Seminars in Speech and Language : Screening, Diagnosing and Implementing Interventions for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Novembre 2014)

lundi 20 octobre 2014

Le numéro de novembre 2014 des Seminars in Speech and Language est consacré à l’autisme et la déficience auditive.

1. Self-Assessment Questions. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):0C1-C10.

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2. Szarkowski A, Mood D, Shield A, Wiley S, Yoshinaga-Itano C. A Summary of Current Understanding Regarding Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):241-259.

This article provides a consensus perspective based on the authors’ expertise and the limited available literature regarding our understanding of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The challenges in the accurate identification of an ASD in children who are D/HH, including red flags for a potential ASD and screening and assessment for ASD, are described in this article. Additionally, strategies to guide professionals in their communication about a possible ASD with families and to frame the need for expanding aspects of communication important for this group of children are suggested.

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3. Wiley S, Innis H. Supporting Families of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):260-265.

Families of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience many frustrations and challenges in the identification of ASD, accessing supports and services to address all of their child’s needs, and identifying networking and support opportunities with other families with children with similar needs. Professionals working with families are in a unique position to help navigate the often disconnected systems of services for children who are Deaf/HH and services for children with ASD. This article poses some possible strategies that professionals can implement in practice when working with children who are Deaf/HH with an ASD.

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4. Carr J, Xu D, Yoshinaga-Itano C. Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen and the Child Development Inventory Social Subscale as a Possible Autism Screen for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):266-275.

The Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen (LLAS) is an automated vocal production analysis that has been shown to be a valid screener for autism in hearing children between the ages of 24 to 48 months of age. Although there is reportedly a higher incidence of autism among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the diagnosis of autism is usually later than that in children with hearing. None of the traditional screening instruments have been used with children with hearing loss. Data about the utility of LLAS with children who are deaf or hard of hearing will be presented and discussed. Though more data will be needed, an LLAS at-risk flag in conjunction with the Social Quotient from the Child Development Inventory holds significant promise for a screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

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5. Kellogg EC, Thrasher A, Yoshinaga-Itano C. Early Predictors of Autism in Young Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing : Three Longitudinal Case Studies. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):276-287.

Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI : Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory : Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children.

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6. Mood D, Shield A. Clinical Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule–Second Edition with Children Who Are Deaf. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):288-300.

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule–Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on : (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL.

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7. Szarkowski A, Flynn S, Clark T. Dually Diagnosed : A Retrospective Study of the Process of Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):301-308.

Utilizing a retrospective chart review of 30 children who have been dually diagnosed with hearing loss and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), this study explores the process of arriving at the diagnosis of ASD in this population. Factors of interest include the age of ASD diagnosis in children who are deaf and hard of hearing, the types of professionals involved in making the diagnosis, and the measures used for assessment. Complications in the diagnostic process are highlighted.

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8. Shield A. Preliminary Findings of Similarities and Differences in the Signed and Spoken Language of Children with Autism. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):309-320.

Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar.

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9. Thompson N, Yoshinaga-Itano C. Enhancing the Development of Infants and Toddlers with Dual Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Deafness. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):321-330.

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often referred for audiological diagnostic evaluation. This article provides some strategies for preparing children for a successful diagnostic evaluation. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing with a dual diagnosis of ASD may have difficulty learning to demonstrate detection or imitation of the Ling 6 sounds. The Ling 6 sounds are used to determine what a child with a dual diagnosis can hear and discriminate with amplification (hearing aids or cochlear implants). Because children with ASD may not look at the conversational partner and may have difficulty with imitation, adaptive strategies may be necessary to teach these children with dual diagnosis their first words. Strategies for teaching children with dual diagnosis through sign language will also be discussed.

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10. Thrasher A. Video Modeling for Children with Dual Diagnosis of Deafness or Hard of Hearing and Autism Spectrum Disorder to Promote Peer Interaction. Semin Speech Lang ;2014 (16.10.2014) ;35(04):331-342.

This article describes an intervention program offered at the University of Colorado Boulder that supports peer interaction among young children with autism spectrum disorders and their typical peers using a multicomponent approach, including video modeling. Characteristics of autism that may interfere with the development of peer interaction in young children will be discussed. Components of the approach will be described and the evidence base for the application of these components examined in regards to children with autism and for the potential application to children with the dual diagnosis of autism and deafness or hard of hearing.

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