Complicated Enough !" : The Lived Experiences of Autistics Who are Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Asexual, or Other Sexual Orientations. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 23)

Autistics are more likely than neurotypicals to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, asexual, and other sexual orientations. Autistics and sexual minorities represent populations at high risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. Little is known about the experiences of individuals living at this intersection. In this phenomenology, 67 individuals who identified as autistic sexual minorities participated in online interviews to describe the meaning of their experiences. Six themes emerged, including : self-acceptance is a journey ; autistic traits complicate self-identification of sexual orientation ; social and sensory stressors affect sexual expression ; feeling misunderstood and isolated ; challenges finding mutually satisfying relationships ; and difficulty recognizing and communicating sexual needs. Autistic sexual minorities experience a "double minority" status that complicates identity formation and increases vulnerability in sexual relationships.

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11. Motil KJ, Khan N, Coon JL, Barrish JO, Suter B, Pehlivan D, Schultz RJ, Glaze DG. Gastrointestinal Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for Rett Syndrome : Tool Development. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ;2020 (Sep 22)

PURPOSE : We report the development and validation of a tool to assess gastrointestinal health in Rett syndrome (RTT). We hypothesized that the Gastrointestinal Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is a valid clinical outcomes measure of gastrointestinal health in RTT. METHODS : We used parent interviews, surveys, and literature review to generate a questionnaire related to gastrointestinal health and function, mood and behaviors, and parental concerns for individuals with RTT. Parents of affected and unaffected individuals provided responses to the GHQ, assessed the relevance and importance of statements, and completed five surveys related to gastrointestinal health, child-related mood and behaviors, and parent concerns. We used multivariate item analysis, two-sample t-tests, and correlations to assess the validity of the GHQ. RESULTS : We documented acceptable internal consistency of statements related to gastrointestinal health and function (Cronbach-α = 0.91), RTT-related mood and behaviors (Cronbach-α = 0.89), and parent concerns (Cronbach-α = 0.95) in the GHQ. We documented favorable external validity, based on differences in response scores between parents of affected and unaffected individuals (p < 0.001) and correlations in parental response scores between the GHQ and five validated questionnaires addressing similar issues (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION : The GHQ is a valid tool for the assessment of gastrointestinal health in RTT and offers the opportunity to field test the safety and efficacy of novel drug therapies in clinical trials for individuals affected with this disorder.

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12. Rahaman MA, Lopa M, Uddin KMF, Baqui MA, Keya SP, Faruk MO, Sarker S, Basiruzzaman M, Islam M, AlBanna A, Jahan N, Chowdhury M, Saha N, Hussain M, Colombi C, O’Rielly D, Woodbury-Smith M, Ghaziuddin M, Rahman MM, Uddin M. An Exploration of Physical and Phenotypic Characteristics of Bangladeshi Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 25)

This study explored the physical and clinical phenotype of Bangladeshi children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A totally of 283 children who were referred for screening and administered Module 1 of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were included. Overall, 209 met the ADOS algorithmic cutoff for ASD. A trend for greater weight and head circumference was observed in children with ASD versus non-ASD. Head circumference was significantly (p < 0.03) larger in ASD males compared with non-ASD males. A trend was also observed for symptom severity, higher in females than males (p = 0.068), with further analyses demonstrating that social reciprocity (p < 0.014) and functional play (p < 0.03) were significantly more impaired in ASD females than males. The findings help understand sex differences in ASD.

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13. Ramaswami G, Won H, Gandal MJ, Haney J, Wang JC, Wong CCY, Sun W, Prabhakar S, Mill J, Geschwind DH. Integrative genomics identifies a convergent molecular subtype that links epigenomic with transcriptomic differences in autism. Nat Commun ;2020 (Sep 25) ;11(1):4873.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. Despite this heterogeneity, previous studies have shown patterns of molecular convergence in post-mortem brain tissue from autistic subjects. Here, we integrate genome-wide measures of mRNA expression, miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation from ASD and control brains to identify a convergent molecular subtype of ASD with shared dysregulation across both the epigenome and transcriptome. Focusing on this convergent subtype, we substantially expand the repertoire of differentially expressed genes in ASD and identify a component of upregulated immune processes that are associated with hypomethylation. We utilize eQTL and chromosome conformation datasets to link differentially acetylated regions with their cognate genes and identify an enrichment of ASD genetic risk variants in hyperacetylated noncoding regulatory regions linked to neuronal genes. These findings help elucidate how diverse genetic risk factors converge onto specific molecular processes in ASD.

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14. Riccio A, Kapp SK, Jordan A, Dorelien AM, Gillespie-Lynch K. How is autistic identity in adolescence influenced by parental disclosure decisions and perceptions of autism ?. Autism ;2020 (Sep 24):1362361320958214.

There is a lot of research about how parents think about their child’s autism but we don’t know much about how parents talk with their kids about autism. How parents talk with their kids about autism may shape how kids see autism. A team of autistic and non-autistic people (including a mother of an autistic person) did a study. We wanted to know if how parents talk with their kids about autism shapes how their kids see autism. Nineteen teens from a summer camp did interviews and surveys. Their mothers did surveys. Teens learned about if they had autism in different ways. Some teens still didn’t know they were autistic. Teens whose moms chose to tell them about their autism talked about autism and themselves more positively than teens whose moms didn’t choose to talk with them about autism. Only teens whose moms chose to talk with them about autism described themselves as having social strengths. Teens had a harder time defining autism than moms. However, teens and moms talked about autism in similar ways. Our study shows that parents can help their kids see autism and themselves more positively by talking with their kids about autism early in development.

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15. Rieffe C, O’Connor R, Bülow A, Willems D, Hull L, Sedgewick F, Stockmann L, Blijd-Hoogewys E. Quantity and quality of empathic responding by autistic and non-autistic adolescent girls and boys. Autism ;2020 (Sep 24):1362361320956422.

Empathy is an important feature to feel for another person, evoking social support for the person in distress, and thus strengthening social cohesion. The question is to what extent empathic reactions can also be observed in autistic adolescents and autistic girls in particular, since their often mentioned good social skills might prevent their direct social environment from recognizing their autism. We examined 194 adolescents (autistic and non-autistic boys and girls) during an in vivo task in which the experimenter pretended to hurt herself while closing a binder. All responses by the participants were videotaped and coded by two independent coders. In line with our predictions, no group or gender differences appeared related to their attention for the event ; yet autistic girls and boys showed less visible emotional arousal, which could indicate less affective empathy (feeling for someone), or which could indicate that autistic adolescents know less well how to show empathy. Autistic girls and boys reacted by comforting the experimenter equally often as their non-autistic peers, but autistic boys addressed the problem more often than any other group, while girls (autistic and non-autistic) more often addressed the emotion of the person in need. Our findings highlight that empathic behaviour is remarkably similar between autistic and non-autistic boys and girls. Indeed, only subtle differences exist, in terms of expressed emotional arousal and gender-specific comforting styles. Autistic girls’ higher levels of emotion-focused comforting could be explained by well-developed social skills, camouflaging, or emotional investment in relationships with others.

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16. Samborska-Mazur J, Kostiukow A, Miechowicz I, Sikorska D, Rutkowski R, Wyganowska-Świątkowska M, Błochowiak K. Salivary Cytokine Profile as a Possible Predictor of Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Clin Med ;2020 (Sep 25) ;9(10)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by neurodevelopmental disorders and alterations in immune function and cytokine levels. The aim of this study is to determine the salivary levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), and Eotaxin in children with ASD and in healthy controlsto assess their predictive potential. We explored correlations between the cytokine levels and the neurodevelopmental disorders related to ASD. The study comprised 19 children with ASD and 19 typically developing (TD) ones. We analyzed salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1, RANTES, and eotaxin on Luminex with custom-designed 7-plex kits. The level of RANTES in ASD children was significantly lower than those of TD. In TDs, the salivary levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, and TNFα correlated positively with age. In ASD, the cytokine levels did not correlate with age. There were statistically significant differences between the RANTES level and aggression and gait disturbances, between IL-8 level and fixations/stimulations, and between IL-1β level and no active speech. The levels of the cytokine detected can manifest both systemic and local changes related to ASD. The cytokine pattern cannot be used as a sole ASD predictor, but the salivary levels may be helpful in categorizing the ASD subtype.

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17. Scott H, Harvey DJ, Li Y, McLennan YA, Johnston CK, Shickman R, Piven J, Schweitzer JB, Hessl D. Cognitive Training Deep Dive : The Impact of Child, Training Behavior and Environmental Factors within a Controlled Trial of Cogmed for Fragile X Syndrome. Brain Sci ;2020 (Sep 25) ;10(10)

Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit deficits in a variety of cognitive processes within the executive function domain. As working memory (WM) is known to support a wide range of cognitive, learning and adaptive functions, WM computer-based training programs have the potential to benefit people with FXS and other forms of intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). However, research on the effectiveness of WM training has been mixed. The current study is a follow-up "deep dive" into the data collected during a randomized controlled trial of Cogmed (Stockholm, Sweden) WM training in children with FXS. Analyses characterized the training data, identified training quality metrics, and identified subgroups of participants with similar training patterns. Child, parent, home environment and training quality metrics were explored in relation to the clinical outcomes during the WM training intervention. Baseline cognitive level and training behavior metrics were linked to gains in WM performance-based assessments and also to reductions in inattention and other behaviors related to executive functioning during the intervention. The results also support a recommendation that future cognitive intervention trials with individuals with IDD such as FXS include additional screening of participants to determine not only baseline feasibility, but also capacity for training progress over a short period prior to inclusion and randomization. This practice may also better identify individuals with IDD who are more likely to benefit from cognitive training in clinical and educational settings.

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18. Siddique A, Khan HF, Ali S, Abdullah A, Munir H, Ariff M. Estimation of Alpha-Synuclein Monomer and Oligomer Levels in the Saliva of the Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Possibility for an Early Diagnosis. Cureus ;2020 (Aug 22) ;12(8):e9936.

Background In degenerative brain diseases like Parkinson’s disease (PD), alpha-synuclein (a-syn) can be in its monomeric (a-syn-mono) or toxic oligomeric (a-syn-oligo) or as a total (a-syn-total) forms in the biological body fluids including saliva. Past research has observed major a-syn plasma variations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pointing toward brain degenerative components in their pathophysiology. No prior study has shown a-syn levels in ASD patients’ saliva. Objective This study estimates the levels of alpha-synuclein monomer (a-syn-mono) and alpha-synuclein oligomer (a-syn-oligo) in the saliva of ASD affected children so that saliva can be a method for detecting disorder. Materials and methods This cross-sectional, multi-center study was conducted in Islamic International Medical College, Autism Resource Centre (ARC), and Step-to-learn Rehabilitation center for the slow learner in Rawalpindi. The research was performed for one year from August 2018 to August 2019. Saliva samples from 80 children (40 ASD affected children, and 40 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls) were collected. Specific anti-alpha-synuclein monomers (anti-a-syn-mono) and anti-alpha-synuclein oligomers (anti-a-syn-oligo) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits analyzed the salivary samples. Mean ± SD were reported for quantitative data. The data between the two groups were compared using an independent t-test. The p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 80 children were included in the study (n=40 ASD affected, n=40 healthy controls). The age of participating children was between four and eight years. The mean alpha-synuclein monomer level in the saliva of ASD children was 92.03 ± 117.09 pg/ml (p≤0.05), and in healthy subjects was 186.78 ± 239.31 ρg/ml. The levels of alpha-synuclein oligomer in the saliva of patients with ASD children were 0.13 ± 0.05 ng/ml (p<0.001), and in the healthy subjects was 0.33 ± 0.26 ng/ml. Both alpha-synuclein monomer and alpha-synuclein oligomer levels were low in the saliva of ASD children. Conclusion Children with ASD had low levels of alpha-synuclein monomer and oligomer than healthy children which are unique than that of levels found in other degenerative brain diseases.

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19. Trilla I, Wnendt H, Dziobek I. Conditional effects of gaze on automatic imitation : the role of autistic traits. Sci Rep ;2020 (Sep 23) ;10(1):15512.

Establishing direct gaze has been shown to enhance the tendency to automatically imitate the other person’s actions, an effect that seems to be reduced in autism. Most previous studies, however, used experimental tasks that may have confounded the measurement of automatic imitation with spatial compatibility effects. This calls into question whether gaze cues regulate automatic imitation, or instead affect domain-general processes of response inhibition. Using a task that disentangled imitative from spatial compatibility effects, the current study re-examined the role of autistic traits on the modulation of automatic imitation by direct and averted gaze cues. While our results do not provide evidence for an overall significant influence of gaze on neither automatic imitation nor spatial compatibility, autistic traits were predictive of a reduced inhibition of imitative behaviour following averted gaze. Nonetheless, exploratory analyses suggested that the observed modulation by autistic traits may actually be better explained by the effects of concomitant social anxiety symptoms. In addition, the ethnicity of the imitated agent was identified as another potential modulator of the gaze effects on automatic imitation. Overall, our findings highlight the contextual nature of automatic imitation, but call for a reconsideration of the role of gaze on imitative behaviour.

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20. van ’t Hof M, Ester WA, van Berckelaer-Onnes I, Hillegers MHJ, Hoek HW, Jansen PW. Do early-life eating habits predict later autistic traits ? Results from a population-based study. Appetite ;2020 (Sep 21) ;156:104976.

Eating problems are common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but it is unknown to what extent infant eating behavior is associated with later autistic traits. As eating behavior is currently not included in ASD screening instruments, it is important to evaluate whether infant eating behavior predicts later autistic traits and might therefore be used to enhance the early detection of ASD. We investigated the association of breastfeeding and eating behavior during infancy with later autistic traits in the population-based Generation R cohort. We included 3546 mother-child dyads with maternal reports on feeding and eating at age two months and autistic traits at six years. Eating behavior was assessed with seven items on specific eating habits and the Social Responsiveness Scale was used to evaluate autistic traits. Covariates included child sex, and maternal psychopathology and autistic traits. Linear regression analyses showed that being formula fed at two months was associated with a higher autistic trait score at six years (adjusted B = 0.07 ; 95% CI : 0.00-0.14). Children who were drinking only small quantities (adjusted B = 0.17, 95% CI : 0.04-0.30) and were hungry/not satisfied (adjusted B = 0.23, 95% CI : 0.08-0.39) at age two months also had a higher autistic traits score at age six years. We found no interactions with sex or breastfeeding. This study shows that eating behavior during infancy is related with autistic traits in childhood. Although the associations were fairly small, these findings suggest that early-life eating problems might be relevant for early detection of ASD and a potential addition to ASD-specific screening instruments.

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21. Vasa RA, Keefer A, McDonald RG, Hunsche MC, Kerns CM. A Scoping Review of Anxiety in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2020 (Sep 25)

Research on anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has burgeoned in the past 15 years. Most of the research has focused on school-age children, ages 6 to 18 years. Yet, recent studies suggest that anxiety can emerge in young children, under 6 years, with ASD. This scoping review synthesized the literature on anxiety in young children with ASD. Three domains of anxiety research were reviewed : (a) prevalence/severity, phenomenology, and course ; (b) correlates ; and (c) treatment. Four online databases were searched from the start of the database until March 2020. Keywords pertaining to anxiety, autism, and young children were entered. The search identified 44 articles for inclusion. These studies varied with respect to sample source, informants, and measures to assess anxiety. The overall prevalence of anxiety ranged from 1.6 to 62%. Sixteen of 17 studies found that young children with ASD had higher levels of anxiety compared to various control groups. A variety of DSM anxiety symptoms and disorders were present in young children with the most common symptoms being specific, social, and generalized fears. Correlates of anxiety included sensory over-responsivity, sleep disturbance, aggression/defiance, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Three cognitive behavioral treatment studies for anxiety and one developmental intervention targeting ASD symptoms showed promise in reducing anxiety. Findings indicate an early emergence of anxiety in some children with ASD. Further research on the measurement, pathophysiology, and treatment of anxiety in early childhood is critical to improving outcomes in children with ASD. LAY SUMMARY : This scoping review synthesizes the literature on anxiety in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicate that children with ASD have higher levels of anxiety than children without ASD. Potential factors that could be contributing to anxiety include sensory, sleep, and behavioral problems. Preliminary studies show that anxiety can improve with cognitive behavioral treatment. These findings suggest that research on anxiety in young children with ASD should be prioritized to improve mental health outcomes.

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22. Zhou HY, Yang HX, Shi LJ, Lui SSY, Cheung EFC, Chan RCK. Correlations Between Audiovisual Temporal Processing and Sensory Responsiveness in Adolescents with Autistic Traits. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 25)

Atypical sensory processing has recently gained much research interest as a key domain of autistic symptoms. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in processing the temporal aspects of sensory inputs, and show altered behavioural responses to sensory stimuli (i.e., sensory responsiveness). The present study examined the relation between sensory responsiveness (assessed by the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile) and audiovisual temporal integration (measured by unisensory temporal order judgement (TOJ) tasks and audiovisual simultaneity judgement (SJ) tasks) in typically-developing adolescents (n = 94). We found that adolescents with higher levels of autistic traits exhibited more difficulties in separating visual stimuli in time (i.e., larger visual TOJ threshold) and showed a stronger bias to perceive sound-leading audiovisual pairings as simultaneous. Regarding the associations between different measures of sensory function, reduced visual temporal acuity, but not auditory or multisensory temporal processing, was significantly correlated with more atypical patterns of sensory responsiveness. Furthermore, the positive correlation between visual TOJ thresholds and sensory avoidance was only found in adolescents with relatively high levels of autistic traits, but not in those with relatively low levels of autistic traits. These findings suggest that reduced visual temporal acuity may contribute to altered sensory experiences and may be linked to broader behavioural characteristics of ASD.

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Formation à l'état des connaissances de l'autisme {JPEG}

4-Accéder au Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes (LAARA)

Prenez connaissance du Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes, projet de répertoire régional des structures médico-sociales. En cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquer pour accéder au LAARA