Pubmed du 20/03/21

samedi 20 mars 2021

1. Karagözlü S, Dalgıç B, İşeri E. The Relationship of Severity of Autism with Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Serum Zonulin Levels in Autistic Children. J Autism Dev Disord. 2021.

To evaluate the relationship between the severity of autism, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and serum zonulin levels as a marker of increased intestinal permeability in children. Serum zonulin levels were determined in 56 children with ASDs and 55 healthy children. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD symptoms was assessed with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), respectively. Serum zonulin levels were significantly higher than healthy controls in children with severe autism. A positive correlation was found between the CARS score, GSRS score and serum zonulin levels (r = ; P < .001). Our findings suggest that the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and severity of autism might be related to increased intestinal permeability in ASDs children.

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2. Liu X, Zou M, Sun C, Wu L, Chen WX. Prenatal Folic Acid Supplements and Offspring’s Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. J Autism Dev Disord. 2021.

We systematically reviewed the evidence on the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of offspring’s autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 10 studies with 23 sub-studies (9795 ASD cases) were included. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of offspring’s ASD [OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.78]. The consumption of a daily amount of at least 400 μg folic acid from dietary sources and supplements, was associated with a reduced risk of offspring ASD [OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.83]. Critical effective maternal folic acid supplementation strategies, such as intake timing and intake dosage, may aid the reduction in the risk of offspring ASD. This meta-analysis provided new insights for the prevention of offspring’s ASD.

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3. Milroy JJ, Oakes LR, Hickerson BD. Design Thinking : Assessing the health needs of college students with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2021.

BACKGROUND : There is a dearth of literature related to well-being of college students with IDD. The purpose of this study was to use design thinking to identify health-related innovations for college students with IDD. METHOD : Two design thinking events were conducted with participants (n = 16). Subsequent web-based surveys with a separate group of students with IDD (n = 18) assessed feasibility of each innovation. Collaborative group discussions were used to assess each innovation, and quantitate data were used to assess innovation feasibility. RESULTS : A total of 16 innovations were constructed : 4 sexual health, dating and relationships, 2 drugs and/or alcohol, 2 exercise and physical activity, 2 socializing, leisure and recreation, 2 food and nutrition and 4 mental health. CONCLUSION : Design thinking methods are a suitable strategy to use with individuals with IDD and led to the development of innovations with high relevancy and feasibility for college students with IDD.

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4. Skripkauskaite S, Slade L, Mayer J. Attentional shifting differences in autism : Domain general, domain specific or both ?. Autism. 2021 : 13623613211001619.

Previous research has shown that autistic individuals look at other people less and orient to them more slowly than others. Yet, it is still unclear if this represents general visual differences (e.g. slower looking at any new information, social or not) or a uniquely social difference (e.g. only slower looking to humans but not objects). Here, we aimed to examine how quickly autistic and non-autistic adults look to and away from social (i.e. faces) and non-social information (i.e. squares and houses). We used an attentional shifting task with two images where sometimes the first image disappears before the new image appears (makes it easier to notice the new image) and other times it stays on the screen when the new image appears. In Experiment 1, we showed schematic faces and squares to 27 autistic and 26 non-autistic adults, and in Experiment 2, we showed photographs of faces and houses to 18 autistic and 17 non-autistic adults. In general, autistic adults looked at the new non-social or social images similarly to non-autistic adults. Yet, only autistic adults looked at new social information faster when the first image disappeared before the new image appeared. This shows that autistic individuals may find it easier to notice new social information if their attention is not already occupied.

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5. Yingling ME, Ruther MH, Dubuque EM, Mandell DS. County-level variation in geographic access to Board Certified Behavior Analysts among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United States. Autism. 2021 : 13623613211002051.

This study looked at whether access to Board Certified Behavior Analysts for children with autism spectrum disorder is different between U.S. counties. The study included all U.S. counties and county equivalents in 48 states and D.C. (N = 3108). Between March and May 2019, we combined data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Civil Rights Data Collection, Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s certificant registry, and U.S. Census. We assigned Board Certified Behavior Analysts to counties based on their address, matched children in school districts to counties, and determined how many children with autism spectrum disorder there were in a county compared with how many Board Certified Behavior Analysts there were in a county. The results show uneven numbers of Board Certified Behavior Analysts between U.S. counties. More than half of all counties had no Board Certified Behavior Analysts. National maps illustrate clusters of high and low accessibility to Board Certified Behavior Analysts. To improve access to Board Certified Behavior Analysts in underserved areas, we must identify what contributes to the differences in access.

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6. Zagury-Orly I, Kroeck MR, Soussand L, Cohen AL. Face-Processing Performance is an Independent Predictor of Social Affect as Measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Across Large-Scale Datasets. J Autism Dev Disord. 2021.

Face-processing deficits, while not required for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have been associated with impaired social skills-a core feature of ASD ; however, the strength and prevalence of this relationship remains unclear. Across 445 participants from the NIMH Data Archive, we examined the relationship between Benton Face Recognition Test (BFRT) performance and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect (ADOS-SA) scores. Lower BFRT scores (worse face-processing performance) were associated with higher ADOS-SA scores (higher ASD severity)-a relationship that held after controlling for other factors associated with face processing, i.e., age, sex, and IQ. These findings underscore the utility of face discrimination, not just recognition of facial emotion, as a key covariate for the severity of symptoms that characterize ASD.

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