Pubmed du 19/02/09

vendredi 20 février 2009

1. Charatan F. US court rejects vaccine connection to autism. Bmj ;2009 ;338:b673.

2. Kleinhans NM, Johnson LC, Richards T, Mahurin R, Greenson J, Dawson G, Aylward E. Reduced Neural Habituation in the Amygdala and Social Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Am J Psychiatry ;2009 (Feb 17)

Objective Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical component in social impairment in autism spectrum disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether abnormal habituation characterizes amygdala dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders and whether the rate of amygdala habituation is related to social impairment. Method Using functional MRI, the authors measured change over time in activation of the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to neutral facial stimuli in adults with autism spectrum disorders and healthy comparison adults. Results The comparison group evidenced significantly greater amygdala habituation bilaterally than the autism spectrum group. There were no group differences in overall fusiform habituation. For the autism spectrum group, lower levels of habituation of the amygdala to the face stimuli were associated with more severe social impairment. Conclusions These results suggest amygdala hyperarousal in autism spectrum disorders in response to socially relevant stimuli. Further, sustained amygdala arousal may contribute to the social deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders.

3. Marschik PB, Einspieler C, Oberle A, Laccone F, Prechtl HF. Case Report : Retracing Atypical Development : A Preserved Speech Variant of Rett Syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Feb 18)

The subject of the present study is the development of a girl with the preserved speech variant of Rett disorder. Our data are based on detailed retrospective and prospective video analyses. Despite achieving developmental milestones, movement quality was already abnormal during the girl’s first half year of life. In addition, early hand stereotypies, idiosyncratic vocalizations, asymmetric eye opening, and abnormal facial expressions are early signs proving that this variant of the Rett complex, too, manifests itself within the first months of life.

4. Milne E, Griffiths H, Buckley D, Scope A. Vision in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : Evidence for Reduced Convergence. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Feb 18)

Evidence of atypical perception in individuals with ASD is mainly based on self report, parental questionnaires or psychophysical/cognitive paradigms. There have been relatively few attempts to establish whether binocular vision is enhanced, intact or abnormal in those with ASD. To address this, we screened visual function in 51 individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and 44 typically developing individuals by measuring visual acuity, stereoacuity, convergence, divergence, ocular motility, incidence of strabismus and integrity of the optokinetic response. The data suggest that many aspects of vision, including visual acuity, are unaffected in ASD, but that convergence is an aspect of visual function that merits further research in those with ASD.

5. Wei BY, Wei YY, Huang F. [Influential factors for the sensory integration training effects in children with autism.]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ;2009 (Feb) ;11(2):124-127.

OBJECTIVE : There are many factors affecting the sensory integration training (SIT) effects in children with autism. This study explored the influential factors for SIT effects in the aspect of the model of sensory processing. METHODS : Ninety-three autistic children aged 1.8-8.3 years were evaluated by the autism behavior checklist (ABC) and the Dunn’s model of sensory processing. The SIT effects were evaluated by the sensory integrative schedule. The effects of sex, age, ABC scores and the Dunn’s model of sensory processing were investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : Logistic regression analysis showed that ABC scores (Wald=6.768, <0.01) and the Dunn’s model of sensory processing (Wald=13.549, <0.01) were influential factors for the SIT effects. The Dunn’s model of sensory processing was shown as a more important influential factor. Sex (Wald=1.549, >0.05) and age (Wald=0.010, >0.05) were not related to the STT effects. CONCLUSIONS : The Dunn’s model of sensory processing is a major influential factor for the SIT effects in children with autism.

6. White SW, Oswald D, Ollendick T, Scahill L. Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Psychol Rev ;2009 (Jan 25)

Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s Disorder. Using search words autism, asperger(s), or pervasive developmental disorder and anxiety or anxious to find reports published between 1990 and 2008, this review identified 40 papers. The results of the review suggest that anxiety, whether measured categorically or dimensionally, is indeed common in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and may be a source of additional morbidity. The assessment of anxiety disorders in ASD should be conducted using multiple informants and modalities, as children with ASD often do not display age-typical symptoms of anxiety. To date, relatively few controlled intervention studies using well-characterized samples have been conducted despite preliminary evidence for efficacy of select pharmacological and psychosocial approaches. Recommendations for future applied research are presented and clinical implications are explored.


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