Developmental Neurorehabilitation : Special Issue on Autism Spectrum Disorder (avril 2015)

jeudi 2 avril 2015

1. Burckley E, Tincani M, Guld Fisher A. An iPad™-based picture and video activity schedule increases community shopping skills of a young adult with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2014 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):131-136.

Objective : To evaluate the iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software to provide visual cues and video prompting to teach shopping skills in the community to a young adult with an autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Methods : A multiple probe across settings design was used to assess effects of the intervention on the participant’s independence with following a shopping list in a grocery store across three community locations. Results : Visual cues and video prompting substantially increased the participant’s shopping skills within two of the three community locations, skill increases maintained after the intervention was withdrawn, and shopping skills generalized to two untaught shopping items. Social validity surveys suggested that the participant’s parent and staff favorably viewed the goals, procedures, and outcomes of intervention. Conclusions : The iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software may be an effective way to teach independent shopping skills in the community ; additional replications are needed.

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2. Cadogan S, McCrimmon AW. Pivotal response treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review of research quality. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):137-144.

Objective : Research has indicated support for pivotal response treatment (PRT) as an effective, efficacious and naturalistic intervention for communication and social functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously not undertaken, this article describes a systematic evaluation of the adherence of PRT research studies to standards of ASD research quality. Method : A systematic search was conducted on two databases. Seventeen PRT studies were evaluated on their use of seven specified research standards. Results : Strong adherence to research quality standards was demonstrated in the use of standardized protocols, systematic application of intervention procedures, inter-rater reliability and objective evaluators. Variation was found in adherence to treatment fidelity standards and in the use of longitudinal designs. Only two studies implemented comparison designs. Conclusion : It is recommended that researchers compare interventions, use longitudinal designs, better describe their methodology and implement greater adherence to treatment fidelity to enhance research quality and strengthen conclusions.

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3. Copple K, Koul R, Banda D, Frye E. An examination of the effectiveness of video modelling intervention using a speech-generating device in preschool children at risk for autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2014 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):104-112.

Objective : To investigate whether preschool children at risk for autism would learn to request a preferred object using a speech-generating device (SGD) following a video modelling (VM) intervention and generalize requesting behaviours to preferred objects across stimuli and communication partners. Method : A single-subject multiple baseline design across participants (n = 3) was used to assess the effects of VM intervention on requesting behaviour. Intervention consisted of having each participant view a VM of two adults demonstrating the requesting of a preferred object using the SGD. Additionally, a least-to-most-prompting technique was employed to facilitate the production of a correct response. Results : All three participants demonstrated the ability to request preferred objects following the intervention and were able to generalize the newly acquired requesting behaviour across stimuli and people. Conclusions : Study findings indicate that a VM treatment package is effective in facilitating communication in children with little or no functional speech.

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4. Ganz JB, Hong ER, Goodwyn F, Kite E, Gilliland W. Impact of PECS tablet computer app on receptive identification of pictures given a verbal stimulus. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):82-87.

Objective : The purpose of this brief report was to determine the effect on receptive identification of photos of a tablet computer-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system with voice output. Methods : A multiple baseline single-case experimental design across vocabulary words was implemented. One participant, a preschool-aged boy with autism and little intelligible verbal language, was included in the study. Results : Although a functional relation between the intervention and the dependent variable was not established, the intervention did appear to result in mild improvement for two of the three vocabulary words selected. Conclusion : The authors recommend further investigations of the collateral impacts of AAC on skills other than expressive language.

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5. Goldingay S, Stagnitti K, Sheppard L, McGillivray J, McLean B, Pepin G. An intervention to improve social participation for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder : Pilot study. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):122-130.

Objective : To increase flexible thinking, self-regulation and empathy for adolescents with ASD. Method : Five adolescents (M = 13.5 years ; SD = 0.84 years ; four males) were assessed pre and post intervention for flexible thinking and social competence (as measured by the SSIS). Parents rated their adolescent’s social competence pre and post intervention. Results : A large decrease was found in parent rating of their child’s level of hyperactivity (12.8, SD = 2.3 ; 11, SD = 2.2) (p = 0.034) (Cohen’s d = 0.95). Parents increased their rating of their child’s cooperation and empathy (Cohen’s d = 0.71 and 0.56, respectively). A medium effect for flexible thinking was observed in three items (Cohen’s d = 0.5 to 0.62) and a large effect for one item (Cohen’s d = 1.35). Adolescents decreased self-scoring on the social scale post intervention. Conclusion : Improvements were observed in adolescents’ flexible thinking and social insights, and parent’s perception of their child’s self-regulation.

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6. Lee A, Lang R, Davenport K, Moore M, Rispoli M, van der Meer L, Carnett A, Raulston T, Tostanoski A, Chung C. Comparison of therapist implemented and iPad-assisted interventions for children with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):97-103.

Objective : This study compares intervention delivered by a therapist to intervention delivered using an iPad for two children with autism. Further, this study evaluates the influence of choice between the conditions. Methods : Time on-task, challenging behaviour, session duration and correct responses were compared across conditions in an alternating treatment design. The effect of choice was evaluated in an ABAB design. Results : The iPad was associated with shorter intervention sessions, more time on-task and less challenging behaviour for one participant. There was no difference between conditions for the second participant. Both participants selected the iPad when given the choice and, although the effect of choice was modest, choosing was associated with more time on-task and less challenging behaviour. Conclusions : These data suggest that iPad-assisted intervention can be as effective as therapist-implemented intervention. Further, even for children for whom no differences between the interventions exist, offering a choice may be beneficial.

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7. Ogletree BT, Morrow-Odom KL, Westling D. Understanding the brain–behaviour relationship in persons with ASD : Implications for PECS as a treatment choice. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):88-96.

Introduction : This article presents emerging neurological findings in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with particular attention to how this information might inform treatment practices addressing communication impairments. Methods : The article begins with a general discussion of the brain–behaviour relationship and moves to the presentation of recent research findings related to ASD. There is particular attention to individuals with autism who are either non-verbal or present emergent verbal abilities. Results/Discussion : A specific communication treatment, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), is presented as an example of an intervention that addresses the learner needs of many individuals with ASD. The success of PECS is discussed within the context of its fit with brain-based learner characteristics.

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8. Rayner C. Video-based intervention for children with autism : Towards improved assessment of pre-requisite imitation skills. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2014 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):113-121.

Objective : To explore the relationship between responses to imitation assessment and video-based intervention (VBI) in children with autism. Methods : Interview- and observation-based imitation assessments were conducted for five boys with autism prior to VBI across three studies. In two of the three studies, the boys’ imitative responses to videos with an animated model and a human model were also compared. Results : Participants who were assessed to have strong imitation skills were also those who responded more positively to VBI. No clear differences were reported in the boys’ responses to the equivalent videos with the animated model and the human model. Conclusions : The level of imitation skills required for successful VBI is relative to the target behaviour. Revision of existing imitation assessment measures, as well as development and validation of more comprehensive measures is warranted for use in conjunction with VBI.

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9. Vandermeer J, Beamish W, Milford T, Lang W. iPad-presented social stories for young children with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2013 (2015/04/01) ;18(2):75-81.

Objective : This study investigated the effectiveness of iPad-presented social stories in increasing the on-task behaviour of three young children with autism. Method : A single-subject with multiple baseline across participants design was employed with three 4-year-old children to assess intervention effectiveness during structured table top activities. Observational data were digitally recorded, scored, graphed, and interpreted using 10-second interval measures over 5-min periods across baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases. Results : The combination of the social story together with the iPad proved to be an effective intervention for one of the three child participants. These findings confirm that the intervention may be effective with some children, but not others. Conclusion : Overall, this study builds on existing research that supports social stories as a promising practice. Further research into the use of iPad-presented social stories, particularly for children of varying ages, abilities, and learning styles is recommended.

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