Pubmed du 24/01/21

dimanche 24 janvier 2021

1. Bergman MA, Vrijsen JN, Rinck M, van Oostrom I, Kan CC, Collard RM, van Eijndhoven P, Vissers C, Schene AH. Is a Negative Attentional Bias in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Explained by Comorbid Depression ? An Eye-Tracking Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2021 (Jan 24)

Heightened attention towards negative information is characteristic of depression. Evidence is emerging for a negative attentional bias in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), perhaps driven by the high comorbidity between ASD and depression. We investigated whether ASD is characterised by a negative attentional bias and whether this can be explained by comorbid (sub) clinical depression. Participants (n = 116) with current (CD) or remitted depression (RD) and/or ASD, and 64 controls viewed positively and negatively valenced (non-)social pictures. Groups were compared on three components of visual attention using linear mixed models. Both CD individuals with and without ASD, but not remitted depressed and never-depressed ASD individuals showed a negative bias, suggesting that negative attentional bias might be a depressive state-specific marker for depression in ASD.

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2. Francis K, Karantanos G, Al-Ozairi A, AlKhadhari S. Prevention in Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Lifelong Focused Approach. Brain Sci ;2021 (Jan 24) ;11(2)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex highly heritable disorder, in which multiple environmental factors interact with the genes to increase its risk and lead to variable clinical presentations and outcomes. Furthermore, the inherent fundamental deficits of ASD in social attention and interaction critically diverge children from the typical pathways of learning, "creating" what we perceive as autism syndrome during the first three years of life. Later in life, training and education, the presence and management of comorbidities, as well as social and vocational support throughout the lifespan, will define the quality of life and the adaptation of an individual with ASD. Given the overall burden of ASD, prevention strategies seem like a cost-effective endeavour that we have to explore. In this paper, we take a life course approach to prevention. We will review the possibilities of the management of risk factors from preconception until the perinatal period, that of early intervention in the first three years of life and that of effective training and support from childhood until adulthood.

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3. Maruo Y, Egawa K, Tonoki H, Terae S, Ueda Y, Shiraishi H. Selective Eating in Autism Spectrum Disorder Leading to Kwashiorkor and Brain Edema. Pediatr Neurol ;2020 (Dec 26) ;116:55-56.

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4. Tan C, Frewer V, Cox G, Williams K, Ure A. Prevalence and Age of Onset of Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Systematic Review and Meta-analytical Update. Autism Res ;2021 (Jan 24)

A systematic review published in 2013 reported 32% of children on the autism spectrum experience skill loss, known as autistic regression. However, the frequency varied depending on definition and measures used to capture skills. Retrospective parent report and prospective observation indicate loss of language and/or social skills, with motor skills typically unaffected. Our aim was to update the prevalence and age of onset of autistic regression through a meta-analysis of the literature to understand if there have been changes to the reported onset and prevalence since 2010. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases and included studies published from 2010 onward. Risk of bias assessment was performed on included studies. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence and age of onset of autistic regression. Ninety-seven studies were included in the systematic review, of which 75 studies involving 33,014 participants had sufficient data for meta-analytic syntheses. The pooled proportion of autistic regression was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI] : 27-32%) but heterogeneity was high (I(2) = 96.91) and did not reduce with sensitivity or subgroup analyses based on study design or clinical differences, respectively. Prevalence varied according to risk of bias (low : 27%) and definition of regression (language : 20%, language/social : 40%, mixed : 30%, and unspecified : 27%). Weighted average age of onset was 19.8 months. Findings from this meta-analysis highlight the importance of developing a standardized definition of autistic regression, and tools to measure this at multiple time points during early childhood development. LAY SUMMARY : About a third of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder experience loss of skills, which is also known as autistic regression. This paper provides an update of the rate of autistic regression in children and the age when they first experience loss of skills, based on current studies. The findings from this review contribute to our understanding of the onset patterns of autistic regression. Unfortunately, studies are not sufficiently similar, making it difficult to provide clear answers on the exact timing or type of regression seen in different children.

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5. Taylor EC, Livingston LA, Callan MJ, Ashwin C, Shah P. Autonomic dysfunction in autism : The roles of anxiety, depression, and stress. Autism ;2021 (Jan 24):1362361320985658.

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for the functioning of the heart, bladder, pupils and several other bodily functions. Therefore, when the ANS functions abnormally, individuals can experience a number of physical symptoms, including dizziness, abnormal sweating and digestive difficulties. Currently, it is unclear if autistic adults experience ANS dysfunction. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether autistic adults report more ANS-related physical symptoms, indicating greater ANS dysfunction, and whether this may be related to autism, or rather anxiety, depression, or stress. The findings suggest that ANS dysfunction, where found in autism, is due to co-occurring stress and anxiety. We therefore propose that treating stress and anxiety may be an effective way to ameliorate ANS-related health problems in autistic adults.

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