Pubmed du 25/02/09

jeudi 26 février 2009

1. Buyske S. Comment on the article "Heterogeneous dysregulation of microRNAs across the autism spectrum" by Abu-Elneel et al. Neurogenetics ;2009 (Feb 24)

2. Laumonnier F, Shoubridge C, Antar C, Nguyen LS, Van Esch H, Kleefstra T, Briault S, Fryns JP, Hamel B, Chelly J, Ropers HH, Ronce N, Blesson S, Moraine C, Gecz J, Raynaud M. Mutations of the UPF3B gene, which encodes a protein widely expressed in neurons, are associated with nonspecific mental retardation with or without autism. Mol Psychiatry ;2009 (Feb 24)

Mutations in the UPF3B gene, which encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, have recently been described in four families with specific (Lujan-Fryns and FG syndromes), nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and autism. To further elucidate the contribution of UPF3B to mental retardation (MR), we screened its coding sequence in 397 families collected by the EuroMRX consortium. We identified one nonsense mutation, c.1081C>T/p.Arg361(*), in a family with nonspecific MR (MRX62) and two amino-acid substitutions in two other, unrelated families with MR and/or autism (c.1136G>A/p.Arg379His and c.1103G>A/p.Arg368Gln). Functional studies using lymphoblastoid cell lines from affected patients revealed that c.1081C>T mutation resulted in UPF3B mRNA degradation and consequent absence of the UPF3B protein. We also studied the subcellular localization of the wild-type and mutated UPF3B proteins in mouse primary hippocampal neurons. We did not detect any obvious difference in the localization between the wild-type UPF3B and the proteins carrying the two missense changes identified. However, we show that UPF3B is widely expressed in neurons and also presents in dendritic spines, which are essential structures for proper neurotransmission and thus learning and memory processes. Our results demonstrate that in addition to Lujan-Fryns and FG syndromes, UPF3B protein truncation mutations can cause also nonspecific XLMR. We also identify comorbidity of MR and autism in another family with UPF3B mutation. The neuronal localization pattern of the UPF3B protein and its function in mRNA surveillance suggests a potential function in the regulation of the expression and degradation of various mRNAs present at the synapse.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 February 2009 ; doi:10.1038/mp.2009.14.

3. Sadakata T, Furuichi T. Developmentally Regulated Ca(2+)-Dependent Activator Protein for Secretion 2 (CAPS2) is Involved in BDNF Secretion and is Associated with Autism Susceptibility. Cerebellum ;2009 (Feb 24)

The postnatal development of the cerebellum is accomplished via a series of cytogenetic and morphogenetic events encoded in the genome. To decipher the underlying genetic basis of these events we have systematized the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles during mouse cerebellar development in the Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database (CDT-DB). Using the CDT-DB, Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2 or CADPS2) was identified as a developmentally regulated gene that is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells (GCs) with an expression peak around the first or second postnatal week. CAPS2 protein is concentrated in parallel fiber (PF) terminals and is associated with secretory vesicles containing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). CAPS2 enhances release of BDNF and NT-3, both of which are essential for normal cerebellar development. CAPS2-deficient (CAPS2(-/-)) mice show reduced secretion of BDNF and NT-3 ; consequently, the cerebella of these mice exhibit developmental deficits, such as delayed development and increased cell death in GCs, fewer branched dendrites on Purkinje cells (PCs), and loss of the intercrural fissure. The PF-PC synapses have aberrant cytoarchitectures and electrophysiological properties. These abnormal cellular and morphological phenotypes are more severe around the cerebellar vermis, in which hypoplasia has been reported in autism patients. Moreover, CAPS2(-/-) mice had fewer cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons and some autistic-like behavioral phenotypes. In the CAPS2 genes of some autistic patients an aberrant splicing variant and non-synonymous SNPs have been identified. These recent studies implicate CAPS2 in autism susceptibility. Therefore, CAPS2(-/-) mice will be a useful model animal in which to study aspects of the neuropathology and behaviors characteristic of developmental disorders.

4. Zoghbi HY. Rett syndrome : what do we know for sure ? Nat Neurosci ;2009 (Mar) ;12(3):239-240.


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