Pubmed du 18/02/09

jeudi 19 février 2009

1. Hranilovic D, Bujas-Petkovic Z, Tomicic M, Bordukalo-Niksic T, Blazevic S, Cicin-Sain L. Hyperserotonemia in autism : activity of 5HT-associated platelet proteins. J Neural Transm ;2009 (Feb 17)

Disturbances in serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission have been indicated as biological substrates in several neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. Blood 5HT concentrations, elevated in about one-third of autistic subjects, are regulated through the action of peripheral 5HT-associated proteins. We have measured the activity of two platelet 5HT-associated proteins : 5HT transporter (5HTT) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), and indirectly studied the activity of 5HT(2A) receptor (5HT(2A)r) in 15 hyperserotonemic (HS) and 17 normoserotonemic (NS) autistic subjects, and 15 healthy controls (C). While mean velocities of 5HTT kinetics did not significantly differ among the groups, significant elevation in the mean velocity of MAOB kinetics was observed in NS subjects and was even more pronounced in HS subjects in comparison to controls. Also, a decrease in adenosine 5’-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation of borderline significance was observed in NS subjects, compared to C subjects. The results suggest a possibility of upregulation of monoaminergic synthesis/degradation and, probably consequential, downregulation of 5HT(2A)r in autistic subjects.

2. Jellinger KA. Autism. Current Theories and Evidence. Eur J Neurol ;2009 (Feb 9)

3. Marschik PB, Einspieler C, Oberle A, Laccone F, Prechtl HF. Case Report : Retracing Atypical Development : A Preserved Speech Variant of Rett Syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Feb 18)

The subject of the present study is the development of a girl with the preserved speech variant of Rett disorder. Our data are based on detailed retrospective and prospective video analyses. Despite achieving developmental milestones, movement quality was already abnormal during the girl’s first half year of life. In addition, early hand stereotypies, idiosyncratic vocalizations, asymmetric eye opening, and abnormal facial expressions are early signs proving that this variant of the Rett complex, too, manifests itself within the first months of life.

4. Milne E, Griffiths H, Buckley D, Scope A. Vision in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : Evidence for Reduced Convergence. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Feb 18)

Evidence of atypical perception in individuals with ASD is mainly based on self report, parental questionnaires or psychophysical/cognitive paradigms. There have been relatively few attempts to establish whether binocular vision is enhanced, intact or abnormal in those with ASD. To address this, we screened visual function in 51 individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and 44 typically developing individuals by measuring visual acuity, stereoacuity, convergence, divergence, ocular motility, incidence of strabismus and integrity of the optokinetic response. The data suggest that many aspects of vision, including visual acuity, are unaffected in ASD, but that convergence is an aspect of visual function that merits further research in those with ASD.

5. Nwora AJ, Gee BM. A case study of a five-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified using sound-based interventions. Occup Ther Int ;2009 (Feb 16) ;16(1):25-43.

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of The Listening Program (TLP) in treating a child with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Using a single-subject case study design, one child with PDD-NOS was administered a 20-week TLP intervention focused on improving sensory processing and language function. Data collection included pre- and post-evaluations using video footage, and Sensory Profile and Listening Checklist questionnaires. Results of the study indicated improved behaviour and sensory tolerance in the post-intervention video footage, including active participation in singing and movements to song. Sensory Profile and Listening Checklist questionnaires indicated significant improvements in sensory processing, receptive/expressive listening and language, motor skills, and behavioural/social adjustment at the post-intervention assessment. Although small in scope, this study highlights the need for continued research by occupational therapists into sound-based interventions. Particularly, occupational therapists need to perform larger-scale studies utilizing TLP to verify the efficacy of this alternative treatment method. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6. Volkmar FR, State M, Klin A. Autism and autism spectrum disorders : diagnostic issues for the coming decade. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ;2009 (Jan) ;50(1-2):108-115.

A decade and a half have elapsed since DSM-IV and ICD-10 appeared. During this time the convergent definitions of autism and related disorders in these two diagnostic systems have stimulated tremendous research. In this brief review we summarize areas of progress and continuing controversy, including approaches to diagnosis in more cognitively able individuals on the autism spectrum, diagnosis in very young infants, the issue of subtypes, and the potential contribution of genetic research. The use of dimensional assessments has some advantages as do the insights from prospective studies. At this point it will be important to study not only causative factors but developmental processes disrupted in these disorders.


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