Pubmed du 16/02/09

mercredi 18 février 2009

1. de Jonge M, Kemner C, Naber F, van Engeland H. Block design reconstruction skills : not a good candidate for an endophenotypic marker in autism research. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2009 (Feb 16)

Superior performance on block design tasks is reported in autistic individuals, although it is not consistently found in high-functioning individuals or individuals with Asperger Syndrome. It is assumed to reflect weak central coherence : an underlying cognitive deficit, which might also be part of the genetic makeup of the disorder. We assessed block design reconstruction skills in high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from multi-incidence families and in their parents. Performance was compared to relevant matched control groups. We used a task that was assumed to be highly sensitive to subtle performance differences. We did not find individuals with ASD to be significantly faster on this task than the matched control group, not even when the difference between reconstruction time of segmented and pre-segmented designs was compared. However, we found individuals with ASD to make fewer errors during the process of reconstruction which might indicate some dexterity in mental segmentation. However, parents of individuals with ASD did not perform better on the task than control parents. Therefore, based on our data, we conclude that mental segmentation ability as measured with a block design reconstruction task is not a neurocognitive marker or endophenotype useful in genetic studies.

2. Nwora AJ, Gee BM. A case study of a five-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified using sound-based interventions. Occup Ther Int ;2009 (Feb 16) ;16(1):25-43.

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of The Listening Program (TLP) in treating a child with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Using a single-subject case study design, one child with PDD-NOS was administered a 20-week TLP intervention focused on improving sensory processing and language function. Data collection included pre- and post-evaluations using video footage, and Sensory Profile and Listening Checklist questionnaires. Results of the study indicated improved behaviour and sensory tolerance in the post-intervention video footage, including active participation in singing and movements to song. Sensory Profile and Listening Checklist questionnaires indicated significant improvements in sensory processing, receptive/expressive listening and language, motor skills, and behavioural/social adjustment at the post-intervention assessment. Although small in scope, this study highlights the need for continued research by occupational therapists into sound-based interventions. Particularly, occupational therapists need to perform larger-scale studies utilizing TLP to verify the efficacy of this alternative treatment method. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


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