Pubmed du 30/09/20

mercredi 30 septembre 2020

1. Abraham S, Owen-De Schryver J, VanderMolen J. Assessing the Effectiveness and Use of Bibliotherapy Implementation Among Children with Autism by Board-Certified Behavior Analysts. J Autism Dev Disord ;2020 (Sep 30)

Bibliotherapy is the use of reading supplements as a form of therapy and children with autism are a population that could benefit significantly from the implementation of such treatment. Board-Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) are instrumental in creating a curriculum to shape the behavior of those with autism. This study surveyed BCBAs throughout the United States on their use and knowledge of bibliotherapy, as well as different practices related to its utilization. Overall, 89 BCBAs responded to the survey. Results revealed that BCBAs who used bibliotherapy did not have previous knowledge of the practice. BCBAs who did implement bibliotherapy did not have formal training. Further research is necessary to better understand bibliotherapy as a potential resource for children with autism.

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2. Fahy R, Corbett M, Keogh I. Improving peri-operative psychosocial interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder undergoing ENT procedures. J Laryngol Otol ;2020 (Sep 30):1-7.

OBJECTIVES : Children with autism spectrum disorder face a broad range of communication and sensory challenges. Many of these children also have chronic ENT issues. This study aims to better understand these challenges and improve our services for children with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS : Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out with parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. RESULTS : Thirty-four individuals participated, comprising 9 caregivers and 25 staff members. All parents recognised their critical roles in understanding their children’s special needs and sensitivities. Parents and staff stressed the importance of a partnership role that inquired about unique needs, leading to environmental modifications for individual children. CONCLUSION : The importance of listening to and involving caregivers is a fundamental tenet ; parents must be recognised as the experts. Uncertainty must be kept to a minimum, with clear communication in a structured, low-arousal environment for these children. We have listened to parents and staff, and developed a social story.

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3. Kaas TH, Vinding RK, Stokholm J, Bønnelykke K, Bisgaard H, Chawes BL. Association between childhood asthma and attention deficit hyperactivity or autism spectrum disorders : a systematic review with meta-analysis. Clin Exp Allergy ;2020 (Sep 30)

BACKGROUND : Children with asthma are at risk of depression and anxiety and growing evidence suggest they may also be at risk of attention deficit hyperreactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies investigating association between asthma and ADHD or ASD in children. METHODS : A comprehensive search using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases was completed in March 2019. Observational human studies published in English, clinic-based or population-based with a healthy comparator group, evaluating asthma-ADHD or asthma-ASD overlap in children 18 years or younger using categorical diagnoses (yes/no) were considered for inclusion. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to analyse data. The Newcastle Ottawa tool was used to evaluate risk of bias. RESULTS : A total of 25 asthma-ADHD studies were included of which 17 showed significant positive associations and one a negative association : 17/25 studies were population-based, 19/25 were cross-sectional or cohort studies and 7/25 had a low risk of bias. We performed a meta-analysis of 23 of the studies, which showed a significant association between asthma and ADHD : odds ratio (OR) 1.52 (1.42-1.63), p<0.001, I2=60%. All studies were adjusted for age and sex and a large proportion, i.e. 19/23 were further adjusted for relevant confounders. Seventeen asthma-ASD studies were included, whereof 7 showed a positive association and 3 a negative association 8/17 were population-based with a cross-sectional study design and 4/17 had a low risk of bias. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 of the studies did not show a significant association between asthma and ASD : OR 1.12 (0.93-1.34), p=0.24, I2=89%. All studies were adjusted for age and sex and 10/14 were further adjusted for relevant confounders. CONCLUSIONS : This systematic review with meta-analyses show a significant overlap between asthma and ADHD, but not between asthma and ASD in children. Clinicians taking care of children with asthma or ADHD should be aware of such association to aid an early diagnosis and treatment of such comorbidity.

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4. Kalmbach BE, Brager DH. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein modulates somatic D-type K(+) channels and action potential threshold in the mouse prefrontal cortex. J Neurophysiol ;2020 (Sep 30)

Axo-somatic K(+) channels control action potential output in part by acting in concert with voltage-gated Na(+)channels to set action potential threshold. Slowly inactivating, D-type K(+) channels are enriched at the axo-somatic region of cortical pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex where they regulate action potential firing. We previously demonstrated that D-type K(+) channels are down regulated in extratelencephalic-projecting (ET) L5 neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of the fmr1 knockout mouse model of Fragile X syndrome (FX mice), resulting in a hyperpolarized action potential threshold. To test whether K(+) channel alterations are regulated in a cell autonomous manner in FXS, we used a viral-mediated approach to restore expression of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in a small population of prefrontal neurons in male FX mice. Outside-out voltage clamp recordings revealed a higher D-type K(+) conductance in FMRP-positive ET neurons compared to nearby FMRP-negative ET neurons. FMRP did not affect either rapidly inactivating A-type or non-inactivating K(+) conductance. ET neuron patches recorded with FMRP(1-298), a truncated form of FMRP which lacks mRNA binding domains, included in the pipette solution had larger D-type K(+) conductance compared to heat-inactivated controls. Viral expression of FMRP in FX mice depolarized action potential threshold to near wild type levels in ET neurons. These results suggest that FMRP influences the excitability of ET neurons in the mPFC by regulating somatic D-type K(+) channels in a cell autonomous, protein-protein dependent manner.

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5. Menear KS, Ernest JM. Comparison of Physical Activity, TV/Video Watching/Gaming, and Usage of a Portable Electronic Devices by Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Matern Child Health J ;2020 (Sep 30)

OBJECTIVE : Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participate in less physical activity (PA) and more sedentary behavior than their peers without ASD. METHODS : The study employed Chi-square analyses of the NSCH 2016-2017 data to compare PA, TV/video watching/gaming, and usage of portable electronic devices by children with and without ASD by age and ASD severity. RESULTS : Results suggest more than two and a half times as many children 6-11 and 12-17 years old with ASD failed to engage in 60 min of PA during the past week compared to peers without ASD. As children aged, their PA time decreased, with a larger percentage drop for children with ASD. For children ages 6-11 years, an inverse relationship was found between PA and ASD severity that was not found for older children. As the children got older, children with ASD spent more time watching TV/video watching/gaming than peers without ASD, with differing results by ASD severity. More children Birth to 5 years ASD used portable electronic devices than their peers without ASD and more young children with ASD used devices for 3 or more hours a day. Roughly the same proportions of children 12-17 years old used devices for more than 3 h a day but differential results were found between children with and without ASD for less than 1 h of device use. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE : These data can be used to advocate for individualized PA interventions and services to increase PA and decrease sedentary behaviors of children with ASD.

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6. Moseley RL, Druce T, Turner-Cobb JM. Autism research is ’all about the blokes and the kids’ : Autistic women breaking the silence on menopause. Br J Health Psychol ;2020 (Sep 30)

OBJECTIVES : The menopause is a major transition marked by considerable challenges to health and well-being. Its impact on autistic women has been almost largely ignored but is of significant concern, given the poorer physical and mental health, emotion regulation and coping skills, and the common social isolation of this group. We aimed to explore awareness and perception of the menopause ; menopausal experiences and their impact across each individual’s life ; ways that menopause with autism might differ from a non-autistic menopause ; and what optimal support might look like. DESIGN : A qualitative interview study. METHODS : Comprehensive interviews were conducted with 17 autistic participants (16 of whom identified as cisgender women). Inductive thematic analysis was used, guided by IPA principles and literature. RESULTS : Four major themes were identified : (1) covering the long journey of our participants to recognizing autism in adulthood ; (2) menopausal awareness and perceptions ; (3) symptoms and their impact ; and (4) ways that a neurodiverse menopause might differ from the norm. Menopausal experiences varied greatly and some participants experienced marked deterioration in daily function and coping skills, mental health, and social engagement. Menopausal awareness was often low, so too was confidence in help from health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS : These findings implicate the potential for menopause to severely compromise health and well-being of autistic people and indicate an area of underserved support needs.

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7. Neave-DiToro D, Fuse A, Bergen M. Knowledge and Awareness of Ear Protection Devices for Sound Sensitivity by Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ;2020 (Sep 30):1-17.

Purpose Sensitivity to sounds and atypical reactions to sensory input by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported in the literature. In response to this sensitivity, some individuals use ear protection devices (EPDs) such as noise-canceling headphones, earplugs, or earmuffs to attenuate the perceived unpleasant sounds. Given the communication deficits often noted in this population and the essential role of hearing in speech and language development, the impact of wearing EPDs to attenuate sound needs to be explored. The purpose of this study was to obtain information from various stakeholders regarding their opinions about use of EPDs in individuals with ASD and perceived benefits and possible concerns of EPD use. Method A survey was constructed to assess the opinions of speech-language pathologists, audiologists, teachers, and graduate students about EPDs among individuals with ASD. A total of 255 professionals and graduate students completed the survey. Results The vast majority of respondents indicated a level of awareness of EPDs within this population. Regarding observed use of such devices, the majority of participants (66%) reported observing individuals with ASD using EPDs. The most commonly used devices observed were headphones (91%), followed by earmuffs (44%) and earplugs (33%). Respondents who had experience recommending and/or using EPDs with individuals with ASD were asked to report on major reasons why the devices were used and the perceived benefits and possible negative effects. Conclusions There appears to be uncertainty among various stakeholders of the benefits and possible negative effects of EPD use by individuals with ASD. Additionally, there is a dearth of research in this area, and the necessity for specific guidelines for recommending and monitoring EPD use is indicated.

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8. Rabba AS, Dissanayake C, Barbaro J. Development of a Web-Based Resource for Parents of Young Children Newly Diagnosed With Autism : Participatory Research Design. JMIR Pediatr Parent ;2020 (Sep 30) ;3(2):e15786.

BACKGROUND : The internet provides an ideal avenue to share information, advice, and support regarding autism. However, many websites lack quality control and rarely provide a one-stop resource for families to access necessary, evidence-based information. OBJECTIVE : This study aims to use participatory action research (PAR) with end users (ie, parents) and clinicians to develop a web-based resource (Pathways Beyond Diagnosis) to improve timely access to quality, evidence-based information, and support for families after their child is diagnosed with autism. METHODS : The PAR approach involves 4 phases : (1) cooperative researcher-stakeholder planning, (2) cooperative researcher-stakeholder-based action, (3) stakeholder observation, and (4) cooperative researcher-stakeholder reflection. A total of 15 participants (parents, n=3 ; clinicians, n=9 ; and researchers, n=3) attended individual or group participatory design workshops. This was followed by the translation of knowledge and ideas generated during the workshops to produce mockups of webpages and content, rapid prototyping, and one-on-one consultations with end users to assess the usability of the website developed. RESULTS : A total of 3 participatory design workshops were held with the participants, each followed by a knowledge translation session. At the end of the PAR cycle, an alpha prototype of the website was built and a series of one-on-one end user consultation sessions were conducted. The PAR cycle revealed the importance of 6 key topic areas (understanding autism, accessing services, support, gaining funding, putting it all together, and looking into the future) associated with the time of diagnosis, which were incorporated into the beta version of the website. CONCLUSIONS : The development of the Pathways Beyond Diagnosis website using PAR ensures that families have ready access to practical and evidence-based information following a young child’s diagnosis. The website guides families to access relevant, reputable, and evidence-based information in addition to summarizing key challenges encountered after diagnosis (ie, grief, sharing the diagnosis) and the importance of self-care.

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