Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) : Eté 2011

vendredi 2 décembre 2011

Le numéro de l’été 2011 du Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) propose une série d’articles sur l’autisme.

Les articles sont téléchargeables gratuitement sur le site du JABA

1. Betz AM, Higbee TS, Kelley KN, Sellers TP, Pollard JS. Increasing response variability of mand frames with script training and extinction. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Summer) ;44(2):357-362.

We examined the effects of script training and extinction on response variability of mand frames used by children with autism. Results demonstrated that extinction following script training was effective for increasing variability for 2 of the 3 participants.

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2. Dittlinger LH, Lerman DC. Further analysis of picture interference when teaching word recognition to children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Summer) ;44(2):341-349.

Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000 ; Singh & Solman, 1990 ; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the spoken word and picture (i.e., blocking) or due to the mere presence of a picture as an extrastimulus prompt (i.e., overshadowing). Three participants were taught to recognize words that were presented alone or paired with pictures that the participants either could or could not identify prior to training. All participants learned the words more quickly when they were presented alone rather than with pictures, regardless of their prior learning history with respect to pictures representing the words. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of overshadowing. Nonetheless, consistent with blocking, all participants also acquired the words presented alone more quickly if they could not identify the associated pictures prior to training. Together, these findings have important implications for using prompts when teaching skills to individuals with developmental disabilities.

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3. Marzullo-Kerth D, Reeve SA, Reeve KF, Townsend DB. Using multiple-exemplar training to teach a generalized repertoire of sharing to children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Summer) ;44(2):279-294.

The current study examined the utility of multiple-exemplar training to teach children with autism to share. Stimuli from 3 of 4 categories were trained using a treatment package of video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. Offers to share increased for all 3 children following the introduction of treatment, with evidence of skill maintenance. In addition, within-stimulus-category generalization of sharing was evident for all participants, although only 1 participant demonstrated across-category generalization of sharing. Offers to share occurred in a novel setting, with familiar and novel stimuli, and in the presence of novel adults and peers for all participants during posttreatment probes.

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4. Richling SM, Rapp JT, Carroll RA, Smith JN, Nystedt A, Siewert B. Using noncontingent reinforcement to increase compliance with wearing prescription prostheses. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Summer) ;44(2):375-379.

We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants’ compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions. The results are discussed in terms of the potential value-altering effects of NCR.

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5. Schiff A, Tarbox J, Lanagan T, Farag P. Establishing compliance with liquid medication administration in a child with autism. J Appl Behav Anal ;2011 (Summer) ;44(2):381-385.

Children with autism often display difficulty with swallowing pills and liquid medications. In the current study, stimulus fading and positive reinforcement established compliance with liquid medication administration in a young boy with autism. The boy’s mother eventually administered liquid medication on her own.

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