Pubmed du 23/12/20

mercredi 23 décembre 2020

1. Aldersey HM, Ahmed AN, Tesfamichael HN, Lotoski N. Needs of families of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Addis Ababa. African journal of disability. 2020 ; 9 : 735.

BACKGROUND : Family support is an essential component of caring for children with intellectual or developmental disability (IDD), however, specific family support needs in developing countries, such as Ethiopia, have received minimal attention in the literature to date. OBJECTIVES : This study sought to understand the specific disability-related support needs of families with children with IDD in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We answered the following questions : (1) How do family members of children with IDD in the Mekaneyesus Centre in Addis Ababa currently meet their disability-related support needs ? ; (2) what are these family members’ most pressing unmet disability-related needs ? and (3) how do family members perceive their capacity to meet their support needs ? METHOD : This study drew from an exploratory qualitative descriptive approach with 16 family members of children with IDD, recruited from a centre for children with IDD. We conducted semi-structured interviews in Amharic. We transcribed and translated interviews into English and guided by a conceptual framework for family support from Kyzar et al. (2012), we thematically analysed the data. RESULTS : Participants identified instrumental and emotional needs to be most prominent, with additional discussion around various physical and informational needs. Participants identified childcare as the most significant unmet need, which resulted in the loss of various important life roles. The participants discussed major sources of support coming from spirituality, family members and community. Stigma emerged as a critical family support theme external to the Kyzar et al. (2012) classifications of family support. CONCLUSION : Although family members are adapting and responding to meet their needs in the best way they can, additional support, particularly related to childcare and future planning, is essential.

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2. Ayaydin H, Akaltun İ, Koyuncu İ, Çelİk H, Kİrmİt A, Takatak H. High KEAP1, NRF2 and Low HO-1 Serum Levels in Children with Autism. Noro Psikiyatr Ars. 2020 ; 57(4) : 274-9.

INTRODUCTION : The purpose of our study was to investigate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to reveal their association with the severity of autism. METHODS : This study measured serum HO-1, KEAP1, and NRF2 levels in 43 patients with ASD (aged 3-12 years) and in 41 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. ASD severity was rated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). HO-1, KEAP1, and NRF2 levels were determined in the biochemistry laboratory using the ELISA technique. RESULTS : HO-1 levels were significantly lower in patients aged 3-12 years compared to controls aged 3-12, while KEAP1 and NRF2 levels were significantly higher (p=0.020, p<0.001, and p=0.017, respectively). No correlation was determined between ASD severity on the basis of total CARS scores and HO-1, KEAP1 or NRF2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSION : This study suggests that oxidative stress is higher in children with ASD and that HO-1 levels are insufficient to achieve oxidative balance.

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3. Corbett BA, Muscatello RA, Kim A, Patel K, Vandekar S. Developmental effects in physiological stress in early adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020 ; 125 : 105115.

INTRODUCTION : Humans place high value on how they are socially evaluated by others. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established measure of social evaluative threat that promotes activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and release of cortisol. Higher cortisol responses in typically developing (TD) adolescents are influenced by age and pubertal development especially in later stages. Children with ASD have been shown to exhibit blunted cortisol in response to the TSST although adults with ASD show a more prototypical response. The current study examined physiological stress in early adolescents with ASD and TD. It was hypothesized that TD youth would show elevated cortisol in response to the TSST influenced by age and pubertal stage. In contrast, youth with ASD would show a more diminished stress response yet still show effects for age and pubertal development METHODS : The sample included 241 youth, 138 with ASD (median age=11.25) and 103 TD (median age=11.67). Standardized diagnostic and pubertal development (genital/breast (GB), and pubic hair (PH) stage) physical exams were performed. Salivary cortisol was collected before and after the TSST. Linear mixed effects models examined the effects of baseline cortisol, time, age, sex, pubertal stage, and diagnosis. RESULTS : We did not find an effect of early pubertal development stage (GB or PH) on cortisol response. There was an interaction between age and TSST timepoint, showing stronger effects for older children across the timeline especially during the stressor. Finally, there was a significant diagnosis by TSST timepoint interaction characterized by a blunted cortisol stress response in youth with ASD compared to TD participants who showed higher cortisol. DISCUSSION : We found evidence that age contributes to an increase in cortisol in response to social evaluative threat during early adolescence. TD youth exhibit an adaptive elevated stress response to psychosocial threat whereas youth with ASD do not. There may exist a developmental lag in the perception of and stress responsivity to social evaluation which may emerge in older adolescents with ASD.

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4. Govindan R, Ramu R. Nurses’ Knowledge and Understanding about Autism. Indian journal of community medicine : official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2020 ; 45(3) : 382-3.

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5. Lee CE, Day TL, Carter EW, Taylor JL. Examining Growth Among College Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disability : A Longitudinal Study. Behav Modif. 2020 : 145445520982968.

Inclusive postsecondary education programs for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are proliferating across the United States. Although college can be a formative time for any student, there has been limited research on the growth that college students with IDD may experience during their time on campus. We address this gap by using a longitudinal design to examine the adaptive behavior, self-determination, executive functioning, and social skills of college students with IDD across three points in time-upon initial entry into the program, at the end of their first year, and at the end of their second year. Analyses suggested significant improvements in adaptive behavior and self-determination across the first year of the program. We offer recommendations for research and practice aimed at documenting and promoting growth for students with IDD throughout their collegiate experience.

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6. Leshem R, Bar-Oz B, Diav-Citrin O, Gbaly S, Soliman J, Renoux C, Matok I. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) During Pregnancy and the Risk for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Offspring : a True Effect or a Bias ? A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, NY). 2020 ; 97 : 3.

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7. Pierson LM, Thompson JL, Ganz JB, Wattanawongwan S, Haas AN, Yllades V. Coaching Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities to Implement a Modified Dialogic Reading Intervention Using Low Technology via Telepractice. American journal of speech-language pathology. 2020 : 1-18.

Purpose Storybook reading provides a naturalistic context to promote bonding and increase oral communication between the reader and child. This study investigated the impact of modified dialogic reading procedures, which included a prompting component on the language skills of children with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome in the children’s homes. Method A multiple-probe-across-participants design was used to investigate the efficacy of the intervention for this population. Parent training and coaching were provided via telepractice. Maintenance and generalization sessions were also conducted. Results A functional relation was observed between parent implementation and telepractice coaching. Conclusion While the child responses to comprehension questions did not change, changes in the parent implementation of modified dialogic reading procedures in response to coaching via telepractice were noted in this study. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13382831.

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8. Sapiets SJ, Totsika V, Hastings RP. Factors influencing access to early intervention for families of children with developmental disabilities : A narrative review. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2020.

BACKGROUND : Early intervention (EI) can improve a range of outcomes for families of children with developmental disabilities. However, research indicates the level of access does not always match the level of need. To address disparities, it is essential to identify factors influencing access. METHOD : We propose a framework where access to EI is conceptualised as a process that includes three main phases. A narrative review examined potential barriers, facilitators and modifiers of access for each phase. RESULTS : The process of access to EI includes the following : 1) recognition of need, 2) identification or diagnosis and 3) EI provision or receipt. Several factors affecting access to EI for each phase were identified, related to the family, services, the intersection between family and services, and the context. CONCLUSION : A broad range of factors appear to influence the process of access to EI for this population. Our framework can be used in future research investigating access. Broad implications for policy, practice and future research to improve access to EI are discussed.

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9. Thorley J. Autism spectrum disorder : a day in the life. The Lancet Child & adolescent health. 2021 ; 5(1) : 16.

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10. Verdugo MA, Aguayo V, Arias VB, García-Domínguez L. A Systematic Review of the Assessment of Support Needs in People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 ; 17(24).

An evaluation of support needs is fundamental to the provision of services to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Services should be organized by considering the support that people need to improve their quality of life and enforce their rights as citizens. This systematic review is conducted to analyze the rigor and usefulness of the available standardized tools for assessing support needs, as well as the uses of their results. Several databases were consulted, including Web of Sciences, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest Central, PsycInfo, ERIC, and CINAHL, and the 86 documents that met the review criteria were organized into four sections : (a) measurement tools, (b) descriptive/correlational studies, (c) predictive studies, and (d) interventions. The results showed that age, level of intellectual disability, adaptive behavior skills, the number and type of associated disabilities, and medical and behavioral needs affected the support needs of people with disabilities. Quality of life outcomes have been predicted by the individual’s support needs, explaining a significant percentage of their variability. The findings are useful in guiding assessments and planning interventions. Further research should address the effectiveness of specific support strategies and the development of social policies and indicators for inclusion that involve assessing support needs.

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