Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) : Printemps 2011

vendredi 2 décembre 2011

Le premier numéro du printemps 2011 du Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) propose une série d’articles sur l’autisme.

Les articles sont téléchargeables gratuitement sur le site du JABA

1. Ahrens EN, Lerman DC, Kodak T, Worsdell AS, Keegan C. Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):95-108.

The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)-motor RIRD and vocal RIRD-were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation.

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2. Cassella MD, Sidener TM, Sidener DW, Progar PR. Response interruption and redirection for vocal stereotypy in children with autism : a systematic replication. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):169-173.

This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD produced substantial decreases in vocal stereotypy. Limitations of this study were that behavior reduction did not generalize to novel settings or with novel instructors and that appropriate vocalizations did not improve.

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3. Dozier CL, Iwata BA, Worsdell AS. Assessment and treatment of foot-shoe fetish displayed by a man with autism. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):133-137.

Results of a functional analysis indicated that a man diagnosed with autism engaged in bizarre sexual behavior in the presence of women wearing sandals. Several treatments proved to be ineffective or impractical. By contrast, a response-interruption/time-out procedure quickly eliminated the problem behavior in multiple settings.

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4. Groskreutz MP, Groskreutz NC, Higbee TS. Response competition and stimulus preference in the treatment of automatically reinforced behavior : a comparison. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):211-215.

Clinicians are particularly challenged by the development of interventions for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement because reinforcers that maintain the responses often cannot be directly observed or manipulated. Researchers have conducted either preference assessments or competing items assessments when developing effective treatments for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, interventions based on these assessments have not been directly compared. The current study evaluated procedures to make such a comparison. High-competition items resulted in greater reductions in vocal stereotypy than did high-preference items for a preschool boy with autism.

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5. Hsieh HH, Wilder DA, Abellon OE. The effects of training on caregiver implementation of incidental teaching. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):199-203.

A brief training package consisting of modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated to train caregivers to use incidental teaching to teach 3 children with autism to request an item or activity. The training package improved correct implementation of the incidental teaching procedure by caregivers. In addition, probes indicated that caregivers could apply these skills to teach the child an additional skill.

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6. Mace FC, Pratt JL, Prager KL, Pritchard D. An evaluation of three methods of saying "no" to avoid an escalating response class hierarchy. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):83-94.

We evaluated the effects of three different methods of denying access to requested high-preference activities on escalating problem behavior. Functional analysis and response class hierarchy (RCH) assessment results indicated that 4 topographies of problem behaviors displayed by a 13-year-old boy with high-functioning autism constituted an RCH maintained by positive (tangible) reinforcement. Identification of the RCH comprised the baseline phase, during which computer access was denied by saying "no" and providing an explanation for the restriction. Two alternative methods of saying "no" were then evaluated. These methods included (a) denying computer access while providing an opportunity to engage in an alternative preferred activity and (b) denying immediate computer access by arranging a contingency between completion of a low-preference task and subsequent computer access. Results indicated that a hierarchy of problem behavior may be identified in the context of denying access to a preferred activity and that it may be possible to prevent occurrences of escalating problem behavior by either presenting alternative options or arranging contingencies when saying "no" to a child’s requests.

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7. Rispoli M, O’Reilly M, Lang R, Machalicek W, Davis T, Lancioni G, Sigafoos J. Effects of motivating operations on problem and academic behavior in classrooms. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):187-192.

The current study examined the effects of motivating operations on problem behavior and academic engagement for 2 students with autism. Classroom sessions were preceded by periods in which the participants had access or no access to the items functionally related to their problem behavior. Results suggested that presession access may result in lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of academic engagement during classroom instruction.

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8. Riviere V, Becquet M, Peltret E, Facon B, Darcheville JC. Increasing compliance with medical examination requests directed to children with autism : effects of a high-probability request procedure. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Spring) ;44(1):193-197.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-probability (high-p) request sequence as a means of increasing compliance with medical examination tasks. Participants were children who had been diagnosed with autism and who exhibited noncompliance during general medical examinations. The inclusion of the high-p request sequence effectively increased compliance with medical examination tasks. In addition, the procedure was efficient, could be implemented by parents and medical professionals, and did not involve aversive procedures.

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