Pubmed du 23/01/21

samedi 23 janvier 2021

1. Acar S, Chen CI, Xie H. Parental involvement in developmental disabilities across three cultures : A systematic review. Res Dev Disabil ;2021 (Jan 19) ;110:103861.

BACKGROUND : Parents play a critical role in the early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) services provided to young children (birth-6 years) with developmental disabilities. AIM : The aim of this systematic review was to explore parental involvement in developmental disabilities across three cultures : Mainland China, Taiwan, and Turkey. METHOD : According to PRISMA guidelines, we searched for articles indexed in EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, and PubMed published within the last decade for one culture (i.e., Mainland China, Taiwan, and Turkey), using the following keywords : family/parent involvement/engagement, developmental disability/disabilities, young child/children, EI/ECSE, and culture. RESULTS : Twenty-four empirical studies were identified as relevant to our research. A majority of articles reported maternal involvement in EI/ECSE, and only a few studies included parents as intervention agents. CONCLUSIONS : This review highlights the need for future research to investigate effects of culture on parental involvement and develop culturally responsive methodical approaches to underpin meaningful parental involvement in EI/ECSE.

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2. Ben-Ari Y, Lemonnier E. Using bumetanide to treat autism appears promising but further clinical trials are needed to confirm this approach. Acta Paediatr ;2021 (Jan 23)

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3. Durbin A, Jung JKH, Chung H, Lin E, Balogh R, Lunsky Y. Health and service use of newcomers and other adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities : A population-based study. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2021 (Jan 22)

BACKGROUND : This study examines newcomers with intellectual and developmental disabilities compared to other adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Ontario, Canada. METHODS : This population-based retrospective cohort study used linked health and social services administrative data to identify adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities as newcomers, or non-newcomers, and compared their health status and health service outcomes. RESULTS : Among those with intellectual and developmental disabilities, compared to non-newcomers, newcomers generally had lower or similar rates of health issues, except for higher rates of psychosis. Newcomers also had slightly greater use of community-based health services, but less hospital use. CONCLUSION : Trends among those with the intellectual and developmental disabilities were consistent with general population trends ; newcomers had lower rates of many health issues and lower hospital use. It also underscores the value of understanding drivers of heterogeneity within newcomers, such as the circumstances of admission and settlement in their new country.

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4. Fong VC, Gardiner E, Iarocci G. Cross-cultural perspectives on the meaning of family quality of life : Comparing Korean immigrant families and Canadian families of children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2021 (Jan 22):1362361321989221.

The purpose of this study was to compare Korean immigrant families and Canadian families of children with autism in their perceptions and definitions of family quality of life. Interviews were done with 13 Korean immigrant parents and 12 Canadian parents of children with autism living in BC, Canada. For Korean immigrant families, three themes were identified : family cohesiveness, value orientation, and acceptance from society. For Canadian families, themes comprising family interactions, support, emotional well-being, individual characteristics, and comparisons to other families were essential elements in defining their family quality of life. The findings emphasize how differences in culture may impact how we understand and assess family functioning and quality of life. If research informing the development of these tools lacks cross-cultural perspectives, service providers and professionals may fail to address these families’ unique needs.

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5. Hedley D, Uljarević M, Cai RY, Bury SM, Stokes MA, Evans DW. Domains of the autism phenotype, cognitive control, and rumination as transdiagnostic predictors of DSM-5 suicide risk. PLoS One ;2021 ;16(1):e0245562.

Suicide is a global health problem affecting both normative and clinical populations. Theoretical models that examine mechanisms underlying suicide risk across heterogeneous samples are needed. The present study explored core characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a sub-population at high risk of suicide, as well as two dimensional cognitive constructs, as potential transdiagnostic predictors of suicidal ideation in a clinically diverse sample. Participants (n = 1851, 62% female) aged 18 to 89 years completed online questionnaires assessing : social communication difficulties ; insistence on sameness ; cognitive control ; and rumination. Forty-three percent of participants reported the presence of at least one neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder. One third of the sample reported some suicidal ideation (SI), and 40 percent met the threshold for concern for depression. All hypothesized constructs were associated with SI and depression and, with the exception of rumination, contributed significantly to SI. Participants reporting SI returned significantly higher social communication difficulties and insistence on sameness, and lower levels of cognitive control than those reporting no-SI. The study was limited by the use of a cross-sectional sample assessed with self-report measures. All diagnoses were self-reported and the study was additionally limited by the use of a single item indicator of suicidal ideation. These findings support a role for constructs associated with the ASD phenotype and associated broad cognitive domains as potential risk factors underlying suicidal ideation in a large clinically diverse sample. Our findings suggest directions for future longitudinal research studies, along with specific targets for suicide prevention and clinical practice.

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6. Ho RYF, Zhang D, Chan SKC, Gao TT, Lee EKP, Lo HHM, Au Yeung P, Lai KYC, Bögels SM, de Bruin EI, Wong SYS. Brief Report : Mindfulness Training for Chinese Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Parents in Hong Kong. J Autism Dev Disord ;2021 (Jan 23)

This study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a concurrent mindfulness program (MYmind) on Chinese adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents in Hong Kong, China using a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group. Results showed the study had 80% compliance rate, 0% dropout rate, and 89% response rate. Between-group comparisons showed mindfulness had trend effects on parent’s rumination (g = 1.16), mindful parenting (d = 0.6), parenting style (d = 0.59), and parenting stress (d = 0.5). The study demonstrated the feasibility of the MYmind program in the Chinese context. A larger trial with longer follow-up period is suggested to better examine the effect of mindfulness on adolescents with ASD and their parents.

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7. Ijaz S, Rafaq F, Haider SI. Parent training for Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Pak Med Assoc ;2021 (Jan) ;71(1(A)):31-36.

OBJECTIVE : The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of behaviour therapy training to mothers of autistic children on verbal and non-verbal improvement of their children. METHODS : A total of 33 mothers of autistic children were selected for training based on non-probability purposive sampling procedure. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Knowledge Scale was used to assess mothers’ knowledge about autism and Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale was used for assessment of the communication skill in autistic children. RESULTS : This study revealed that behaviour therapy training significantly improved communication skills of children with autism by training mothers. The results of paired t-test revealed that trained mothers developed improved communication skills. CONCLUSIONS : These results showed improvement in communication skills of autistic children whose mothers were trained in behaviour therapy.

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8. Indumathy J, Pruitt A, Gautier NM, Crane K, Glasscock E. Kv1.1 deficiency alters repetitive and social behaviors in mice and rescues autistic-like behaviors due to Scn2a haploinsufficiency. Brain Behav ;2021 (Jan 23):e02041.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy are highly comorbid, suggesting potential overlap in genetic etiology, pathophysiology, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities ; however, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. This work investigated how two ion channel mutations, one associated with autism (Scn2a-null) and one with epilepsy (Kcna1-null), interact to modify genotype-phenotype relationships in the context of autism. Previous studies have shown that Scn2a(+/-) ameliorates epilepsy in Kcna1(-/-) mice, improving survival, seizure characteristics, and brain-heart dynamics. Here, we tested the converse, whether Kcna1 deletion modifies ASD-like repetitive and social behaviors in Scn2a(+/-) mice. METHODS : Mice were bred with various combinations of Kcna1 and Scn2a knockout alleles. Animals were assessed for repetitive behaviors using marble burying, grooming, and nestlet shredding tests and for social behaviors using sociability and social novelty preference tests. RESULTS : Behavioral testing revealed drastic reductions in all repetitive behaviors in epileptic Kcna1(-/-) mice, but relatively normal social interactions. In contrast, mice with partial Kcna1 deletion (Kcna1(+/-) ) exhibited increased self-grooming and decreased sociability suggestive of ASD-like features similar to those observed in Scn2a(+/-) mice. In double-mutant Scn2a(+/-) ; Kcna1(+/-) mice, the two mutations interacted to partially normalize ASD-like behaviors associated with each mutation independently. CONCLUSIONS : Taken together, these findings suggest that Kv1.1 subunits are important in pathways and neural networks underlying ASD and that Kcna1 may be a therapeutic target for treatment of Scn2a-associated ASD.

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9. Keklik D, Nazik E. Knowledge about childhood autism among nurses in Turkey : A cross-sectional descriptive study. Perspect Psychiatr Care ;2021 (Jan 23)

PURPOSE : The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that nurses possess about childhood autism. DESIGN AND METHODS : This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 278 nurses. A personal information form, which was created by the present researchers, and Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers questionnaire were used to collect data. FINDINGS : The mean knowledge level was 12.29 ± 3.19. There was a significant difference in total scale scores as a function of participation in a training program on childhood autism and acquaintance with a person with autism. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS : Nurses play an important role in the early diagnosis of childhood autism. Therefore, they should be educated about childhood autism.

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10. Kissine M, Geelhand P, Philippart De Foy M, Harmegnies B, Deliens G. Phonetic Inflexibility in Autistic Adults. Autism Res ;2021 (Jan 23)

This study examined whether the atypical speech style that is frequently reported in autistic adults is underpinned by an inflexible production of phonetic targets. In a first task, 20 male autistic adults and 20 neuro-typicals had to read and produce native vowels. To assess the extent to which phonetic inflexibility is due to an overall fine-grained control of phonetic behavior or to a lack of flexibility in the realization of one’s phonological repertoire, the second task asked participants to reproduce artificial vowel-like sounds. Results confirmed the presence of a greater articulatory stability in the production of native vowels in autistic adults. When instructed to imitate artificial vowel-like sounds, the autistic group did not better approximate the targets’ acoustic properties relative to neuro-typicals but their performance at reproducing artificial vowels was less variable and influenced to a greater extent by the articulatory properties of their own vocalic space. These findings suggest that the greater articulatory stability observed in autistic adults arises from a lack of flexibility in the production of their own native vowels. The two phonetic tasks are devoid of any pragmatic constraint, which indicates that phonetic inflexibility in autism is partly independent of register selection. LAY SUMMARY : Autistic and neuro-typical adults took part in two tasks : one in which they produced vowels from French, their native tongue, and the other where they imitated unfamiliar vowels. Autistic adults displayed significantly less variation in their production of different French vowels. In imitating unfamiliar vowels, they were more influenced by the way they pronounce French vowels. These results suggest that the atypical speech style, frequently attested in autistic individuals, could stem from an unusually stable pronunciation of speech sounds.

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11. Kuschner ES, Kim M, Bloy L, Dipiero M, Edgar JC, Roberts TPL. MEG-PLAN : a clinical and technical protocol for obtaining magnetoencephalography data in minimally verbal or nonverbal children who have autism spectrum disorder. J Neurodev Disord ;2021 (Jan 23) ;13(1):8.

BACKGROUND : Neuroimaging research on individuals who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has historically been limited primarily to those with age-appropriate cognitive and language performance. Children with limited abilities are frequently excluded from such neuroscience research given anticipated barriers like tolerating the loud sounds associated with magnetic resonance imaging and remaining still during data collection. To better understand brain function across the full range of ASD there is a need to (1) include individuals with limited cognitive and language performance in neuroimaging research (non-sedated, awake) and (2) improve data quality across the performance range. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and test the feasibility of a clinical/behavioral and technical protocol for obtaining magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. Participants were 38 children with ASD (8-12 years) meeting the study definition of minimally verbal/nonverbal language. MEG data were obtained during a passive pure-tone auditory task. RESULTS : Based on stakeholder feedback, the MEG Protocol for Low-language/cognitive Ability Neuroimaging (MEG-PLAN) was developed, integrating clinical/behavioral and technical components to be implemented by an interdisciplinary team (clinicians, behavior specialists, scientists, and technologists). Using MEG-PLAN, a 74% success rate was achieved for acquiring MEG data, with a 71% success rate for evaluable and analyzable data. Exploratory analyses suggested nonverbal IQ and adaptive skills were related to reaching the point of acquirable data. No differences in group characteristics were observed between those with acquirable versus evaluable/analyzable data. Examination of data quality (evaluable trial count) was acceptable. Moreover, results were reproducible, with high intraclass correlation coefficients for pure-tone auditory latency. CONCLUSIONS : Children who have ASD who are minimally verbal/nonverbal, and often have co-occurring cognitive impairments, can be effectively and comfortably supported to complete an electrophysiological exam that yields valid and reproducible results. MEG-PLAN is a protocol that can be disseminated and implemented across research teams and adapted across technologies and neurodevelopmental disorders to collect electrophysiology and neuroimaging data in previously understudied groups of individuals.

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12. Lidstone DE, Rochowiak R, Mostofsky SH, Nebel MB. A Data Driven Approach Reveals That Anomalous Motor System Connectivity is Associated With the Severity of Core Autism Symptoms. Autism Res ;2021 (Jan 22)

This study examined whether disruptions in connectivity involving regions critical for learning, planning, and executing movements are relevant to core autism symptoms. Spatially constrained ICA was performed using resting-state fMRI from 419 children (autism spectrum disorder (ASD) = 105 ; typically developing (TD) = 314) to identify functional motor subdivisions. Comparing the spatial organization of each subdivision between groups, we found voxels that contributed significantly less to the right posterior cerebellar component in children with ASD versus TD (P <0.001). Next, we examined the effect of diagnosis on right posterior cerebellar connectivity with all other motor subdivisions. The model was significant (P = 0.014) revealing that right posterior cerebellar connectivity with bilateral dorsomedial primary motor cortex was, on average, stronger in children with ASD, while right posterior cerebellar connectivity with left-inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral dorsolateral premotor cortex, and supplementary motor area was stronger in TD children (all P ≤0.02). We observed a diagnosis-by-connectivity interaction such that for children with ASD, elevated social-communicative and excessive repetitive-behavior symptom severity were both associated with right posterior cerebellar-left-IPL hypoconnectivity (P ≤0.001). Right posterior cerebellar and left-IPL are strongly implicated in visuomotor processing with dysfunction in this circuit possibly leading to anomalous development of skills, such as motor imitation, that are crucial for effective social-communication. LAY SUMMARY : This study examines whether communication between various brain regions involved in the control of movement are disrupted in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We show communication between the right posterior cerebellum and left IPL, a circuit important for efficient visual-motor integration, is disrupted in children with ASD and associated with the severity of ASD symptoms. These results may explain observations of visual-motor integration impairments in children with ASD that are associated with ASD symptom severity.

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13. MacDuffie KE, Estes AM, Peay HL, Pruett JR, Jr., Wilfond BS. The Ethics of Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder in Infancy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2021 (Jan 19)

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14. McKenzie K, Murray GC, Martin R. ’It’s been adapted rather than impacted’ : A qualitative evaluation of the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on the positive behavioural support of people with an intellectual disability and/or autism. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2021 (Jan 22)

BACKGROUND : We used a qualitative approach to explore the experiences of social care staff regarding the provision of positive behavioural support (PBS) to people with an intellectual disability at the height of the Covid-19 restrictions. METHOD : We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 staff who had recently completed a PBS workforce development programme. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS : Three themes were identified in the context of the restrictions : The challenges to maintaining quality of life and PBS of the people being supported and staff attempts to overcome these ; the ways in which PBS and behaviour support plans were implemented and the impact on behaviours that challenge ; the ways in which PBS principles were applied at organisational levels to help to understand and address staff stress and distress. CONCLUSIONS : Overall, the staff identified many unexpected benefits of the restrictions. The results are discussed in the context of the study limitations.

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15. Nadeem A, Al-Harbi NO, Ahmad SF, Alhazzani K, Attia SM, Alsanea S, Alhoshani A, Mahmood HM, Alfardan AS, Bakheet SA. Exposure to the plasticizer, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate during juvenile period exacerbates autism-like behavior in adult BTBR T + tf/J mice due to DNA hypomethylation and enhanced inflammation in brain and systemic immune cells. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ;2021 (Jan 23):110249.

Epigenetic modifications are known to play a crucial role in the behavioral modifications through regulation of gene expression. Environmental factors are known to regulate genetic transcription through DNA methylation which is one of the mechanisms of epigenetic modification. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most abundant phthalate plasticizers in day-to-day products. Prenatal/postnatal DEHP administration has been reported to cause inflammation as well as behavioral dysregulation, however it is not known if exposure to DEHP during juvenile stage affects peripheral/neuronal inflammation and autism-like symptoms in BTBR mice at adulthood. This study investigated effect of DEHP exposure during juvenile period on DNA methylation (global DNA methylation/DNMT1 expression) and inflammation (IL-17A, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α) in CD4 + T cells/CD11c + DCs and cortex, and autism-like symptoms (three-chambered sociability test, self-grooming and marble burying test) in asocial BTBR and social C57 mice at adulthood. Our data reveal that BTBR mice exposed to DEHP during juvenile period have hypomethylated DNA/DNMT1 expression in CD11c + DCs and cortex as compared to vehicle-exposed BTBR mice. It was associated with upregulated inflammation in periphery [plasma IL-6/IL-17A, CD11c + DCs (IL-6/MCP-1/TNF-α), and CD4+ T cells (IL-17A)] and cortex (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α), and aggravation in autism-like symptoms in DEHP-treated BTBR mice. These data propose that exposure of DEHP during juvenile period may affect autism-like behavior and inflammation in BTBR mice at adulthood through epigenetic regulation. Therefore, underlying genetic predisposition may play a crucial role in worsening of autistic symptoms in ASD subjects in adulthood if they are exposed to environmental pollutants such as DEHP during juvenile period.

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16. Øien RA, Vivanti G, Robins DL. Editorial S.I : Early Identification in Autism Spectrum Disorders : The Present and Future, and Advances in Early Identification. J Autism Dev Disord ;2021 (Jan 22)

Early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is considered by most scholars and clinicians to be a feasible and useful step for improving the wellbeing of individuals on the autism spectrum and their families. Arguments supporting early detection efforts include the benefit of earlier access to services providing autism-specific evidence-based interventions (Vivanti et al., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2441-2449, 2016 ; Zwaigenbaum et al., Pediatrics, 136(Suppl), S10-S40, 2015), and its potential to mitigate or even prevent the challenges associated with ASD symptoms, reduce care costs, and improve the quality of life and productivity of individuals with ASD (Constantino et al., Pediatrics, 146(3), e20193629, 2020 ; Jacobson et al., Behavioral Interventions, 13(4), 201-226, 1998 ; Jacobson and Mulick, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 585-593, 2000). Nevertheless, controversies and challenges in this field exist.

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17. Palser ER, Galvez-Pol A, Palmer CE, Hannah R, Fotopoulou A, Pellicano E, Kilner JM. Reduced differentiation of emotion-associated bodily sensations in autism. Autism ;2021 (Jan 22):1362361320987950.

More research has been conducted on how autistic people understand and interpret other people’s emotions, than on how autistic people experience their own emotions. The experience of emotion is important however, because it can relate to difficulties like anxiety and depression, which are common in autism. In neurotypical adults and children, different emotions have been associated with unique maps of activity patterns in the body. Whether these maps of emotion are comparable in autism is currently unknown. Here, we asked 100 children and adolescents, 45 of whom were autistic, to color in outlines of the body to indicate how they experienced seven emotions. Autistic adults and children sometimes report differences in how they experience their internal bodily states, termed interoception, and so we also investigated how this related to the bodily maps of emotion. In this study, the autistic children and adolescents had comparable interoception to the non-autistic children and adolescents, but there was less variability in their maps of emotion. In other words, they showed more similar patterns of activity across the different emotions. This was not related to interoception, however. This work suggests that there are differences in how autistic people experience emotion that are not explained by differences in interoception. In neurotypical people, less variability in emotional experiences is linked to anxiety and depression, and future work should seek to understand if this is a contributing factor to the increased prevalence of these difficulties in autism.

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18. Pickard K, Mellman H, Frost K, Reaven J, Ingersoll B. Balancing Fidelity and Flexibility : Usual Care for Young Children With an Increased Likelihood of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder Within an Early Intervention System. J Autism Dev Disord ;2021 (Jan 23):1-13.

Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBIs) are evidence-based interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder. There has been growing interest in implementing manualized NDBIs within the early intervention (EI) system without a clear understanding of how these programs and the broader strategies encompassed within them are already used by EI providers. This study examined the use of manualized NDBI programs and broader NDBI strategies within an EI system and factors that impacted their use. Eighty-eight EI providers completed a measure of NDBI program and strategy use. Thirty-three providers participated in a supplemental focus group or interview. Overall, providers described using broader NDBI strategies and the need to adapt manualized NDBI programs. Provider-, intervention-, and organization-level factors impacted their use of NDBI programs and strategies.

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19. Ramirez-Celis A, Becker M, Nuño M, Schauer J, Aghaeepour N, Van de Water J. Risk assessment analysis for maternal autoantibody-related autism (MAR-ASD) : a subtype of autism. Mol Psychiatry ;2021 (Jan 22)

The incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been rising, however ASD-risk biomarkers remain lacking. We previously identified the presence of maternal autoantibodies to fetal brain proteins specific to ASD, now termed maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) ASD. The current study aimed to create and validate a serological assay to identify ASD-specific maternal autoantibody patterns of reactivity against eight previously identified proteins (CRMP1, CRMP2, GDA, NSE, LDHA, LDHB, STIP1, and YBOX) that are highly expressed in developing brain, and determine the relationship of these reactivity patterns with ASD outcome severity. We used plasma from mothers of children diagnosed with ASD (n = 450) and from typically developing children (TD, n = 342) to develop an ELISA test for each of the protein antigens. We then determined patterns of reactivity a highly significant association with ASD, and discovered several patterns that were ASD-specific (18% in the training set and 10% in the validation set vs. 0% TD). The three main patterns associated with MAR ASD are CRMP1 + GDA (ASD% = 4.2 vs. TD% = 0, OR 31.04, p = <0.0001), CRMP1 + CRMP2 (ASD% = 3.6 vs. TD% = 0, OR 26.08, p = 0.0005) and NSE + STIP1 (ASD% = 3.1 vs. TD% = 0, OR 22.82, p = 0.0001). Additionally, we found that maternal autoantibody reactivity to CRMP1 significantly increases the odds of a child having a higher Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) severity score (OR 2.3 ; 95% CI : 1.358-3.987, p = 0.0021). This is the first report that uses machine learning subgroup discovery to identify with 100% accuracy MAR ASD-specific patterns as potential biomarkers of risk for a subset of up to 18% of ASD cases in this study population.

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20. Ratanatharathorn A, Koenen KC, Chibnik LB, Weisskopf MG, Rich-Edwards JW, Roberts AL. Polygenic risk for autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and neuroticism is associated with the experience of childhood abuse. Mol Psychiatry ;2021 (Jan 22)

People who experience childhood abuse are at increased risk of mental illness. Twin studies suggest that inherited genetic risk for mental illness may account for some of these associations. Yet, the hypothesis that individuals who have experienced childhood abuse may carry genetic loading for mental illness has never been tested with genetic data. Using polygenic risk scores for six psychiatric disorders-attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BPD), major depressive disorder (MDD), neuroticism, and schizophrenia-we tested whether genetic risk for mental illness was associated with increased risk of experiencing three types of childhood abuse : physical/emotional abuse, physical assault, and sexual abuse, in a cohort of white non-Hispanic women (n = 11,315). ADHD and MDD genetic risk scores were associated with a higher risk of experiencing each type of childhood abuse, while neuroticism, schizophrenia, BPD, and ASD genetic scores were associated with a higher risk of experiencing physical/emotional abuse and physical assault, but not sexual abuse. Sensitivity analyses examining potential bias from the differential recall of childhood trauma, parental socioeconomic status, and population stratification were consistent with the main findings. A one-standard-deviation increase in genetic risk for mental illness was associated with a modestly elevated risk of experiencing childhood abuse (OR range : 1.05-1.19). Therefore, inherited genetic risk may partly account for the association of childhood abuse with mental illness. In addition, future treatments for mental illness will benefit from taking into consideration the co-occurrence of childhood trauma and genetic loading.

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21. Rodgers M, Simmonds M, Marshall D, Hodgson R, Stewart LA, Rai D, Wright K, Ben-Itzchak E, Eikeseth S, Eldevik S, Kovshoff H, Magiati I, Osborne LA, Reed P, Vivanti G, Zachor D, Couteur AL. Intensive behavioural interventions based on applied behaviour analysis for young children with autism : An international collaborative individual participant data meta-analysis. Autism ;2021 (Jan 22):1362361320985680.

Early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions are designed to support young autistic children’s learning and development. Unfortunately, the available evidence about the effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. Several reviews have focused on the published findings rather than contacting the authors to collect and analyse data about the individual participants in the original studies. Also, most of the studies were carried out by groups involved in delivering the interventions leading to the potential bias in interpreting the results. Our research team (supported by an international advisory group) carried out an independent individual patient data review by collecting the original participant data from the authors of the studies, to examine the effectiveness of these interventions. The results suggested that early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions might lead to some changes in children’s cognitive ability (intelligence quotient) and everyday life skills after 2 years, compared with standard treatments. However, all the studies had problems with the way they were designed. Also, few of the studies looked at outcomes that have been described as most important to autistic people or followed children beyond 2 years. We think that further systematic reviews of the existing evidence are unlikely to add to the findings of our review. Furthermore, we recommend that future research should investigate which types of supports and interventions are most effective for children and families, prioritising outcomes measures that are meaningful for the autism community and include, wherever possible, longer-term follow-up.

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22. Shahrokhi H, Ghiasi A, Gholipour K, Fanid LM, Shamekhi HR, Iezadi S. Considerations about the implementation of an autism screening program in Iran from the viewpoints of professionals and parents : a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry ;2021 (Jan 23) ;21(1):55.

BACKGROUND : The aims of this study were to explore to explore the viewpoints of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and professionals regarding the implementation of screening programs for ASD, to explore the challenges of the implementation of a universal screening program for ASD in Iran from their viewpoints, and, to explore their recommendations to overcome the potential challenges. METHOD : This qualitative study was conducted using an inductive content analysis, between June 2018 and December 2018, in East-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Data was collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The participants were purposively selected among two groups : representatives of health system and representatives of children with ASD. A sample of 32 parents and 30 professionals were recruited in this study. RESULTS : Totally, 9 main themes and 23 sub-themes were extracted in three main areas including : viewpoints of the participants about universal screening for ASD, challenges in implementation of the universal screening program, and participants’ recommendations about how to overcome the potential challenges. Main challenges in implementation of the universal screening program included : shortages of ASD screening tools, weakness of the health system, lack of coordination among the ASD service providers, and social and ethical issues. CONCLUSION : The parents and the professionals had different viewpoints about the implementation of ASD universal screening program in Iran. According to the professionals, there is not enough rational to implement ASD screening program for all children. However, the parents believed that universal screening program is inevitable, and it should be implemented in primary health centers during the early child-care visits. The results of this study open up unspoken issues that could help in initiating the screening program not only in Iran but also in other low- and middle-income countries as well.

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