American Journal of Occupational Therapy : Numéro spécial : Ergothérapie et Autisme

lundi 27 août 2012

La revue de l’Association Américaine d’Ergothérapie, l’American Journal of Occupational Therapy consacre son numéro de septembre/octobre 2012 sur le thème de l’autisme et de l’ergothérapie :

1. Schaaf RC, Blanche EI. Emerging as leaders in autism research and practice : using the data-driven intervention process. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 503-5.

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2. Kinnealey M, Pfeiffer B, Miller J, Roan C, Shoener R, Ellner ML. Effect of classroom modification on attention and engagement of students with autism or dyspraxia. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 511-9.

Students with autism display sensory sensitivities to environmental stimuli that affect their attending and engagement in classroom learning activities. The purpose of the study was to determine whether attending of 4 male students, ages 13-20, increased after the installation of sound-absorbing walls and halogen lighting. The multiple single-subject, mixed-method design, AB(B+C), included a 2-wk baseline and two intervention phases : 2 wk after sound-absorbing wall installation using the Owens Corning Basement Finishing System (Owens Corning, Toledo, OH) and 2 wk after halogen light installation. We calculated nonattending frequencies from videotaped class sessions and used visual analysis to measure within-phase and between-phase characteristics. Results included increased frequency and stability of attending and engagement and improved classroom performance, comfort, and mood. Journaling provided students’ perspective on the modifications and reflected overall increased sensory comfort and themes of improved classroom environment, positive emotional response (mood), and improved classroom performance.

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3. Dunn W, Cox J, Foster L, Mische-Lawson L, Tanquary J. Impact of a contextual intervention on child participation and parent competence among children with autism spectrum disorders : a pretest-posttest repeated-measures design. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 520-8.

OBJECTIVE. We tested an occupational therapy contextual intervention for improving participation in children with autism spectrum disorders and for developing parental competence. METHOD. Using a repeated-measures pretest-posttest design, we evaluated the effectiveness of a contextually relevant reflective guidance occupational therapy intervention involving three components : authentic activity settings, family’s daily routines, and the child’s sensory processing patterns (Sensory Profile). We used these components to coach 20 parents in strategies to support their child’s participation. Intervention sessions involved reflective discussion with parents to support them in identifying strategies to meet their goals and make joint plans for the coming week. We measured child participation (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Goal Attainment Scaling) and parent competence (Parenting Sense of Competence, Parenting Stress Index). RESULTS. Results indicated that parents felt more competent and children significantly increased participation in everyday life, suggesting that this approach is an effective occupational therapy intervention.

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4. Gutman SA, Raphael-Greenfield EI, Rao AK. Effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social behaviors of adolescents with high-functioning autism : multiple-baseline single-subject design. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 529-37.

OBJECTIVE. We examined the effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social skills of adolescents with high-functioning autism. METHOD. An ABA multiple-baseline design with three 3-mo phases occurring over 12 mo was used with 7 participants. Frequency of targeted verbal and nonverbal behaviors was tallied in each phase. Frequency data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons to examine differences in targeted behaviors over the three phases. RESULTS. Three participants completed all three study phases, 2 completed Phase 2, and 2 completed Phase 1. All participants (N = 7) demonstrated improved social skill use in Phase 1. Participants completing Phase 2 (n = 5) further improved social skill use. Additional improvements were observed among participants (n = 3) who completed Phase 3. CONCLUSION. The intervention helped participants improve targeted social skill use. Further testing with larger samples and intervention modifications is warranted.

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5. Koenig KP, Buckley-Reen A, Garg S. Efficacy of the get ready to learn yoga program among children with autism spectrum disorders : a pretest-posttest control group design. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 538-46.

Occupational therapists use school-based yoga programs, but these interventions typically lack manualization and evidence from well-designed studies. Using an experimental pretest-posttest control group design, we examined the effectiveness of the Get Ready to Learn (GRTL) classroom yoga program among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The intervention group received the manualized yoga program daily for 16 wk, and the control group engaged in their standard morning routine. We assessed challenging behaviors with standardized measures and behavior coding before and after intervention. We completed a between-groups analysis of variance to assess differences in gain scores on the dependent variables. Students in the GRTL program showed significant decreases (p < .05) in teacher ratings of maladaptive behavior, as measured with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, compared with the control participants. This study demonstrates that use of daily classroomwide yoga interventions has a significant impact on key classroom behaviors among children with ASD.

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6. Schaaf RC, Hunt J, Benevides T. Occupational therapy using sensory integration to improve participation of a child with autism : a case report. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 547-55.

In this case report, we describe the changes in adaptive behaviors and participation of 1 child with autism during a 10-wk program of intensive occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach (OT-SI) following a manualized protocol. This case is part of a larger study examining the efficacy of the OT-SI approach. We found improvement in sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, as well as enhanced participation in home, school, and family activities, as indicated on parent-rated goal attainment scales.

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7. Mulligan S, White BP. Sensory and motor behaviors of infant siblings of children with and without autism. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 556-66.

We compared the sensory and motor behaviors of typically developing infants with those of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who are considered high risk for the disorder, to explore potential sensory and motor markers for use in early diagnosis of ASD. We compared frequencies of sensory and motor behaviors during 10-min, videotaped, infant-mother play sessions and during 5 min of spoon-feeding between groups of 12-mo-old infants. Data from standardized measures of development, sensory processing, and behaviors commonly associated with ASD were also analyzed descriptively for the high-risk group. The results indicated that high-risk infants demonstrated fewer movement transitions (t [23] = -2.4, p = .03) and less object manipulation (t [23] = -2.4, p = .03) than low-risk infants. The sensory and motor differences found between typical and high-risk infants suggest that early screenings for ASD should include the examination of sensory and motor behaviors.

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8. Chang MC, Parham LD, Blanche EI, Schell A, Chou CP, Dawson M, Clark F. Autonomic and behavioral responses of children with autism to auditory stimuli. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 567-76.

OBJECTIVES. We examined whether children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ in autonomic activity at rest and in response to auditory stimuli and whether behavioral problems related to sounds in everyday life are associated with autonomic responses to auditory stimuli. METHOD. We measured skin conductance (SC) at rest and in response to auditory stimuli as well as behavioral responses using the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) Home Form. Participants were 25 children with ASD and 25 typically developing (TD) children, aged 5-12 yr. RESULTS. The ASD group had significantly higher resting SC and stronger SC reactivity to tones than the TD group. Correlations between SC and SPM indicated that more severe auditory behavioral difficulties were associated with higher sympathetic activation at rest and stronger sympathetic reactivity to sound. CONCLUSION. High sympathetic reactivity to sound may underlie the difficult behavioral responses to sound that children with ASD often demonstrate.

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9. Flanagan JE, Landa R, Bhat A, Bauman M. Head lag in infants at risk for autism : a preliminary study. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 577-85.

OBJECTIVE.Poor postural control during pull-to-sit is a predictor of developmental disruption in cerebral palsy and preterm populations but has not been examined in infants at risk for autism. We examined the association between head lag during pull-to-sit at age 6 mo and autism risk status. METHOD.High-risk participants were siblings of children with autism. We studied one sample of 40 high-risk infants prospectively from 6-36 mo and obtained diagnostic classifications of autism or no autism. We conducted a subsequent between-group comparison with a new sample of 20 high-risk and 21 low-risk infants. RESULTS.Head lag was significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder at 36 mo (p = .020) and was more frequently observed in high-risk than in low-risk infants (p = .018). CONCLUSION.Head lag with other alterations in early development may be associated with autism risk and may serve as an early indicator of neurodevelopmental disruption. Results have clinical implications for occupational therapists in early intervention practice.

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10. O’Donnell S, Deitz J, Kartin D, Nalty T, Dawson G. Sensory processing, problem behavior, adaptive behavior, and cognition in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 586-94.

OBJECTIVE. This retrospective study explored sensory processing characteristics in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ; the relationships between sensory processing and problem behavior, adaptive behavior, and cognitive function ; and the differences in sensory processing between two subgroups (autism and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). METHOD. Study measures included the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Mullen Scales of Early Learning. RESULTS. Most of the children with ASD had sensory processing challenges, and a significant relationship was found between SSP total scores and problem behavior scores ; however, no significant relationships were found between SSP total scores and adaptive behavior and cognitive functioning. Although all the children had low Vineland scores, approximately one-quarter of the children had typical SSP scores. No significant differences in SSP scores were found between the subgroups. CONCLUSION. The findings highlight the importance of comprehensive evaluations for children with ASD.

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11. Lane SJ, Reynolds S, Dumenci L. Sensory overresponsivity and anxiety in typically developing children and children with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : cause or coexistence ?. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 595-603.

OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between sensory overresponsivity (SOR) and anxiety in children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and typical development. METHOD. Path analysis was used to examine the primary SOR model (Green & Ben-Sasson, 2010) using both physiological and behavioral data. RESULTS. The magnitude of physiological responses to sensory challenge was a mediator variable between predictors (baseline arousal and attention) and outcomes (anxiety and physiological recovery). Behavioral SOR was correlated with anxiety but not with physiological variables. CONCLUSION. The intensity or magnitude of sensory responsivity mediates the relationship between baseline arousal and attention and outcome anxiety and physiologic recovery from sensory challenge. Behavioral tools used to measure SOR do not reflect physiological responsiveness ; this mismatch warrants further investigation. SOR can prevent children from participating in the occupations of childhood ; the greater the understanding of SOR, the more successful occupational therapy practitioners will be in developing effective interventions.

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12. Kao YC, Kramer JM, Liljenquist K, Tian F, Coster WJ. Comparing the functional performance of children and youths with autism, developmental disabilities, and no disability using the revised pediatric evaluation of disability inventory item banks. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 607-16.

OBJECTIVE. We compared the functional performance of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and without disabilities using the revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) Social/Cognitive, Daily Activities, and Responsibility domains. METHOD. A nationally representative sample of parents of children ages 0-21 without disabilities (n = 2,205), with ASD (n = 108), or with IDD (n = 150) completed an online survey. We obtained predicted PEDI-CAT scaled scores for three reference ages (5, 10, 15) from a modified analysis of covariance model and compared each group’s scores using contrasts of the regression parameters. RESULTS. We found no significant differences between the ASD and IDD groups. The group with ASD demonstrated significantly lower performance than the group without disabilities across the three domains at ages 10 and 15. CONCLUSION. Scores on the PEDI-CAT differentiated the group with ASD from the group without disabilities. Children with ASD and IDD did not demonstrate different performance profiles.

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13. Blanche EI, Reinoso G, Chang MC, Bodison S. Proprioceptive processing difficulties among children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : 621-4.

OBJECTIVE. Sensory processing difficulties among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been extensively documented. However, less is known about this population’s ability to process proprioceptive information. METHOD. We used the Comprehensive Observations of Proprioception (COP ; Blanche, Bodison, Chang, & Reinoso, in press) to describe the proprioceptive difficulties experienced by children with ASD. A sample of 32 children with ASD, 26 children with developmental disabilities excluding ASD, and 28 typically developing control children were studied using the COP. RESULTS. Children with ASD present with proprioceptive processing difficulties that are different from those of children with developmental disabilities and their typically developing counterparts. Specific data, potential clinical applications, and directions for future research are described. CONCLUSION. Results suggest that the COP has useful clinical research applications. Further assessment of psychometric properties, clinical utility, and meaningful differences among diverse clinical populations are needed.

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14. Stein LI, Polido JC, Cermak SA. Oral care and sensory concerns in autism. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : e73-6.

We examined sensory-related aspects of oral care at home and the dentist’s office in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their typically developing (TD) peers. Results from parent questionnaires (n = 196 ASD, n = 202 TD) and one focus group were analyzed to determine whether sensory experiences were different between groups. Significantly more parents of children with ASD reported difficulties with sensory-related oral care variables in the home and dental office ; this finding was supported by qualitative data. Using sensory strategies to modify the environment may enhance the dental experience and improve quality of life for children with ASD and their families.

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15. Caron KG, Schaaf RC, Benevides TW, Gal E. Cross-cultural comparison of sensory behaviors in children with autism. Am J Occup Ther. 2012 ; 66(5) : e77-80.

Parents of children with autism frequently report that their children exhibit unusual responses to sensory experiences. Little research is available, however, describing how parents’ and children’s culture and environment might influence parents’ reports of their children’s behaviors. This study compared the frequency of parent-reported responses to sensory experiences in children from two countries-Israel and the United States. We administered the Short Sensory Profile to primary caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing peers. Results indicate that Israeli parents reported unusual responses to sensory experiences less frequently than U.S. parents for both ASD and typically developing children. U.S. children with ASD demonstrated significantly greater difficulty in the Auditory Filtering and Visual/Auditory Sensitivity domains than Israeli children with ASD. These findings indicate a need to further explore the influence of culture and environment on caregiver perceptions of the responses to sensory experiences of children with ASD.

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